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the civil authorities declining to interfere.
As a type of the tribe we will take the Gorilla however, were difficulties which time and patience (Troglodytes gorilla), as standing first in the family, might have overcome. The real cause of failure lay and compare the respective skeletons of that animal in the fact that he tried to carry out his experiment on and of a human being. a scale quite disproportioned to his skill, capital, and No second glance is needed to see the wonderful experience. It was an undertaking which required difference which exists between the bony framework and presupposed a thorough knowledge of manu- of the man and that of the beast. The clumsy, factures, men, and business, in which, to use his own brutal head of the ape, with its low, receding forehead, words, he was deficient in the same proportion as protruding cheek-bones, and massive jaws, is quite such knowledge was indispensable to him in the unlike the rounded skull of the man, with its upright direction which he had given to his undertaking.' I
'I forehead and small jawbone. Then the almost total who so entirely disapproved of hurrying on to the absence of neck; the long, ungainly 'arms, with their higher stages of instruction before a thorough founda- enormous hands; the short, bowed legs, all insufficient tion had been laid in the elementary stages, looking to support the body upright; and the peculiar structure upon it as the fundamental error in the education of of the feet, suffice to prove, even without entering into the day,-allowed myself to be carried away by illusions further details, the immeasurable distance which sepaof the greater remunerativeness of the higher branches rates the two beings. of industry, without knowing even remotely the means As we proceed in our examination, this conviction of teaching, or even of learning them, and to commit is still more strongly forced upon us, every part of the the very faults in training up school children to spin frame bearing witness to the nature and habits of the and weave, which I so strongly reprobated and beast, as opposed to those of the man. denounced, and which I considered dangerous to the Let us now examine the structure a little more domestic happiness of all classes. There never was closely. a more candid confession of incapacity, but still he We notice, in the first place, the great size and struggled on, his noble wife assisting his endeavours,— strength of almost every bone in the body, which at determined to share his last crust with his children once informs us that the muscular power is proporrather than turn them adrift. 'He lived like a beggar tionately developed. to teach beggars how men live.' He laboured night This is the case to a singular degree in all the larger and day to raise others from the misery into which he apes, the strength, more especially of the arms, being had himself fallen. At last, however, all was spent, perfectly astonishing. M. Du Chaillu tells us that a and, in addition to that, he became deeply involved in gorilla has been seen to bend a gun-barrel double by debt; his own small fortune and his wife's considerable means of the hands alone, grasping the weapon in the one had melted away. In 1780 the Neuhof School huge paws, and bending it without apparent exertion. was closed, and Pestalozzi found himself in ‘his elegant He also remarks that, unlike most wild animals, the country house' all but penniless, with a wife whom gorilla possesses scarcely more tenacity of life than trouble had thrown into a lingering illness, and the The surest mode of killing this ape is, when it wolf at the door. “When my experiment went to has turned to bay, to allow it to approach within two wreck,' he writes, the blind confidence which people or three yards, and then to aim at the centre of its had reposed in me changed into just as inconsiderate breast. It succumbs at once to the shot, and falls a distrust. All belief in the qualifications which I dead on its face, almost without a struggle. really possessed was now lost, along with the belief in The hinder limbs, too, are powerful in their way, those which, in my self-deception, I gave myself credit the grasp of the foot, in particular, being very great
, but had not. My friends now only loved me But when called upon to sustain the weight of the without hope, and in the whole of the surrounding animal upon level ground, they are of comparatively neighbourhood it was everywhere said that I was a lost | little use. man, and that nothing more could be done for me.' This is not so much owing to the want of the requisite
strength, as to the structure of the opposite extremities (To be continued.)
of the body, namely, the head and the hinder paws. Both of these are formed in such a manner that an
upright carriage is impossible, the animal, even when Anecdotal Natural History.
at rest, being quite unable to assume a perfectly erect
attitude. BY REV. J. G. WOOD, M.A., F.L.S.
When the structure of the head and feet is examined, Author of Homes without Hands,''Nature's Teachings,' etc. this inability is easily accounted for. AND THEODORE WOOD,
In the former, the occipital foramen,' or in plainer Joint Author of The Field-Naturalist's Handbook.'
language, the orifice in the base of the skull through
which the spinal cord passes to the brain, is placed so No. XIII.-THE MONKEY TRIBE. far back that the whole weight of the head is thrown PART I.
forward, tending, of course, to overbalance the body.
In man, this orifice is placed almost in the centre, so THE HE grotesque resemblance borne by the larger that the head is evenly poised upon the spinal
apes towards the human form has given rise to column. various conjectures regarding the relationship between With regard to the feet, the cause is evident withman and the monkeys. Without, however, touching out the need of dissection, for these organs are formed upon these speculations, with which we need not con- almost exactly like hands, being provided with thumbs cern ourselves, we will examine the chief points of and fingers instead of toes. They are, in fact, almost structure in which the two beings resemble, and also identical in form with the hands themselves. Naturally, those in which they differ from, one another.
as they can possess no heel, and as there is no 'calf,' i.e.,
the set of powerful muscles below the knee, which are easy grace and agility which are as much opposed to required for the working of the foot, these hinder its former ungainly motions, as are the evolutions of a hands cannot be placed flat upon the ground; an erect swan when swimming from the movements of the same position is therefore rendered impossible.
bird when it essays to travel upon dry land. In both In fact, when an ape endeavours to stand upright, cases, one would hardly recognise the awkward, the feet can only be placed sideways upon the ground. clumsy animal for the agile, graceful creature which it The movements are consequently so awkward and un- subsequently proves to be; and even Caliban and certain that the animal is obliged to assist itself in its pro- Ariel are hardly more widely different both in movegress by its arms, which are of such length that the fingers ments and appearance, than is the monkey upon land almost touch the ground when their owner is standing from the monkey in the trees. in as erect a position as he is able to assume.
With the large apes, however, the difference is not The Orang-outan, indeed, one of the large apes, so noticeable as with some of the smaller animals of always uses these long arms as crutches when walking the group-such, for example, as the Gibbons,—their
upon a level surface, placing the knuckles of the hands huge weight and clumsy form debarring them from upon the ground, and swinging the body between them. progressing among the branches with the speed and
Unfitted as is this structure, which is common in a agility exhibited by monkeys more delicately and greater or less degree to nearly all the monkeys, for gracefully formed. locomotion upon land, it is not so for their movements The structure of the head, more than all else, bears in their natural home, namely, the forest. The witness to the wide gulf separating the man from the immense strength of the arms, the hand-like structure beast. The jaws form the most prominent feature, of the hinder feet, and even the very form and attitude protruding far in advance of any other part of the face; of the body, are as much adapted to an arboreal life as the teeth are more aptly to be described by the word they are unsuited for an existence spent upon the 'tusks'; the nostrils are placed flat upon the face, the ground.
nose, which gives so much expression to the human Look at a monkey upon a level surface, for instance, countenance, being altogether wanting ; and, mord as it travels awkwardly along, seeming, indeed, scarcely especially, the brain is very small in proportion to the to know what to do with its limbs. Look at the same other parts of the frame. creature when it has gained the branches of some tree, Naturally, the reasoning powers are developed only and is making its way from bough to bough with an in a corresponding degree.
A very mistaken notion appears to prevail that at any rate of the large and powerful apes, are not monkeys are infinitely more clever and intelligent than equal to their physical qualifications. For were these other animals. True, they are crafty and cunning, animals to become aware of their vast strength, and few animals more so; but craft and cunning alone do also to be acquainted with the means of using it to the
not constitute intellect, and if the reasoning powers of best advantage, they would become enemies whose the monkeys be fairly weighed, we shall find that they powers of mischief could scarcely be over-estimated. are far excelled by those of many animals very much As it is, monkeys in their wild state do not seem lower in the order of creation than themselves. to have very much idea of the use of a weapon. Oc
Fortunate is it for mankind that the mental powers, 'casionally, perhaps, one of these animals will lift a stick, and even endeavour to strike with it. But he will have dark, however, in some lights, and becoming of a so little notion of using his strength, that the force of greyish hue upon the cheeks and the top of the head. the blow given will be far less than if the arm and hand Upon the arms it is arranged in a very curious fashion, only had been used.
the hair from the shoulder to the elbow growing in a Again, their power of hurling missiles is very slight, downward direction, while from the elbow to the wrist and indeed by some travellers has been altogether the exact reverse is the case. This arrangement is denied. The late Mr. Charles Waterton was one of probably intended to prevent the long hair of the wrist these, and indignantly repudiated the idea that any from being included in, and so hindering the grasp. monkey could hurl or throw any object whatever in The hand of the gorilla is of tremendous dimensions, any possible manner, Here, however, he was wrong. often attaining to a breadth of nine or ten inches. To That monkeys both can and do hurl missiles can be outward examination the fingers appear to be very easily proved by any visitor to the monkey-house at the short in comparison with the size of the hand. This, Crystal Palace. In one of the large cages there is, or however, is easily accounted for by the fact that they was a short time since, a baboon, together with several are connected by the flesh as far as the base of the monkeys considerably inferior in size to himself. In third joint, instead of to that of the second only, as is order to check his propensity for subjecting his smaller the case with ourselves. comrades to severe bodily castigation, this baboon is The thumbs of the hands themselves are comparafastened by a chain around his body, which obliges tively small in proportion to the size of the fingers, and him to confine his perambulations to a part only of the are not of very great service to the animal. Upon the cage.
feet, however, the corresponding members are of far Naturally enough, his companions know to a fraction greater dimensions, their power of grasp being extremely of an inch the reach of the captive animal when at the great. full stretch of his tether, and never venture inside the The gorilla is an inhabitant of the thick forests of charmed circle. Unable, however, to resist the tempta- that part of Africa known as the Gaboon, where it is tion of insulting the prisoner, they are accustomed to far from uncommon. In spite of its numbers, however, eat nuts, etc., presented by the visitors, an inch or so several causes have prevented any great knowledge without the magic line, knowing that the sight of the being gained with regard to its life and habits. coveted dainties will goad the captive to madness. In the first place, so wary and cautious an animal
In the course of a few seconds their anticipations cannot be approached without great difficulty, more are fulfilled, and the infuriated animal attempts to especially in the dense forests in the gloomiest recesses revenge himself by hurling the straw from the bottom of which it loves to dwell. The snapping of a twig of the cage at his tormentors, plying them with armful would be amply sufficient to alarm the suspicious after armful until the supply is exhausted. An exhibi- animal, and acquaint it with the vicinity of an bition of this nature can be generally produced by
intruder. offering some little dainty to one of the smaller monkeys Then, again, the fierce and savage nature of the in sight of the captive baboon.
animal causes it to be held in such dread that none Mr. A. R. Wallace, also, the well-known traveller and but the most courageous and experienced hunters will naturalist, states, in his work upon the Malay Archi- venture to penetrate into its haunts. Little information, pelago, that he has, upon three occasions at least, too, is to be gathered from the natives, who look upon known the orang-outan to hurl down dead branches, the animal with far greater fear than upon the most etc., upon the heads of its pursuers. Other travellers infuriated lion. also have made similar statements, so that the power The prevailing idea of the native inhabitants appears of monkeys to hurl projectiles, although not perhaps to be that the large apes are not monkeys, but wild with any great force or accuracy of aim, can no longer men, who retire to the woods and feign dumbness in be doubted.
order to avoid being taken captive and made to work. One mode of annoying foes upon the ground is a Some tribes also consider that the gorillas are anivery curious one.
mated by the souls of former savage kings, whose Taught by instinct, monkeys will never trust them- ferocity and love of slaughter continue undiminished. selves upon dead branches. But when they have The disposition of the gorilla alters very greatly at wished to drive away foes beneath them, they have different periods of the animal's existence. While been seen to hang from a sound branch by their hands, still young, before the savage instincts have had suffiand swing themselves repeatedly towards a dead cient time to become fully developed, the character of branch, striking it violently with their feet at every the ape is comparatively mild and gentle. Gena,' ' swing, and repeating the process until the branch was the last gorilla brought to England, for example, was snapped and fell to the ground.
of a fairly peaceable disposition, the chimpansee who To return to our gorilla.
bore her company being far more prone than herself The size of this ape, like that of the elephant, has to fits of passion. 'Gena,' however, was quite young, been greatly exaggerated by many travellers. Six, and had she lived, would probably have become seven, and even eight feet have been mentioned as the terribly morose and sullen by gradual degrees, just as height to which the animal attains, whereas the average has been the case with all the other apes which have is little more than five feet, even a large male seldom been taken while young, and bred up in captivity. As reaching five feet six inches in height. However, a the bodily powers increase, the mental attributes promonkey only five feet high is a very large animal, and portionately diminish, the intelligence of the baby ape when the breadth of body and length of arm, and the being far superior to that of the adult animal. almost herculean strength of its limbs, are taken into Like many animals of the monkey tribe, the gorilla account, it may easily be imagined that an infuriated seldom lives for very long when kept in captivity. Its gorilla is by no means an insignificant foe.
constitution seldom enables it to withstand the change The hair is almost black in colour, appearing less of climate, and it inevitably succumbs, before many
months are over, to the great foe of the monkey race years the gorilla was thought to be nothing more than in this country, namely, consumption.
an adult chimpansee. As to the habits of the gorilla in its purely wild state, An unfailing point of distinction, however, may be found it is not likely that we shall ever know much about in the ears. These, in the gorilla, lie close to the head, them.
and are as small and well-shaped as those of many a Its instinctive wariness enables it to detect the ap- human being. In the chimpansee, however, these proach of an enemy at a considerable distance, and, organs are of far greater size, and stand out boldly like the elephant under similar circumstances, it can from the head, giving an expression to the face which slip away so quietly that a traveller might pass through at once distinguishes it from that of the gorilla. a spot which was tenanted by the apes only few Similar as they are in appearance, however, in habits minutes before, and fancy that not a gorilla could be they are very different. The gorilla is an inhabitant found within miles around.
of the forest, like nearly all the members of the tribe, Moreover, like the monkey tribe in general, the spending almost the whole of its existence among the gorilla is ever on the move, so that a colony of these branches, and only descending to the ground when apes is an impossibility. The gorilla seems to live in obliged. But the chimpansee forms an exception to families, and the whole family moves about together, the general rule, and is a dweller upon the ground, led by the parents until the young are old enough to taking up its abode in rocky and precipitous neighleave their parents and set up in life for themselves. hoods. The title 'Troglodytes' has been applied to the
Again, the districts which these creatures inhabit are genus on account of the dwelling-places selected by this of such a character that no white man could live long animal, that word signifying a diver into caverns,' enough to make trustworthy investigations, even if he and therefore being very appropriate. succeeded in evading the vigilance of the apes. The It may be imagined that an animal dwelling in so pure West African negro might do so, but his intellect comparatively exposed a situation would be particuis quite inadequate to the task.
larly liable to the attacks of the larger Carnivora. No Nor is there much likelihood of watching their single chimpansee would be a match for a lion, or even habits in captivity, as the European climate is quite for a leopard, for its strength, great as it is, would be unsuitable to the gorilla. It requires a temperature of little use against the fangs and talons of its oppo far above that which is needed by most monkeys, and nent. it must have plenty of space and abundance of warm However, the chimpansee, unlike the gorilla, which and constantly changing air.
is more or less a solitary animal, recognises the prinThe chimpansee Tommy' who lived for some years ciple that unity is strength, and accordingly congrein the Crystal Palace, retained perfect health during gates into small flocks, the members of which combine his captive life, simply because Mr. F. W. Wilson, who for purposes both of offence and defence. Not even took charge of him, fulfilled both these conditions. the elephant, huge and powerful as it is, can stand Had he not perished in the fire which consumed the against the onslaught of a band of these animals, which tropical department, he might have been alive at the can collectively bid defiance to any foe excepting man present time.
himself. The gorilla, however, requires much more care than Like most animals which congregate together for the chimpansee. When the young gorilla, 'Gena,' mutual protection, the chimpansees post sentinels at was at the Crystal Palace in August, 1879, she never intervals round the camp, in order to give early warnseemed to be warm enough. Even at night, when put ing of the approach of any foe. Should an enemy be into her travelling cage and placed near a stove, she seen, the nearest sentry gives notice of the impending always pressed herself against the bars, and held her danger by means of a sharp, shrill cry, the meaning of little black paws as close to the stove as they could which is perfectly understood by every member of the reach.
band. A conversation is then kept up, in the peculiar The only plan whereby there would be any hope of barking cry of the animals, until the onslaught takes preserving the life of a gorilla in this country would be place, or the foe listens to the dictates of prudence and to build a large and thick-walled house expressly for retraces his steps. the purpose. An equable temperature of not less than According to the reports of the natives, the chim759 Fahr. would be required, and there must be an pansees construct huts for themselves, which are ample supply of air constantly driven through it. inhabited by the females and the young, the males
Equability of temperature is a necessity. Once, at keeping guard upon the roof. These stories have not the Crystal Palace, while Gena was there, a sudden as yet been verified; but as the orang-outan, a shower came on.
A sharp N.E. wind was blowing, closely-allied ape, is known to weave similar structures and the evaporation over the immense roof cooled the in the trees, there is at least a likelihood that such may air so fast that the temperature fell more than 20° in be the case with the chimpansee. One species of a very short space of time.
chimpansee certainly does construct a roof, under Gena seemed to be quite paralyzed by the change, which it sits. against which no one could have guarded, and indeed The food of the chimpansee seems to be entirely of she never seemed to recover the shock. I had the a vegetable nature, the animal subsisting chiefly upon opportunity of inspecting her after death, and saw that fruit of various sorts. Consequently, it is a terrible one lung was entirely useless and the other nearly so. foe to agriculturists who are unfortunate enough to
possess plantations near the haunts of the animal, the ANOTHER African ape is the Chimpansee (Troglo- apes stripping them of their produce as soon as the dytes niger), which inhabits the same parts of Africa
fruit ripens. as the gorilla. Except in inferiority of size, it is by no The chimpansee appears to be a somewhat longmeans unlike that animal; for which, especially while lived animal, as it does not attain to maturity until young, it might easily be mistaken. Indeed, for many after attaining the age of nine or ten years. A speci