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lowing is little known, grass being valuable, and the fields abundantly clean, fince the corns were dressed with fans “, a practice equally profitable and universal. From the inequality of the surface of the ground, the watering of land, by the numerous wells and rivulets, is easy ; but of late the pračice is not much followed, where other manures can easily be had, as it is believed to render the soil thin and gravelly, and to exhaust it so, that hardly any other improvement is an effectual restorative —Of commons we have not one foot. Ring fences (stone dykes) around every farm, have been erected long ago, and even sub-divisions ; but the latter are quite too large, especially for the turnip husbandry. Indeed of late, potatoes, which are cxported in great quantities to England, to Glasgow, &c. have superseded almost every other fallow or green crop. The price is from 1 s. to 1 s. 6d. per cwt. as the season is plent cous.-The implements of agriculture are in cvery respect the same with those in the north of England ; and as the intercourse with
* To the credit of this country, this simple and most useful machine was, a few years ago, brought to perfeólion, by two natives of this neighbourhood. Without this aid, farmers might still have been obliged to place their barns in the most aukward and inconvenient fituation, from the view of obtaining wind for winnowing. Even then the corn often rotted in the barn; and fields remained unsown, because the air was calm, or the wind unsuitable, or accompanied with rain or snow. Servants are now set to winnow the corns, in the fore part of the winter night, when they were usually straggling, or unprofitably employed. Their health is no longer exposed in this part of their duty ; and, in a word, the date of the corn trade, in this country, seems to coincide with the period when the fan was introduced. It is with no bad intention, that we mention the names of the inventors, to whom the world has been more indebted than to thousands of renowned empyrics in politics, law, divinity, physic, &c. The said ingenious mechanics were Mr Mulk, joiner in Dumfries, and Mr King HoRN, miller of the town's mills, both dead several years ago.
Whitehaven, and the other towns on the opposite fide of the Solway Frith, is daily, it is believed the utenfils of husbandry are just as well made here as any where else, and better accommodated to the state and situation of the ground, than could be done by a stranger tradefinan. No oxen are used for draught, probably owing to the temptation people have of selling those home-bred horses, that are good, to the English and to jockeys in general. The breeding of black cattle, too, is followed by almost every farmer, as far as the nature of things will permit.
Prices of Labour, Improvements, &c.—The wages of servants, are, for le: men, as they are called, or cottagers, about 14 1. per annum; but the articles of maintenance furnished are, perhaps, estinated in Galloway, 2 l. or 3 1. a year lower than in Lothian, and some other counties of Scotland.—Labourers, by the day, get from 1 s. 2 d. to 1s. 4d.—Farm houses are gentrally very good, as well as offices. In a word, the continual repair of drovers, cattle-dealers, and even laboorers, to England, and the spirit of improvement that has prevailed in this country for these 20 vears past, has made the farming of these parts nearly equal to what it is in the southern part of the island, in all ordinary matters, and due regard being had to the means of the inhabitants of the dif. forent coustries. As a test of the happy consequences, 4 or 5 of the best farms in Buittle, which, about the year 1747, vocre rected at 2001. Scotch, or 400 merks each, now pay, (or would lay if cut of lease), 230 l. a porce, whilst the tenants would live incomparably better than their predecessors. One prejudice seems much to obstrućt the success of the farmer in this part of the world—it is that of sowing too late. ‘she fields, where the corns shaken by violent winds, if early sloughed, have been known to yield a respečtable crop in
the the following season, in spite of the rigours of winter; and though constant experience declares, that the oats, sown in the beginning of February, afford the most profitable return, still the sowing of that grain is delayed till the middle of March; nor is the seed barley committed to the ground sooner than the middle or the latter end of April. The harvest, as might be expected, corresponds with the seed time. Seldom does it begin before the middle of September, and it is often later, as the soil and exposure of the ground, or as the nature of the feason, may decide.
Leases.—In farming, as in most other concerns, a man's exertions depend very much on the prudence of those principles, in which his endeavours originate. In Galloway, and perhaps elsewhere, one maxim seems for ages to have fettered the hands of industry. The farmer reasoned thus with himself:- My forefathers and I have had this present pos. • session, in which I am now settled, by successive leases of 7 * years, or less, for ages. The rent has been still the same; “but to keep it from rifing, we have not only omitted every * improvement, but, in many instances, we have, to our own • detriment, been obliged to labour for the depreciation of • the subjećt. This is the consumate prudence of the farmer; • and departing from this maxim, every farmer may expect • to find his ruin, either in the avarice of his laird, or in the • envy of his neighbour; as the latter will offer, and the for• mer chearfully receive, whatever any parcel of ground can • afford, let it be improved at whose cost, or by whose in• dustry, it may.” . Two methods of refuting this dangerous maxim seem to have been adopted in England. The one is, by leafing the ground from year to year, and stipulating, annually, what improvement is to be made, and whether at the coast of the landlord or tenant. The mode of farming is thus
Population.—Before saying more of other concerns, it may be fit to mention the population of the parish, and sôme matters connected with it.—To save words, and communicate information as readily as possible, recourse is had to figures.
STATIs T1c AL TABLE of THE PARISH of BUITTLE, FoR
I 793. Population in 1755, as returned to Dr Webster, 899 Ditto in 1793, - - - - 855 Decrease 44 Re L1 c 1 ous Pers U As Ions. Familier. Individuals. Members of the cstablished church 133 678 Cameronians - - - 16 67 Seceders - - - • 9 34 . Roman Catholics - - - 19 75 Episcopals - - - • O Total 177 855 Sexes. Males - - - - 392 Females - - - - 463