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am not certain that it is equally impossible to exempt
the lower classes of mankind from poverty; because though whatever be the wealth of the community, some will always have least, and he that has less than any other is comparatively poor; yet 1 do not see any co-active necessity that many should be without the indispensable conveniences of life ; but am sometimes inclined to imagine, that, casual calamities excepted, there might, by universal prudence, be procured an universal exemption from want ; and that he who should happen to have least, might notwithstanding have enough.
But without entering too far into speculations which I do not remember that any political cal. culator has attempted, and in which the most perspicacious reasoner may be easily bewildered, it is evident that they to whom Providence has allotted no other care but of their own fortune and their own virtue, which make far the greater part of mankind, have sufficient incitements to personal frugality: since, whatever might be its general effect upon provinces or nations, by which it is never likely to be tried, we know with certainty that there is scarcely any individual entering the world, who, by prudent parsimony, may not reasonably promise himself a cheerful competence in the decline of life.
The prospect of penury in age is so gloomy and terrifying, that every man who looks before him must resolve to avoid it; and it must be avoided generally by the science of sparing. For, though in every age there are some, who by bold adven.
tures, or by favourable accidents, rise suddenly to riches, yet it is dangerous to indulge hopes of such rare events : and the bulk of mankind must owe their affluence to small and gradual profits, below which their expence must be resolutely reduced.
You must not therefore think me sinking below the dignity of a practical philosopher, when I recommend to the consideration of your readers, from the statesman to the apprentice, a position replete with mercantile wisdom, A penny saved is two-pence got ; which may, I think, be accommodated to all conditions, by observing not only that they who pursue any lucrative employment will save time when they forbear expence, and that the time may be employed to the increase of profit; but that they who are above such minute considerations, will find, by every victory over appetite or passion, new strength added to the mind, will gain the power of refusing those solicitations by which the young and vivacious are hourly assaulted, and in time set themselves above the reach of extravagance and folly.
It may, perhaps, be inquired by those who are willing rather to cavil than to learn, what is the just measure of frugality ? and when expence, not absolutely necessary, degenerates into profusion? To such questions no general answer can be returned ; since the liberty of spending, or necessity of parsimony, may be varied without end by different circumstances. It
may, however, be laid down as a rule never to be broken, that a man's voluntary expence should not exceed his revenue-a maxim so obvious and incontrovertible, that the civil law ranks the prodigal with the mauman, and debars them equally from the conduct of their own affairs. Another precept arising from the former, and indeed included in it, is yet necessary to be distinctly impressed upon the warm, the fanciful, and the brave ; Let no man anticipate uncertain profits. Let no man presume so spend upon hopes, to trust his own abilities for means of deliverance from penury, to give a loose to his present desires, and leave the reckoning to fortune or to virtue.
To these cautions, which, I suppose, are, at least among the graver part of mankind, undis. puted, I will add another, Let no man squander against his inclination. With this precept it may be, perhaps, imagined easy to comply ; yet if those whom profusion has buried in prisons, or driven into banishment, were examined, it would be found that very few were ruined by their own choice, or purchased pleasure with the loss of their estates; but that they suffered themselves to be borne away by the violence of those with whom they conversed, and yielded reluctantly to a thousand prodigalities, either from a trivial emulation of wealth and spirit, or a mean fear of contempt and ridicule ; an emulation for the prize of folly, or the dread of the laugh of fools.
I am, Sir, your humble Servant,
N° 58, SATURDAY, OCTOBER 6. 17:50.
But, while in heaps his wicked wealth ascends,
He is not of his wish possess'd ;
AS the love of money has been, in all ages, one
of the passions that have given great disturbance to the tranquillity of the world, there is no topick more copiously treated by the ancient moralists than the folly of devoting the heart to the accumulation of riches. They who are acquainted with these authors need not be told how riches incite pity, contempt, or reproach, whenever they are mentioned ; with what numbers of examples the danger of large possessions is illustrated ; and how all the powers of reason and eloquence have been exhausted in endeavours to eradicate a desire, which seems to have intrenched itself too strongly in the mind to be driven out, and which, perhaps, had not lost its power, even over those who declaimed against it, but would Vel. 11.
have broken out in the poet or the sage, if it had been excited by opportunity, and invigorated by the approximation of its proper object.
Their arguments have been, indeed, so unsuccessful, that I know not whether it can be shewn, that by all the wit and reason which this favourite cause has called forth, a single convert was ever made ; that even one man has refused to be rich, when to be rich was in his
from the conviction of the greater happiness of a narrow fortune ; or disburdened himself of wealth, when he had tried its inquietudes, merely to enjoy the peace, and leisure, and security, of a mean and unenvied state.
It is true, indeed, that many have neglected opportunities of raising themselves to honours and to wealth, and rejected the kindest offers of fortune ; but, however their moderation may be boasted by themselves, or admired by such as only view them at a distance, it will be, perhaps, seldom found that they value riches less, but that they dread labour or danger more than others : they are unable to rouse themselves to action, to strain in the race of competition, or to stard the shock of contest ; but though they, therefore, decline the toil of climbing, they nevertheless wish themselves aloft, and would willingly enjoy what they dare not seize.
Others have retired from high stations, and voluntarily condemned themselves to privacy and obscurity. But, even these will not afford many occasions of triumph to the philosopher ; for they have commonly either quitted that only which they thought themselves unable to hold, and prevented