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P A R IS H OF PEN CAIT LAN D.
(County AND PREs by TERY of HADDING Ton.—Synop of Lor HIAN AND Tweed ALE.
By the Rev. Mr HENRY SANG stER, Minister of Humbie.
Farms and Rents.--Land lets from 12 s. to 36 s. per acre. The farms are of various sizes: They are not too large, nor are they of that diminutive-fize, which, though it may give the appearance of population to a country, must prevent the markets from being supplied to that degree with grain, that is requifite for the success of manufactures, and will always produce a dispirited and unskilful tenantry. The valued rent is 65 19 l. 8s. 4d. Scotch. The real rent may be somewhat above 3oool. Sterling.
Mineral and Mineral Waters.—Free stone is found in many places, and there are two quarries of it for sale. Coal abounds in this distrićt. It has hitherto been dug only in two places, in the higher grounds; the one on the south and the other on the north fide of the Tyne. From these pits coal is obtained for a great part of the south and east distričts of this county, and a good deal is carried to Lauderdale. A pit has also been sunk lately near the Tyne, and an engine is erecting for clearing away the water, as the seam of the coal lies much deeper than the bed of the water. Lime-stone may probably be found in many places; kilns, however, are erected only upon the estate of Pencaitland; and some idea may be formed of their extent, from the circumstance of 45 cart-loads of coal, weighing each 15 cwt. being frequently used in the space of a week for burning the stone.—There are several springs of water of the mineral kind. They have never met with much attention from the public; but are held in high estimation by the common people, for scorbutic disorders.
Feet. Incher. Girth of an elm ", in 1788, 3 feet above the
Around Winton House H there are several uncommonly fine trees. Some beautiful artificial banks have also been formed near the house, at the time it was built ; but the whole now, by being totally neglected, and though the fite of the house
+ This was a spacious building, erected in the year 1619 for Lady Wintos, at the advice of a favourite of hers, an architeå, when the Earl proposed to her the alternative of an addition to her jointure, or a house, and she chose the latter.
is pleasant, has a sombre appearance, and instantly fills the mind of the spectator with the idea of the folly of engaging deeply in faction, whereby an estate, (of which this is a part), more valuable and more commodious than any other of the same fize in Scotland, was lost for ever to its owners. The young woods on the estate of Fountainhall, it has been observed, have of late suffered much from squirrels, which were introduced some years ago at Dalkeith, and have spread to this neighbourhood. They have attacked the Scotch firs in the proportion of about 1 in 20, and almost every larix and elim. Already many of each of them are killed. If the harm they do in other places be as great, and be progressive as they multiply, this intended improvement will be unfortunate.
Population.—From the number of births registered during the last 1o years, compared with a like period at any time fince 1750, it would appear that the population has been increasing in that degree which might be expected in a distrićt like this, where the whole inhabitants are not employed in agriculture. This may be the more readily admitted as sufficient evidence of the fact, that in the country parishes, mamy of the common people, fince the date of the tax upon the registration of baptisms, do not register the births in their families; a circumstance to be regretted, as it may, in the course of events, be attended with bad consequences to their posterity. From various enumerations, however, taken at different periods, it is certain that the increase has been by no means uniform, as will appear from the following table.
PopulaPopULATION TABLE of THE PARISH of PENcAITLAN D.
Decrease in 24 years 24 Ditto, by another accurate enumeration, in July 1793, Io:33
Increase in 14 years" 147 Exačt increase within these 38 years I 23 Number of souls in the villages - - - 512 in the country - - - 521 PRofessions, &c. Minister - - I Shoemakers - - 2 Heritors, refident - 3 Tailors - - 5 Ditto, non-refident - 4 Weavers - - 9 Farmers - - 9 Smiths - - 3 Masons - - 4 Dyer - - I Carpenters - - 4 Bleacher - - I Colliers, and their fami- Teacher - - I lies - - 11o Inn-keepert - • I
Road.—The roads are not in good repair. This is to be accounted for, from the nature of the soil, a deep wet clay, the
+ The other inhabitants are employed in the lime-works, and the different occupations of husbandry.