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both adulterated with inferior grain, husks of seeds, and even dust of a variety of descriptions. Having your pepper-mill, purchase the seed whole, and grind for yourself. You will then ohtain the pure article at a moderate cost.

2500. Oatmeal is adulterated with barley flour and the husks of barley. A pint of pure oatmeal will weigh heavier than a pint of the adulterated.

2501. Pickles And Preserves.— These are found to bo adulterated with various compounds; but the greatest evil lies in the fact that they are frequently impregnated with copper. To detect this, put some of the pickle, cut small, into a phial with two or three drachms of liquid ammonia, diluted with one half the quantity of water. Shake the phial, when, if the minutest portion of copper be present, the liquid will assume a fine blue colour. In the case of preserves, the copper probably proceeds from the use of copper pans in making the preserves; but with regard to pickles, copper is employed to improve their colour, and sulphuric acid to strengthen bad vinegar. The best way is to avoid purchasing the pickles sold in clear glass bottles, and presenting a most tempting appearance. Take your own jar, or jars, and you will find that you will get pure articles at little more than it would cost you to make pickles at home. "We presume that in all large towns the pickle merchants adopt the same plan of selling pickles by the quart or gallon to those who may visit their establishments; and also vhat preserves (for those who do not make their own) may be obtained under equal advantages.

2502. Potted Meats And Fish are adulterated with inferior substances, and coloured with bole armenian and Venetian red.

2503. Porter And Ale are adulterated with coceulus indicus, tobacco, grains of paradise, capsicum, ginger, quassia, wormwood, calamus root, carraway and coriander seeds, orange powder, liquorice, honey, sulphate of iron,

sulphuric acid, cream of tartar, alum, carbonate of potash, oyster shells, hartshorn shavings, fabia amara, or nux vo» mica, and beans for fining. Beer which is quickly "heady," and rapidly intoxicating, may be regarded as drugged. The large brewers supply the purest beer. The publicans adulterate it after they receive supplies from the brewers.

2504. Rum is adulterated with water, and sharpened with cayenne pepper. Let it stand in a decanter, and if a cloudy precipitate is found at the bottom, that is a sign of adulteration.

2505. Sausages.—The most offensive of all adulterations are found in these savory morsels. Horseflesh, diseased animals, and odds and ends of every description appear in the tempting guise of "sausages." To escape this evil, make your own sausages by the aid of the sausage machine, which may be purchased for 30s., and will enable you to add many savory morsels to the attraction of your table. Tho same machine may be used for ChopPing Vegetables, which it will do to such perfection that they will perfectly dissolve in soups and stews, and afford most delicious made-dishes. And in this, as in the grinding of wheat, you will soon save tho cost of tho machine.

2506. Snuff is adulterated with the chromate of potash, chromate of lead, various earths and colours, red lead, carbonate of ammonia, lime, powdered glass or silex, and powdered orris root.

2507. Sugar is commonly adulterated with fine sand, sawdust, &o. Dissolvo some of the sugar in a long, narrow ale-glass, and stirituntil all tho soluble parts have been thoroughly dissolved. Then allow it to stand for some hours. Sand will sink to the bottom, while sawdust will rise to the surface. Both the sand and the sawdust will be found to be very fine, but their presence will be sufficiently indicated. Loaf sugar is generally' purer than moist sugar.

2508. Tea is adulterated with

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leaves of the sycamore, horse-chestnut, and plum; with lye tea, which is made up of tea-dust, sand, and gum, to give it consistency ; also with leaves of the beech, bastard plane, elm, poplar, willow, fancy oak, hawthorn, and sloe. It is coloured with blacklead, rose pink, Dutch pink, vegetable red and yellow dyes, arsenite of copper, chromate and bichromate of potash. Green teas are more adulterated than black. They are coloured with Prussian blue, turmeric, Chinese yellow, &c, flavoured with sulphate of iron, catechu gum, la veno beno, and Chinese botanical powder. Tea leaves that have been once used are collected, "doctored," and again sold as fresh tea. Obtain some genuine leaves of tea, moisten them, and lay them out with gum upon paper. Press them between the leaves of books until dry. When you suspect a sample of tea, damp and unroll the leaves, and gum and dry them as the genuine ones,—you will then be able, by comparison, to detect the admixture.

2509. Tobacco is adulterated with rhubarb, potato, coltsfoot, dock leaves, sawdust, malt combings, and medicinals. The leaves may be unrolled and compared, as recommended in the case of tea.

2510. Wises are adulterated with the juice of elderberries, gooseberries, hop champagne, cider, the juices of various fruits, known as British wines, and coloured by means of logwood, burnt sugar, and other ingredients.

2511. The Result of these inquiries provesthat a majority of articles sold are adulterated. But it is also proved that a majority of the substances used for adulterations are not positively injurious, though they are fraudulently substituted for the genuine article.

2512. The Following Are Iiints which, if acted upon, will turn these discoveries to practical account:—

i. Grind your own wheat, and mate your tread al home.

ii. Avoid green pickles; thai is,

bright

pickles artificially raised to green.

iii. Avoid bright-red peppers, spices, and sauces.

iv. Purchase spirits and beer of large dealers and brewers.

v. Avoid coloured confections,especially those that are green, blue, or red.

vi. Weigh and measure your purchases when they are brought home. You will thus not only secure your just amount, but will arrive at a knowledge of the proper weights of pure articles, and be assisted in the rejection of the spurious.

2513. Bread contains eighty nutritious parts in 100; meal, thirty-four in 100; French beans, ninety-two in 100; common beans, eighty-nine in 100; peas, ninety-three in 100; lentils, ninety-four in 100; cabbages and turnips, the most aqueous of all tho vegetables compared, produce only eight pounds of solid matter in 100 pounds; carrots and spinach produce fourteen in the same quantity; whilst 100 pounds of potatoes contain twentyfive pounds of dry substance. From a general estimate it results, that one pound of good bread is equal to two pounds and a half or three pounds of potatoes; that seventy-five pounds of bread and thirty of meat may be substituted for 300 pounds of potatoes. The other substances bear the following proportions; four parts of cabbage to one of potatoes; three parts of turnips to one of potatoes; two parts of carrots and spinach to one of potatoes; and about three parts and a half of potatoes to one of rice, lentils, beans, French beans, and dry peas.

2514. Use of Fruit.—Instead of standing in any fear of a generou3 consumption of ripe fruits, wo regard them as conducive to health. We have no patience in reading the endless rules to be observed in this particular department of physical comfort. No one ever lived longer or freer from disease, by discarding the fruits of the land in which he finds a home. On the contrary, they are necessary to the pre

354 HE WHO SERIES WELL NEED NOT BE AFRAID TO ASK 1118 WAGES.

servation of health, and are therefore designed to make their appearance at the very time when the condition of the body, operated upon by deteriorating causes not always understood, requires their renovating influences.

2515. Blackberries are very beneficial in cases of dysentery. The berries are healthful eating. Tea made of the roots and leaves is good; and syrup made from the berries excellent.

2516. "Morning's Milk," says an eminent German philosopher, "commonly yields soino hundredths more cream than the evening's at the same l That milked at noon furnishes the least; it would therefore be of advantage, in making butter, &c, to employ th e morning's milk, and keep the evening's for domestic use."

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