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Ind L 4005.21



Páli Studies. No. 1.-By Major G. E. FRYER, Deputy Commissioner,

British Burma.


It was the practice amongst members of the early Buddhist church when entering the priesthood to discard their patronymic, and to adopt a priestly title, under which it was not always easy to recognize their identity. Thus it was with the subject of the present sketch, of whom nothing was known, except that he was the author of Vuttodaya. Another of his works, however, (Sambandhacintá) recently procured, has a postscript which explains that Sangharakkhita Thera, the 'Protected of the Congregation', was Moggallána, the learned Páli Grammarian and Lexicographer, who flourished in Ceylon towards the close of the twelfth century, and that he was also known as Medhankara of Udumbaragiri, the glomerous figtree hill. Moreover, it appears elsewhere, that he was the disciple of the distinguished Sáriputta, who adopted the title Síla Thera. Moggallána appears to have carried his literary activity with him into the cloister; for under his priestly title of Sangharakkhita he wrote the following treatises, of which the two first. are in verse

1. Subodhálankára, 'Easy Rhetoric'.
2, Vuttodaya, 'Exposition of Metre'.

3. Khuddasikkhá Tíká, a gloss in prose on Dhammasiri's Khudda

sikkhá, Minor duties' (incumbent on a priest).

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4. Sambandhacintá, Reflections on Relation' (of cases); a small work containing metrical maxims on construction, interspersed with comments and illustrations in prose.

An analysis of the first of these is here offered to the notice of the reader. The text which follows, has been prepared from two Páli MSS. in the Burmese character, in the writer's possession. One-a Mandalay copywas procured at Maulmain; the other-the more perfect of the two-came from Rangoon. The work is written on eleven palm leaves twenty inches long, with nine lines to the leaf.

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Notices of Vuttodaya, and Sambandhacintá, it is hoped, will follow shortly, but as Khuddasikkhá Tíká is not included in the series, the author's Introduction to it, and the postscript are here subjoined.


1. Tilokatilakam vande saddhammámatanimmitam
samsurukkaṭhasampatti jinam janamanorammam.
2. Sariputtam mahasámi 'nekasativisáradam

maháguṇam mahápuññam namo me sírasá gurum.
3. Khuddasikkháya ṭiká yá purátaná samíritá

na táya sakká sakkaccam attho sabbattha ñátave, 4. tato 'nekagunánayo manjúsáratanán ' iva

Sumangalo 'ssa námena tena paññavatá sutá,
5. ajjhesito yatindena sadáraññanivásiná

suvinicchayam etissa karissám' atthovanṇanam.


yen' antatantaratanákaramanthanena

manthácalollasitañáṇavarena laddhá

• sára matá' ti sukkhitá sukhayanti c'aññe
te me jayanti guravo guravo gunehi

"paratthasam pádanato puññenâdhigaten' aham
paratthasam pádanako bhaveyyam játijátiyam.”
sisso áha.

paramappicchatanekasantos opasamesinam
sucisallekhavuttinam sadáraññanivásinam ;
sásanujjotakárinam averattam upágatam
Udumbaragiri khyáta yatanam yatipungavam;
'Medhankaro' iti khyátam námadheyyam tapodhanam
theram dhíradayámedhaniṭhánam sádhupújitam :
nissáya piyam piyan tam mittam kalyanam attano
sodhetum sásanam satthu parakkamam akási yo ;
susaddasiddhi yo yoganicchayam sabbivaṇnitam
aká Subodhálankáram Vuttodayam anákulam,

Sangharakkhittanámena mahátherena dhímatá
nivásabhutenánekaguṇánam 'ppicchatádinam;
tenâyam racitá sádhu sásanodayakárina
Khuddasikkháya tikáyam Sumangalapasádiní.

The couplet in italics commencing "susaddasiddhi " thus appears in the postscript to Sambandhacintá :

yoganiccham Moggallánam yam gandham Kabbivaṇņitam
Subodhâlankáram Vuttodayam sattham anákulam.

In other respects the postscripts are nearly the same.


SUBODHAʼLANKA'RA, or 'Easy Rhetoric', is a metrical treatise of 370 verses, divided into five chapters which treat of the following subjects, namely :

1. Faults in Composition.


Their avoidance.


Merits, or Verbal Ornaments.

4. Rhetorical Figures, or Ornaments of the Sense. 5. Flavour.

These subjects will be found discussed at some length in the seventh, eighth, tenth, and third chapters of the Sanskrit work on Rhetorical Composition, the Sahitya-Darpana or Mirror of Composition', by Vis'wanátha Kavirája-circa 9th or 10th century.


The Páli treatise in common with the Sanskrit one opens with an Invocation to the goddess of Speech thus:

May Váni the beautiful, born in the lotus womb of the mouth of the Chief of Sages, the refuge of mortals, irradiate my mind, v. 1.

The object of the work is then declared :—

Although there are excellent ancient treatises on Rhetoric by Rámasamma and others, yet they are not adapted for the Mágadha people, v. 2.

It is, therefore, hoped the present attempt at a suitable Rhetoric may be acceptable to them, v. 3.

The author then states that he has not consulted the works of writers on the minor poems (kabba), nor the drama (náṭaka), as they are not esteemed, v. 6. That a combination of words and meanings faultless with (merits or verbal ornaments) is composition (bandha), which is threefold, being metrical (pajja); in prose (gajja); and in a mixture of both, v. 8. It is further divided into continuous composition (nibandha), and non-continuous composition (anibandha, each of which is pleasing if embellished with ornament, v. 9. Verbal Ornament (Chap. 3) and Ornament

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