Page images

the voyage ends, at 3 per cent: For what sum must he take out a policy to cover the whole round? Ans. $5652.01664.

10. A merchant in London insures 10111. 185. 8d. to Hama burgh at 25 per cent. thence to Surinam at 7 per cent. thence to Liverpool at 5 per cent. and thence to Boston, where the voyage ceases, at 4 per cent. Required the amount that will cover this adventure all round, with 2 per cent in case of loss ?

Ans. 12501. VI. When a sum is adventured from one port to another as in the

last case, either at the same, or different risks, to find the rate per cent. of premium for the voyage round, tante mount

to the several given rates per cent RULE. Find a by the last : then a

-8 Xx


EXAMPLE. 11. Take the amount of the 9 quest. $5652.01664=a. Sum adventured,


5652.01664) 652.11064X100. Tantemount to all the risks,

11.536 per cent. VII. If a policy be taken out for a given sum to cover a certain

adventure from one port to another, or to several ports, at equal premiums for each risk, to find what that equal premi

um is.


RULE. *-">$**"

=r= the rate per cent of premium.

EXAMPLE. 12. A. in Alexandria, adventures 84805 to Leith ; from thence to Jamaica ; from thence home : to cover which he took out a policy for $5604.3125, and the premium was equal from one place to the other : What was the rate per cent of premium?


5 per cent. VIII. When a ship or an adventure is insured out and home at one risk, at a given rate per cent. and that the


termic nates short of what was at first intended, to find what proportion the underwriters must receive per cent.

RULE 1.- If half the voyage is performed, it must be con. sidered as at two equal risks, if one third at three, if one fourth at four, &c.and by case II. find a=amount to be insured.

2. Find by case VII. what the underwriters must receive

per cent.

EXAMPLE. 13. Admit that a merchant of Amsterdam covers 20000 guilders, at 6 per cent. to Bourdeaux and back again, but the voyage ending there : It is required to find what the insurer must receive per cent ? Ans. 3 guild: 14,88 pennings per cent.

GENERAL AVERAGE. Average signifies a mean proportion of loss between the owners of goods thrown overboard in a storm in order to preserve the remainder, with the ship and lives of the men.

Ships on their voyages are exposed to storms, and often saved from perishing by cutting some of the masts, &c. away, or by casting goods overboard to lighten them, this measure is therefore allowed, and is justified by law and custom, in cases of imminent danger.

However, to make these acts legal, the three following essential cases ought to concur.

1st. The ship must be in evident hazard of perishing with the cargo and crew.

2d. The resolution the commander takes on this melan. choly occasion, should be in consequence of a consultation held with his officers and sailors.

3d. That the ship ‘and cargo, or the part of them that are saved, has been in consequence of the means used, done with that sole view.

Hence, it must be concluded, that all the expence and sacrifices, which are so made to prevent a total loss of ship and cargo, ought to be equally borne, by the ship and her remaining cargo.

EXAMPLES. 1. A schooner from Charleston, bound to New-York, lost her masts by stress of weather, in consequence of which, the master and crew were under the necessity to run her ashore on Cape Charles in order to preserve their lives and the cargo, the expence and damage sustained on this occasion was $525.

Form of average account. A's goods

$2400 If 7500 : 525 :: 1:.07 then B's goods 960

[Com. Insured by N. Y.Ins. Com.3360 3360 X.07=235.50=loss to In. A's own risk

6001 600 X.07 = 42.00=loss to A. B's own risk

540 540 X.07= 37.80=loss to B. Value of the goods 45001 Value of the schooner 2250 2250X.07=157.50=loss to sc. Amount of freight

750 750 X.07= 52.50=loss to fr.

75001 Proof, 525.00 2. The ship Maria Adelaide, from London to Philadelphia, meeting with such a storm at sea, that the officers and men found it impossible to save her without throwing part of the cargo overboard, which they did as follows, viz. 20 chests marked TS. No. 1 to 20, containing muskets ; 25 casks,marked AW. No. 1 to 25, containing shot ; and 14 trunks, marked SB. No. 1

[ocr errors]

ta 14, containing books, &c. thus lightening her and the storm abating they after a few weeks arrived at the destined port, where an average bill was made in order to adjust the loss, and was stated thus :

Average accruing to the ship Maria Adelaide, from London to Philadelphia, for goods thrown overboard for the preservation of the ship, freight, remainder of the cargo, and lives of the crew. T. S. No. 1 to 100. 100 chests, containing

$18000 0 0 6000 muskets, at $3 per musket.

A. W. No. 1 to 25. containing 25 tons of} 3500 0 0 shot at 8140 per ton. S. B. No. 1 to 14 containing books, &c. a

4362 mounting to J. A. No. 1 to 86. 86 packages dry goods

27506 amounting to W. M. No. 1 to 51. 51 trunks of sundries

14150 amounting: to B. R. & Co. No. 1 to 107. 107 packages of

19837 sundries amounting to Freight on goods


815 Provisions for ditto


3795 Ship Maria Adelaide valued at

13050 The value of all the property concerned 104200 T. S. part of his goods thrown overboard valued at $3600 A. W. his goods thrown overboard valued at 3500 S. B. his ditto


The whole amount of loss

11462 What is the average per cent, and what proportion of the loss must each sustain ? Average

11 per cent. T. S. his remainder of goods must pay $1584.00 J. A. his amount of goods must pay

3025.66 W. M. ditto

1556.50 Ans. B. R. & Co. ditto

2182.07 Freight must pay

417.45 Ship must pay

1435.50 Underwriters (if insured) must pay


proof 11462.00 3. R ship Hero, laden with tobacco from City-Point in length

mes bound to Hamburgh, ran ashore on the banks affectatio The master after expending $5331 for

N2 20 f




lighters and laborer's hire, got again to sea and finally arri. ved safe at Hamburgh, where he entered a protest, after which and other necessary arrangements, an average account was thus stated.

Average accrued to ship Hero from City-Point to Ham. burgh, for lighters and men to get her off the banks of Newfoundland.

Paid sundry charges at Placentia for lighters and men to assist in get-$512 ting off the ship. Protest and other charges

213 The whole loss is

5331=m. b. 1600 280 hhds. tobacco, valued at

m. b. 120000 Freight on do. at 63s. ster. per hhd. ex

11760 change on Lon. 35 s. flem. per £. ster.

Wages and provisions for the crew amounting to 8720 exchange at 33


9600 Ship Hero valued at

30400 Value of all the property concerned

160000 I demand the rate per cent of average, and the proportion of loss to be paid by each species of property?

(Average Ans. Cargo must pay

m. b. 1200 Freight ditto

96 Ship ditto

304 proof 1600

[ocr errors]

1 per cent.

[ocr errors][merged small]



Cross multiplication is a rule made use of by workmen and artificers in computing the contents of their work.

Dimensions are generally taken in feet, inches, and parts. Inches and parts are sometimes called primes, seconds, thirds, &c. and are marked thus : inches or primes ("), seconds ("), thirds ("), fourths ("!!'), &c. Rule-Feet multiplied by feet, produce feet.

Feet multiplied by inches, produce inches.
Feet multiplied by seconds, produce seconds,
Inches multiplied by inches, produce seconds.
Inches multiplied by seconds, produce thirds.
Seconds multiplied by seconds, produce fourths, &c.

EXAMPLES. 1. Let 7 feet 5 inches 9 parts be multiplied by 3 feet 5 in. ches 3 parts.

ft. in
17 5 911
'3 5 3

22 5 3
3 4 9111

1 10 5 3111

25 8 6 2 3 2. Multiply 97 feet 8 inches by 8 feet 9 inches.

Ans. 854 feet 7 inches. 3. Let 8 feet 4 inches 3 parts or seconds 5 thirds 6 fourths be multiplied by 3 feet 3 inches 7 seconds 8 thirds 2 fourtbs.

Ans. 27 ft. 7 in. 3-2ds. 5-3ds. 1-4th. 8-5ths. 8-6ths. 11-7ths.

4. Multiply 321 feet 7 inches 3 parts, by 9 feet 3. inches 6. parts. Ans. 2988 ft. 2 in. 10 sec. 4 thirds 6 fourths. 5. Multiply 124 feet 7 inches 9 parts, by 14 feet 6 inches

Ans. 1809 ft. lin. 1 sec. 9 thirds 6 fourths.

SUPERFICES. 0 3. Regu length of parallelogram; whether

it be a square, u a . -Multiply ne length by the perpendicular height, 201

be the area.


[ocr errors]

the area
a rectangle,


« PreviousContinue »