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458

Old Stories from British History

(Longmans), 361 Pictures of English History (Nel

son), 362 Readings in English History

(Murby), 359 Second Historical Reader(Isbister),

155 Sixth Reader (Blackie's Graduated),

560 Short Stories Cards, Ledsham's,

402 Stories for Children from English

History, 402 Stories from English History, (Nelson), 196

RELIGIOUS KNOWLEDGE. Anecdotal Illustrations of the

Gospel according to St. Mark,

263 Child's Daily Help for the Christian

Year, 458 Elements of Morality, 512 First Readings; Christian Doctrine,

514 Gospel of St. John (Murby), 195 Junior and Senior Tablet Book, 563 Odom's Gospel Types and Shadows

of the Old Testament, 196 Parallel New Testament, 515, Second Epistle to the Corinthians,

457, 516

Atlas, 194

Pocket Code and Teacher's Daily

Handbook, Bowden's, 263 Standards of Teaching of Foreign

Codes relating to Elementary Education, 31 Teacher's Diary and Pocket Book,

565 What Her Majesty's Inspectors Say,

FRENCH AND GERMAN. Progressive French Course, Fas.

nacht's, 515. Progressive German Course, Fas. nacht's, 563

GEOGRAPHY, British School Atlas of Ancient and

Modern Geography, 196 Halfpenny Maps, 453 Home Lesson Books to the Royal

Geographical Readers, 264 Ireland, Wall Map of, 360 Johnston's Sixpenny National Modern Geography, Hughes's Ele

mentary Class Book of, 310 Philip's Series of Map.Drawing Books, 156

GEOMETRY. Euclid, First Six Books, 456 Mensuration for Beginners, Dodds's,

359 Wright's Lessons on Form, 32

GRAMMAR. Elocution, Millard's Grammar of,

361 English Grammar, Morrison's, 359 English Grammar, Notes of Lessons

on, 403 English Language and Literature,

Outline of History of, 402 Etymological Dictionary, Cham.

bers's, 108 Graduated Exercises for St. VI.,

563 Meiklejohn's Standard Grammar,

Bk. IV., 107
Primer of Eng. Grammar, 516

GREEK.
Anabasis of Xenophon, Bk. I., 263
Anabasis of Xenophon, Bk. VII., 457
Arnold's Practical Introduction to

Greek Prose Composition, 32 Cambridge Texts, with Notes, 516 Greek Particles, Short Treatise on,

ccccxy.

Linton's, 310

403

Holden and Co., ccxix, cclxviii,

cccxv, ccclxxii, ccccxv, cccclxx,

dxxvi. Hughes, Joseph, lvii, lix, lxiii, cxi,

cxii, clxv, clxvii, clxvii, ccxix, ccxx, ccclxxii, ccccxvii, ccccxviii, cccclxvii, cccclxviii, cccclxxiv, dxxvii, dxxviii, dxxix, dxxx,

dlxxv, dlxxvii. Isbister, W., ccccxv. Jarrold and Sons, liv, Jennings, James, ccccxiv, cccclxxii,

dxxvi, dixxiii. Johnson, William, cclxvii, cccxv,

ccclxxi, ccccxvi, cccclxx. Keefe, J., lv, cix, clxiii, ccxvii,

cclxv, cccxiii, ccclxvii, ccccxv, cccclxx, dxxiv, dlxxi. Kegan Paul, French, and Co., cix. Laurie, Thomas, lxi. Letts, Son, and Co., dxxiii, dlxxi. London Scholastic Trading Co., Longmans and Co., lvii, lxii, cx,

cxi, clxvii, ccxix, cclxviii, cccxv, cccxvi, ccclxxi, ccccxiii, ccccxv, ccccxvi, cccclxxii, dxxvi, dxxxi,

dlxxii. Macniven and Cameron, cccclxxi,

dxxv, dlxxiii. Marshall, J. and Co., cccclxxiv. Midland Educational Co., cclxvüi,

cccxvi, ccclxxi. Mixer, J., and Co., cix, clxiii,

ccxvii, cclxv. cccxiii, ccclxvii,

cccclxix, dxxvi, dlxxii. Moon, J. F., M.C.P., dlxxv. Murby, Thomas, clxvii, 216, 366

cccclxxv. Murray, J., Ixiv, ccclxix, ccclxx. M. A., ccclxxii. Nelson, T., and Sons, 212, 570 North of England School Furnishing

Co., ccccxix. Perry and Co., lvi, cx, clxiv, ccxvii,

cclxv, cccxiii, dlxxi. Philip, G., and Son, lviii, 10

264, cccclxxiii, dlxxix.
Poole, W., ccxvii.
Scholastic Musical Instrumei

lv, cix, clxiii, ccxvii,
cccxii, ccclxvii, ccccxv, (

dxxiv, dlxxii.
Scholastic Sewing Machin

Ivii, cxi, cclxvii, cccxv.
Scientific Agency Co., lv.
Simpkin, Marshall, and Co., lt

lvii, lix, cix, cx, cxii, clxive
clxviii, ccxviii, ccxix, cclxvi,
cclxvii, cccxiii, cccxiv, cccxv,
ccclxviii,ccclxxi, ccclxxii, ccccxiii,
ccccxiv, ccccxvi,cccclxx, cccclxxii,
dxxiv, dxxvi, dxxvii, dlxxii,

dixxiv. Smith and Co., G, W., lix. Smith, Elder, and Co., cccclxix,

cccclxxvi, dlxxx. South Kensington Fine Art Asso

ciation, cccclxvii. St. Bride's Fancy Goods Store, 522 Stiles, G., and Co., ccxix, cclxviii,

cccxv, ccclxxi, ccccxvi, cccclxx;

dxxvi, dlxxii. Swan, Sonnenschein, and Co.,

ccclxvii, cccclxxii, dlxxviii. Thomas, S., clxvi. Walker and Co., J., lv, ccccxix. Wesleyan Methodist Sunday-school

Union, lx, dxxxii. Westminster School Book Depôt,

ccxvii, dlxxii. Wilcox, Rev. A. M., lyii, cxi, Williams, B., dlxxv.

SCIENCE. Animal Physiology, Willis's, 455 Besant's Light, Heat, and Sound,

32 D'Anvers's Science Ladders : Forms

of Land and Water, 107 General Biology, Aveling's, 455 Health Lectures for the People, 512 History ofa Lump of Coal, 454 Mensuration for Beginners, 359, School Course of Heat, Larden's, Science in a Nutshell, 311 Spanton's Preparations for Science

Teaching, 156 Talks about Science, Dunman's,

362 The Food we Eat: Why we Eat it,

and Whence it Conies, 401 Wormell's Magnetism and Electricity, 105, 193

WRITING. Short Essays and Letters, 264Longmans' Modern Copy Books,

310, 457

Monograph, The: A Collection of

Indexed Essays, 263,
Müller's Outlines of Hebrew Syntax,

107
Scale of Nations, 311
Sectional Paper for Sewing, 401
Spencer's Bicycle Road Book, 156
Victor Emmanuel, 310

MUSIC.
Day School Song Book, Johnson's,

359
Songs for Little Singers, 565

PERIODICALS.
Cambridge Examiner, 106
Cassell's Book of Sports, 156, 454
Ivanhoe, 564
Longman's Magazine, 564
Our Little Ones, 108, 264, 362, 401,
Oxford Examiner, 106, 263
Reciter, 401
Thrift, 156
Universal Instructor, 264, 516
Wesleyan Methodist S. S. Magazine,
562

Poetry.
Macaulay's Lays of Ancient Rome,

108
Northumbria, The Captive Chief,

and other Poems, 195
Poetry for the Young, 108
Temptation of Job, The, and other
Poems, 29

PRIZE BOOKS.
Adventures of Mrs. Wishing-to-be,

511
Alice Through the Looking-Glass,

513
Baby's Museum, 564
Ball of Fortune, The, 511
Battle and Victory, 516
Brother and Sister. 511
Cat and Dog Stories, as told to one

another, 560
Children's World, 456
Dolly Dear, 564
Fairy Fancy, 511
Facing Death, 511.
Fairy Tales for Children, 563
Fly-away Fairies and 'Baby-Blos-

soms, 516
Four Little Mischiefs, 561
Friar Hildebrand's Cross, 454
Handwork and Headwork, 513
Heroes of African Discovery and

Adventure, 513
Heroes of Maritime Discovery, 562
Hiawatha and other Legends, 513
Homer's Stories Simply Told, 514
In the King's Name, 511
In the Temperate Regions, 514
Landseer Series of Picture-Books,

563
Lamb's Tales from Shakspere, 262
Life of John Wiclif, 513
Lost in the Backwoods, 514
Maria Wuz and Lorentz Stark, 156
Nat the Naturalist, 511
Naughty Miss Bunny, 561
New Light through Old Windows,

510
Our Dolly, 511
Plutarch's Lives for Everyday

Readers, 262
Ralph's Year in Russia, 514
Recent Expeditions to Eastern Polar

Seas, 514
Stories of Old Renown, 561
St. Aubyn's Laddie, 564
Tales from the Edda, 513
Tales of the Olden Times, 513
The Belton Scholarship, 564
True to Himself, 513
Under Drake's Flag, 511
Wee Babies, 516
Winners in Life's Race, 512
Won from the Waves, 563
Wonderful Ghost Story. 563.

READING BOOKS.
Blackie's Graded Readers, 156
Chambers' Graduated Readers, 212
English History Readers, Mar-

shall's, 402
First Historical Reader (Isbister),

154
Fifth Illustrated Reader (Long.

mans), 457
Geographical Readers for Ele-

mentary Schools (Stanford), 154
Geographical Reading Books (Nat.

Society), 155
Geographical Readers, I, and II.,

Blackie's, 362
Geographical Reader, Blackie's

Sixth, 454
Historical Readers (Chambers), 263
Historical Reader, II. (Bla@kie),

560
Historical Reader, III. (Blackie),

560
Historical Reader, III.(Chambers),

564

IV.-Alphabetical List of

Firms, etc., who have
Advertised in this
Volume.

V.-The following Firms have

Advertised on the Wrap

HISTORY.
Civil Service History of England,

White and Dobson's, 33
English History Home Lesson

Books, Standards V. and VI., 108
English History, Cassell's Simple

Outline of, 453
History of England (Standards III.

and IV.), Dick's, 562
History of Modern Europe for

Schools, Lord's, 31
Italian History, Morell's Com.

pendium of, 310
Summary of English History, Reep's,
362

LATIN.
Cæsar, Bk. I., 516
First Latin Grammar, Macmillan's,

515
Horace's Epodes, etc., 564
Latin Course, 362
Leonard's Latin Grammar, 263
Livy's Hannibalian War, 515
Matriculation Classics ; Questions

and Answers, 360
Ovid, Selections from, 515
Virgil's Æneid, 1., 515
Virgil's Æneid, XI., 457
Virgil's Æneid, I. and II., 263
Virgil's Georgics, I. and II., 262
Virgil's Poems, Translated by
Conington, 195

LITERATURE.
Chaucer's Squiere's Tale; 457
German Literature, Student's

Manual of, 560
Lord Clive, Macaulay's Essay on,
S1457
Shakespeare's King Henry V., 457

MISCELLANEOUS.
Art Instruction in England, 361
Book of Shadows, 560
Christmas and New Year's Cards,

458, 565
Epoch of Reform, Justin McCarthy's,

309
Facts to Impress, and Fancies to

Delight, 457
General Knowledge Charts, John.

ston's, 456.
Handy Classical Dictionary, 262
Historical Novels and Tales, De.

scriptiv Catalogue of, 263
History of Shorthand, 358
Italy's Liberator, The Story of Gen.

Garibaldi's Life, 362
Locke on Words, 359
London University Matriculation

Adair, H., Ivi., cx, clxiv, ccxviii,

cclxvi, cccxiv, ccclxviii, ccccxiv.
Allen and Co., cccclxix, dxxiii.
Allman and Son, ccxix, dxxvii.
Antoine, Professor, cccclxxi, dxxv,

dlxxiii.
Austing and Sons, cxii, dlxxiv.
Banks and Ashwell, lvii, clxiv,

dxxvii, dlxxiii.
Birkbeck Bank, Ivi, cx, clxiv,

ccxix, cclxvii, cccxvi, ccclxxi,
ccccxvi, cccclxx, dxxiii, dlxxii.
Bisson, Borman and Co., dlxxi.
Blackwood, James, and Co., dxxiy.
Blanchard, W. A. C. P., dxxvi.
Brodie and Middleton, lvi, cx,

clxiv, ccxix, cclxvii, cccxvi,
ccclxxii, ccccxv, cccclxx, dxxiv,

dlxxii.
Cantab, cccxvi.
Chambers, W. and R., lvii, cxi,

cclxvii, cclxviü, cccxvi.
Clay, C. J., M.A., and Son, dlxxv.
Collins, Wm., and Sons, ccccxx.
Coman, T., clxiii.
Cox and Co., cclxv, cccxiii, ccclxvii,

ccccxiv, cccclxx, dxxiv, dlxxi.
Darlow and Co.,. lv, clxiii, cclxv,

ccclxvii, ccccxiii, cccclxix, dxxiii,

dlxxi.
Educational Company, clxiv, cccxiv,

ccclxviii.
Edwards, H. and G., cclxvii, cccxv,

ccclxxi, ccccxvi, cccclxxi, dxxv.
Eyre and Spottiswoode, clxviii.
Finsbury Training College, cccxv,

cccclxxi, dxxv, dlxxiii.
Frost, Miss, ccxx, dxxii.
Gill, George, and Sons, lix, ccccxii.
Hampton, C., and Co., cclxviii.
Harrison and Son, lvi, cxi, ccxvii,

cclxviii, cccxv.
Hawes, G. E., lvi, cx, clxiii, ccxviii,

cclxvi, cccxiv, ccclxviii, ccccxiv,

cccclxxi, dxxy, dlxxiii.
Heywood, John, ccccxix, cccclxxi,

dxxy, dlxxvi.

pers of this Volume.
W. H. Allen and Co.
Austing and Sons
Blackie and Son
Cox and Co.
W, and R. Chambers.
Crosby, Lockwood, and Co.
H. and G. Edwards
Eyre and Spottiswoode.
Miss Frost
G. Gill and Sons
Griffith and Farran
Joseph Hughes
A. Johnston
Longmans, Green, and Co.
Sampson Low and Co.
J. Marshall and Co.
Thomas Murby
John Murray
National Society
T. Nelson and Sons
G. Philip and Son
Religious Tract Society
Scientific Instrument Agency
W. S. Sonnenschein and Co.

561

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M.

School Surgery.

without prudence, a zeal without discretion, and a BY ALFRED CARPENTER, M.D. (LOND.), C.s.s. (CAMB.),

theory without practice, are all bad; but they are

especially so in the arena which belongs to the proVice-President of the British Medical Association.

perly educated medical man. It follows, therefore, I.

that nothing is put forward here which is intended to IT T is proposed to consider this part of our subject supersede the necessity for medical advice when it can

under three heads, all of which are connected be obtained, but only to provide for emergencies when

a departure from a proper condition of health, no doctor is at hand, and when attention is wanted Te may be common to all schools, and which require immediately, or in which it is important that the school bez pediate attention on the part of those in authority authority should know how to act when such emergency

. Cert se departures may be general or particular, may does arise, and when action must be immediate. Qar y to considerable numbers of children at one and These rules are based upon those which every pro

riser same time, or be personal only to one or more as perly educated medical practitioner will be sure to Coal i Ig caused by one's own or another person's act. The follow upon his arrival on the scene, and there will be Jeasures to be taken by the teachers have reference so much time gained, either in preventing mischief to the prevention of disease or accident, as well as to from accident, in arresting the progress of infectious the removal of their incidence when they do arise. They disorder by taking time by the forelock, and prevent. separate themselves into School Hygiene, or measures ing altogether the necessity for further medical aid, connected with the subject of infectious disease ; “Prevention being better than cure” on all hands, and School Surgery; and a less important division, which no body of men recognise this more fully than the includes simple instruction upon Medicine, and is con- honest-hearted medical practitioner. nected more directly with disturbances of health, School Hygiene.—The conduct of masters regarding especially those which are trivial and do not require infectious diseases requires more consideration than medical attendance.

it gets at present. The difficulties which are daily School Hygiene includes a consideration of the arising in all parts of the country from a neglect of measures requisite to prevent the admission of infec- proper rule is such as justifies early attention to this dious diseases, to prevent their extension when they part of our subject. are unfortunately admitted, and to remove them from No child should be allowed to come to school who is the precincts of the school as soon as possible after personally suffering from any of the ordinary infectious admission, so as to avoid the necessity for closing the diseases. They are Measles, Scarlet fever (or scarlatina, establishment altogether.

as it is often called), Diphtheria, Whooping-cough, Under the head of School Surgery we shall con- Mumps, Small-pox, Chicken-pox (or glass pox), Scald sider the accidents which more properly belong to head (or ringworm), Purulent Ophthalmia, and Scabies school life ; and also the emergencies which are of fre- (or itch) quent occurrence, and which render a knowledge of If the school be a boarding-school, any child sufferthe principles which ought to be followed absolutely ing from any of these diseases must be at once necessary on the part of those in authority, so that no removed from the school, and all those who have been mischief may be done before the surgeon, who may in contact with that particular child for the preceding have been summoned, can possibly appear upon the twenty-four hours should be put in quarantine-that scene ; and lastly, we have the simple principles of is, to be kept separated from the rest of the school. household medicine, which should be known to all No person should be allowed to return to school after men and women who are heads of establishments, and recovery from any of the above diseases until after they especially to those who have a number of young have been thoroughly disinfected, and after the lapse people under their care.

of a certain period, which should date from the terNimia cura medici, which some people are supposed mination of the fever stage. This disinfection must I require, and which uneducated people too often include a proper bathing of the whole body in some adulge in, does more harm than good. A knowledge

A knowledge disinfecting fluid, such as a weak solution of Condy, or

VOL II.

A

asso

water in which some chlorinated soda has been badly-nourished, badly-fed constitutions, and mingled. If the whole body is well sponged over with ciated with filthy habits. some water containing i per cent of Condy or chlo- Cleanliness of head is a necessary contingency in all rinated soda, and then well scrubbed in a bath with schools, so that the chance of infection may be avoided. some oatmeal, the whole of the infecting matter on the All large schools should have a place in which the hair body may be rapidly removed. It is requisite to cut should be combed and the head properly cleansed the hair, and then to wash the head first with the dis- as frequently as may appear necessary. The operinfecting solution, and then with some water, to which ation should be superintended by a monitor or person a little borax has been added; half an ounce of appointed to see its due execution; a senior child borax in a quart of water is a cleansing solution which in turn should take this duty under the control of the will dissolve particles of epithelium, and prevent them teacher. The brushes and combs in use must be from clinging to the hair to the danger of the child's kept clean, and each child restricted to his own fellows. The nails, both of fingers and toes, should articles. In elementary day schools it would be good be cut, and the ears washed out, and if the process of practice to have occasional inspection drill as regards washing is repeated every day for a week there will be the children's heads. I am sure it is far more imporbut little chance of danger to other children from that tant to teach children the necessity for clean heads particular cause, provided there are no eruptions and than for nine-tenths of the tasks which are done in no discharging abscesses or other sequences of the dis- the school hours, and yet I am not aware of a single ease itself upon any part of the body; these are generally day school in which such an inspection drill exists. found at the alæ of the nose, behind the ears, or near It would assist the master or mistress very materially to one of the orifices of the body. These should be all in their work by checking irritation, and will assist cured before the child is readmitted to the school. very much in diminishing the incidence of infec

Where possible, a medical certificate should be tion at any rate as regards diseases of the scalp. produced, which should state that the child is free Purulent or infectious Ophthalmia is a very troublefrom infective power : but if no certificate is forth- some disease, and when it has obtained hold in a school coming, a child should not be admitted into school it is very difficult to eradicate; personal attention to until three weeks after recovery from measles, a each case and rigid isolation will alone effect its remonth after scarlet fever, at least six weeks after diph- moval, whilst it often håppens that much injury is theria, three weeks after mumps, a month after small- done to eyesight in consequence. The disease which pox, provided all scabs have disappeared in that time, is called Scabies or Itch is not uncommon in some eleand nearly as long for chicken-pox. No definite time mentary schools ; it is not usual to take much notice can be fixed for whooping cough, and it is doubtful of it, but a child who is the subject of it ought not to be whether, if it be in a given neighbourhood, it can be admitted into any school until he is cured. This is excluded from a large school, but no child actually not a difficult matter ; it can be effected in three days whooping should be allowed to stay in the school. if the disease be vigorously attacked. It is due to a

Ringworm or scald head arises in the majority of small insect somewhat like a cheese-mite, which burrows instances from want of washing. If such cases appear in the epidermis and lays its eggs, the hatching of in any school, all the children should have their heads which gives rise to the itching from which the disease is well washed with soap and water, and afterwards well named. Sulphur is fatal to the insects themselves, and sponged over with a solution of borax-an ounce to a if used by inunction, so that the canals leading to the gallon of warm water should be about the strength of nests of the insect get filled with the sulphur itself, the the solution—whilst those children who have the young brood are destroyed as soon as they change disease manifestly present should be kept at a distance their state from ova to developed acari, whilst all the until the places are perfectly well. It is right, how- insects which have been previously hatched, both male ever, to state that a large number of cases which are and female, are at once destroyed by contact with the called ringworm are not the true disease. The real sulphur. ringworm is characterised by the presence of a vege

The preceding observations apply to children who table growth in the epidermis. A microscopical fungus, are suffering or have suffered from disease, but it styled the 'tricophyton,' produces one form of true ring- may be that the child is not himself affected, but is worm. They are either isolated spores or jointed fila- living in a house in which some one else is suffering ments, which attack the scalp and grow in the hairs from infectious complaint, and that child may convey and their sheaths, and also amongst the epidermis of the disease to his school-fellows. No child should be the scalp and other parts of the body. There are allowed to attend school under these circumstances. several of these parasites which produce disease in The rule, however, may be somewhat relaxed in the the hairy structures. They can only be cured by case of children who have already had an attack of the plucking out the diseased hairs, cleansing the patches same kind of disease at some anterior period, say in first with soft soap, then with solution of borax, and the preceding year, provided they are kept from all lastly applying equal parts of sulphurous acid and immediate contact with sick persons until the recovery glycerine. The diseases are various forms of tinea, and disinfection are complete. It may also be relaxed and are at first scarcely to be distinguished from harm- in the case of those children who, not having themless patches of tetter or simple lichen, except by the selves had the disease, have not been in contact with expert. The worst form of infectious ringworm is that the case and have been at once removed to an uninwhich is styled “tinea favosa.' It is produced by a fected house ; or if they have been in contact with the fungus called 'achorion,' an dit is at once known by case, then a fortnight's quarantine should be estab the presence of yellow, cup-shaped crusts on the lished, which will clear them all from the possibility of scalp; it is highly infectious, very difficult to cure, and becoming the subject of infectious complaints if they on no account should a subject of it be admitted into have escaped infection on that occasion. Children the society of other children. It is always a mark of are frequently sent to school whilst suffering from an in

fectious disease, which had not been recognised because has coloured the whole system of education of which it is extremely mild, or in its very early stage, or, as too

he was the originator. often happens, because the parents are careless as to

His birth-place was Zurich, the capital of the Swiss other people, and won't take the trouble either to Canton of that name,-and there he went to school. verify their suspicions or even to prevent mischief 'In all school games,' he says, ' I was the clumsiest when they know that it is likely to happen. The teacher and most helpless of all the boys, yet always trying to or director of every school should, therefore, give im- excel them. They used to call me “Wonderful Harry mediate personal attention to any one who may appear

from Foolstown." They liked me for my good nature, ill or complains of feeling unwell. Feverishness should though they were always laughing at my awkwardness lead him to suspect the presence of infectious disease, and thoughtlessness about everything that did not and if the teacher could be provided with a thermometer,

particularly interest me. Though one of the best of such as is now in common use among medical men, he the scholars, my flightiness led me to commit faults of need never be in doubt upon this head. If the fever- which the worst of them were never guilty. Generally ishness is combined with any kind of rash upon the seizing with quickness and accuracy upon the essentials skin, or with any appearance or complaint of sore of the subjects taught me, I was indifferent and throat, or with both, he need be under no difficulty

as careless as to the form and method. At the same to the advisability of that child leaving the school- time that I was far behind my classmates in some house as soon as possible. The thermometers are parts of my work, in others I surpassed them in a reprovided by all the surgical instrument makers, and markable degree. The wish to be acquainted with are of very simple construction; they have an index some branches of knowledge that took possession of which registers the highest temperature. If this is my heart and imagination, even though I neglected placed in the axilla or armpit of the child, so that the the best means of acquiring them and of exercising mercury in the bulb is kept in contact with the skin at myself in them, was strong in me to enthusiasm ; and the deepest part of the axilla for five minutes, it will it unfortunately happened that the tone of public register the highest temperature. If this exceeds 100 culture in my native town was at this time eminently (the normal being 98.5) it is evident that the child calculated to foster the ambition of taking an active should not be at school at all, and should be sent

interest in affairs, long before one had had sufficient home at once, or if it be a boarding-school, the child experience or training for such an attempt. Freedom should be put in quarantine.

beneficence, self-sacrifice, and patriotism were the (To be continued.)

watchwords of our education ; but the means of attaining to all this which was especially commended to us, namely, cultivation of the intellect, was left without

that solid and efficient training of the practical ability Eminent Practical Teachers.

which is the essential condition of its success. We PESTALOZZI.

imagined, whilst yet in the position of school-boys,

that by a superficial school acquaintance with the BY THE REV. CANON WARBURTON, M. A.,

great civil life of Greece and Rome, we should emiHer Majesty's Inspector of Training Colleges for

nently prepare ourselves for the little civil life of a Schoolmistresses.

Swiss canton.' JOHN OHN HENRY PESTALOZZI* was born as long In his holidays Pestalozzi frequently paid long visits

ago as 1746, but he lived to be past eighty years to his uncle, the pastor of a rural village three miles of age, and many of those who knew him, and some from Zurich, where he became much attached to, and of those who were taught by him, are still alive. beloved by the country folk. A strong antagonism

Quite apart from his reputation as a teacher he was existed at this time in Switzerland between town and a remarkable man, and his history is well worth country, aristocracy and poor, and Pestalozzi took part, studying and laying to heart; there is much in it to

enthusiastically, as was his wont in everything, with the be admired—admired perhaps, rather than imitated, latter; and conceived a strong prejudice against the much to be avoided, perhaps, rather than to be con- higher classes, by whom he believed his humbler demned. He was not a very wise, certainly not a neighbours to be oppressed-a prejudice which largely very practical man, but he had in him something of the and, it must be added, injuriously affected both his Divine gift of Genius,-a heaven-sent conviction that character and his career. he had found a new truth, and a passionate yearning, He had no sooner emerged from boyhood than he which no difficulty could deter or failure dishearten, fell under the influence of the famous Jean Jacques to turn it to account for the benefit of mankind. Rousseau, whose ideal scheme of liberty, with its

His father, who had been a doctor, died when visionary speculations on philosophic education and Pestalozzi was only six years old, and the boy was contempt for established scientific methods, had at brought up in narrow circumstances, but still as a this time taken hold of the imagination, and deeply spoilt darling,' so he tells us, by one who was the tinged the ideas of the younger generation. Rousseau's best of mothers,' but too much absorbed in house- educational treatise 'Emile' appeared when Pestalozzi hold cares to attend much to the development of her was sixteen, and had before long run the round of all son's character. Many of the errors and weaknesses the European languages, and was regarded almost in of his manhood are undoubtedly traceable to his want the light of a new revelation. The

young enthusiast of masculine example and discipline as a boy; but, on found something which went straight to his own heart the other hand, the tender affectionateness which he in Rousseau's fervid and tender love for humanity, in learned from his mother is the keynote of his life, and his sympathy with the sufferings of childhood, and his

profound feeling of the political and social corruption Pronounced Pest-a-lot-zy. He was, of course, a Swiss, but the name is of Italian origin, and in the Italian language the

of the times. No sooner had Pestalozzi read 'Emile' irst of two' z's' coming together is pronounced like a 't.'

i than the whole home and public education of the

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world at all previous times and in all ranks of society What consequences may the undertakings to which I appeared to him as one gigantic blunder, which could feel myself impelled draw after them! How unequal be rectified only by the realization of Rousseau's ideas. to them am I! and how imperative is my duty to show

As yet, however, he had not awakened to a con- you the possibility of the great dangers they may bring sciousness of his vocation and destiny as a practical upon me! teacher of children. The first effect which the study * Decide now for yourself, whether you can join your of Rousseau produced upon his mind was to induce heart to a man with these faults and these prospects in him to abandon the preparation which he had already life—and be happy. I love you so dearly from my begun for the clerical profession ; in the hope that by heart, that this step has cost me much. I fear to lose devoting himself to jurisprudence he might find a you, my darling, when you see me as I am. I had career more adapted to procure for him a position in often thought, ‘I will be silent'; but at last I have conwhich he might exert an active influence on the social | quered myself

, and I rejoice at what I have done.' condition of his native land. One of his biographers, Bluntschli had scarcely been a month dead when however, tells us that he abandoned theology, because Pestalozzi fell so dangerously ill that he was on the he broke down twice in his first sermon, and found point of following his friend to the grave.

His himself incapable of committing even the Lord's Prayer physician told him that he must give up all scientific accurately to memory.

study and rest his brain. His sympathy with RousAmong the friends of his youth who exercised an

seau's anti-scientific ideas made this abandonment of influence in the formation of his ideas and character methodical study only too easy. He sold his books, were the celebrated Lavater, of whom we shall hear burned his MSS., and betook himself to a farmer of again, and a gifted youth named Bluntschli, who died considerable reputation, named Tschiffeli, in the Canton of consumption at an early age. In his last moments of Bern, and sought his instruction and advice as to Bluntschli sent for Pestalozzi, and said to him, 'I am the best means of realising his dreams for the ameliodying, and when you are left to yourself you must not ration of the condition of the poor. It was an unforrush into any career which might be dangerous to you tunate selection of a counsellor. 'I came to him,' from your easy and confiding disposition. Try to find says Pestalozzi, 'a political visionary, and left him an some quiet tranquil line of life, and unless you have by agricultural visionary, full of enthusiasm for my gigantic you a friend who will faithfully assist you, with a calm schemes fresh awakened by his plans, which, though dispassionate knowledge of men and things, by no difficult of execution, and in the main impracticable, means embark in any undertaking whose failure would were bold and original in conception.' be disastrous for you.' Such was his friend's estimate Tschiffeli had become famous by his plantations of of his character, but that no one knew its defects better madder, and Pestalozzi's first practical essay was in than he did himself is sufficiently proved by the extract the cultivation of this plant. He induced a wealthy which follows from a love-letter to his betrothed, the firm, in Zurich, to become partners with him in the beautiful and high-minded Anna Schulthess.

purchase of one hundred acres of chalky heathland for Dearest Schulthess, those of my faults which appear this purpose, on which he immediately proceeded to to me the most important in relation to the situation erect an Italian villa. To this house and estate he gave which I may occupy in after-life are improvidence, the name of *Neuhof, and there he settled at the age flightiness, and want of presence of mind to meet un. of twenty-four with his fair wife, Anna Schulthess, who expected emergencies. I cannot tell how far these

had ventured, in spite of the warnings of the love-letter faults may be diminished by my efforts to counteract above quoted, to throw in her lot with his. them by calm judgment and experience. At present The madder plantation proved a failure. The I have them still in such a degree that I dare not hide Zurich firm which had advanced the money for the them from the maiden I love ; they are defects, my undertaking, withdrew it at a sacrifice rather than risk dear one, which deserve your fullest consideration. Í the whole in such incompetent hands. Pestalozzi now have other faults arising from my irritability and sensi- found himself thrown upon his own resources, but tiveness which often refuse to submit to my judgment. with extraordinary courage, or extraordinary impruI very frequently let myself run into excesses in prais- | dence, he determined not only to go on with his agriing and blaming, in likings and dislikings. Whenever cultural speculations, but to combine with them a my country or my friend is unhappy, I am myself school for the gratuitous education of poor children. unhappy. Direct your whole attention to this weak- He drew up and made public a scheme for the estabness; there are times when the cheerfulness and tran- lishment of this institution, and his plans and principles quillity of my soul will give way under it ... Of my commanded such general approbation that, in spite of great and even culpable negligence in all matters of a growing distrust in his practical ability, he received etiquette, I need not speak; any one can see all that offers of assistance from several of the principal towns at the first sight of me. I also owe to you the candid of Switzerland. The 'Neuhof Poor School' opened confession, my dear one, that I shall always consider in 1775, with fifty scholars. It was what we should my duties towards my beloved partner subordinate to now call an industrial school, for the children were to my duties towards my country, and that though I shall help out their expenses by their earnings, working in be the tenderest of husbands, nevertheless, I hold it to summer on the farm, and in winter at weaving, spinning, be my duty to be inexorable to the tears of my wife, if and other indoor occupations. The plan was a good she shall ever attempt to restrain me by them from the

one, and such a school has since then

many performance of my duty as a citizen. My wise shall a time proved almost self-supporting in competent be the confidante of my heart, the sharer of all my hands, but it failed in those of Pestalozzi. Discipline most secret counsels; a great and honest simplicity never existed; the children would not work while they! shall reign in my house. And one thing more : My stayed with him, and ran off when they got new clothes, whole heart is my country's; I will risk all to alleviate the need and the misery of my countrymen.

many

* Pronounced Noy-hofe.

and

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