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eccentricity W the thought occasioned it- immediately to be adopted; and its apparent impossibility wad but a spur for putting it into execution. The boat was ordered, and; with proper implements for the attempt, these enterprizing heroes puttied astiore, to drink a bow! of par>ch on the top of Pompey's Piifa'r! At the spot they arrived; and many contrivance* vrere proposed to accomplish the desired point. Rut tleir labolir was vain; and they began to-de2fpaif of (access, when the genius ■who struck out the frolic hs'ppiTy suggested the means of performing it. A man was dispatched to the city for a-paper kite. The inha*bitants were by this time apprized of "what was going forward,- and flacked in crowds to bewitnesses of the address and boldness of the English. The Governor of Alexandria was told that these seamen were about to pull down' Fompey's Pillar. Rut 'whether he gave them credit for their respect to the Roman ■warrior, or to the Turkish government, he left them to themselves, and politely answered, that the English were too great patriots to injure the remains -of Pompe/. He knew little, however, of the disposition of the" people who were engaged in this undertaking. Had the Turkish empire rose in opposition, it would not, perhaps, at that moment have deterred them. The kite was brought, and flown so directly over the pillar, that when it fell on the other side, the string lodged upon the capital. The chief obstacle was now overcome. A two inch rope was tied to one end of the string, and drawn over the pillar by the end (o which the kite was affixed. By
this rope one of the searhe/t ascend* ed to the top, and in lefi than an hour a kind of shroud was constructed, by which the whole company went up, and drank- theit punch amid the ihouts of the astonished multitude1. To the eye below, the capital of tne pillar does not appear capable of holding more than one man upon it; but our seamen found it could contain no less than eight persons very conveniently.' It is astonishing tltat no accident befel these madcaps, in a situation • so elevated, that would have turned a laudman giddy in his -sober fenses. The only detriment which live pillar received, was the loss of the volute before mentioned ; , which oroe down with a thundering found, and was carried to England* by one of the captains,, as a present to a lady who commissioned him fora piece' of the pillar. The discovery which they m:idc, amply compensated for this mischief; a; without their evidence, the world would not have known at this hour, that these was originally a statue on this pillar, one foot and ancle of which are still remaining. The statue was, probably, of Pompey himself; and must have been of a gigantic size, to have appeared of a man's proportion at so great an height.
There are circumstances in this story which might give it an air of ficlion, were it not demonstrated beyond all doubt. Resides the testimonies of many eye-witnesses, the adventurers themselves have left us a token of the fact, by the initials of their names, which are very legible in bhek paint just beneath the capital. » *
Exemplary lujiance of Justice hi the present King of Pruliia. . .
ONE John Michael Arnold, a miller, had bought the kale of a mill, belonging to the estate of Count Schmettau of Pomrherxig., situated in the New Marche of Brandenburgh, near the city of Cultrin, and known in that province under the name of the Fommer/iger Kreb's Mil). This mill, at the time when- Mr. Arnold bought the iMse of it, was plentifully supplied with water, by a rivulet which empties itself into the river Warta. During six years, Mr. Arnold bad made various improvements in the laid mill, aud, by menus of his labour and industry, had been enabled to pay his rent regularly, and to acquire a sufficiency for the maintenance ef his family. At the end of that periods about four years ago, the, proprietor of the said mill resolved to enlarge a tilh-pond contiguous to his feat, and caused a canal' to be cut from the said, rivulet, at a small distance above the mill, to supply, hi* filh-pond with water. By these means the current of the stream was lellbned, and the quan-i tity of water to much diuoinilhcd, that the mill could no longer do the usual work. J
Tlw miller had foreseen the event, and from the beginning had; remonstrated against the cutting of the canal. But Ids remonstrances, as well as his solicitations for cancelling the lease, proving in vain, he was at last forced to seek redress in a court of judicature at Cutlrin, to whose cognizance the affair belonged: but Ju£ lord being a man of for
tune and consequence in that province, soon found means to frustrate his endeavours. He continued to .enlarge his fisli-pond, > sot that the.miller, instead, of find-, ing redress,, found his weter daiiy decreasing to such a degree, that at last he could only work .during two ov three weeks in .spring,.and about; as many in die latter part of the year. . • .
Under these circumstances, the miller could no sengcr procure his livelihood, and pay his rent, and consequently became indebted to his lord for a considerable sum. The latter; in order to obtain hU rent, entered a suit against him iu the same court os law at Cultrin, which had .betore refused relief to the miller, and soon obtained a sentence, against the miller's effects; which sentence being approved of and ratified in the High Court of Appeal* at Merlin, was put into execution. . The miller's lease, utensils, goods, and chattels, were seized, aud; sold, in order to pay the arrears of rent, and the c :<pences of a most iniquitous law. suit; aud thus poor Arnold and his family were reduced to want and wretchedness.
A glaring injustice, of that kind could not pals unnoticed by seme friends to humanity, who well knew the benevolent aud equitable intentions of their sovereign* They advised and aslitied the miller to lay his case before the king. His majesty, struck with the simplicity of the narrative, and the injustice that had apparently been committed, resolved to inquire minutely into this,atfair, and if the miller's assertions were founded in truth, to punilh, in au exem.
plary manner, the authors and promoters of such an unjust sentence.
The king accordingly made inquiries, and the informations he received corroborated the miller's narrative. His majesty afterwards ordered the Register of his High Court of Appeals, as also aft the memorials and pleadings of the laid law-suit, to be laid before him, which he revised himself, astisted by an eminent lawyer; and that nothing might be wanting, his majesty sent a person of confidence to Custrin, with orders to survey the said mill, the rivulet, and the new canal, as also to inquire into the miller's' character, his former ■ situation in life; the true cause of his failure, and all other circumstances attending this affair. And after being fully convinced, as well from the report of the said commissioner, as also from the papers laid before him, that the sentence against the said miller Arnold was an act of the most singular injustice and oppression, his majesty immediately dictated and signed his resolutions thereupon.
On the next day the king ordered hi* high chancellor, baron Furst, as also Messrs. Christ. Eman. Friedell, Henry Lewis Graun, and John Lewis Ranfleben, the three counsellors learned in law, who, together with the chancellor, had signed and approved the said sentence, into his cabinet, and on their arrival his majesty put the following questions to them:
When a lord takes from a peasant, who rents apiece of ground under him, his waggon, horse, plough, and other utensils, by
which he earns his living, and » t hereby prevented from paying his rent, can a sentence of distress be in justice pronounced upon that peasant?
They all answered in the negative. •
Question II. . Can a like sentence be pronounced upon a miller for nonpayment of rent for a mill, afret the water, which used to turn hi* mill, is wilfully taken from him by the proprietor of the mill i » They also answered in the negative.
"Then (said the king) yon have yourselves acknowledged the injustice you have committed.— Here is the ease:—A nobleman, in order to enlarge bis fish-pond, has caused a canal' to be cut, ta receive more water from a rivulet which used to turn a mill. By these means the miller lost his water, and could not work his mill above a fortnight in spring, and about as many days in autumn ;— notwithstanding, it is expected that he (hall pay his rent as before, when his mill was plentifully supplied with water; but as that was out of his power, from the impossibility of pursuing his trade, the court of justice at Custrin decreed, that the miller's effects, goods, and chattels, should be sold, to pay the arrears of rent; which sentence being sent to the High Court of Appeals here, is confirmed and signed by you, and has since been executed."'
Here the king ordered the sentence, with their .respective signatures, to be laid before them, and afterwards commanded bis private secretary to read the resolutions
•which his 'majesty had dictated to him, and signed before, and which are as follow:
"The sentence decreed against the miller Arnold, of the Pomertziger Kreb's Mill, in the New JVIarchc of Brandenburgh, .being an act of the most singular injustice, and entirely opposite to the paternal intentions of his majesty, whole desire it is that im-partial justice be speedily administered to all his subjects, whether rich or poor, without any regard to their rank or persons; his majesty, in order to prevent similar iniquities for the future, is resolved to punilh, in an exemplary manner, the authors of that unjust sentence, and to establish an example far the suture conduct of judges and magistrates in his dominions. For they all are lo consider, that the meanest peasant, nay, even the beggar, is a man as well as the king, and consequently equally entitled to impartial justice; especially as in the presence of justice all arc equal, whether it be a prince who brings a complaint against a peasant, or a peasant who prefers one against a prince; in similar c:ilcs justice should act uniformly, without any retrospect
to rank or person. This ought
to be an universal rule for the conduct of judges; and if the couru of law in his majesty's dominions should ever deviate from this principle of equity, they may depend upon being severely punilhed. For an unjust magistrate, or a court of law, guilty of wrong, and subservient to oppression, are more dangerous than a band of robbers, against whom any man may be on his guard j but bad nicp entrusted
with authority, who under the cloak of justice practise their iniquities, are not ib easily guarded against; they are the worst of villains, and deserve double punishment.
"The king, at the saTrie tirne, hereby signifies to all his courts of law, that he has appointed a new high chancellor, and that'bis majesty will be very exact for the future in the examination of his, and of their proceedings.- They are, moreover, hereby strictly commanded,
"I. To bring all law-suits to the speediest conclusion.
"II. Carefully to avoid that the sacred name os justice may never be profaned by acts of oppression aud injustice; and
"Us. To act with the most absolute impartiality towards every one, whether prince or peasant, without the least regard to situations in life.
"And in cafe his majesty should find their proceedings in any ways contrary to the above orders, they may depend upon a rigorous punishment; the president, as well as the respective judges and counsellors, who thall be found guilty of, or accessary to, any sentence directly opposite to the fundamental principles of justice. Whereof all the courts of law in all his majesty's dominions are to take notice.
Berlin, Dec. II, I•?79. After the reading of the above, the king told the high chancellor that he had no further occasion for his services, and ordered them all to withdraw, and the three counsellors, Friedel, Graun, and Ran
sleben. sieben, to be taken into custody. He also sent immediate orders so. Cuitr'm, for the president, judges, and counsi llurs, who bad decreed the unjust sentence in the first instance, to be arrested; aud afterwards nominated a commislion, under the direction of Baron de Zedlitz, minister of state, to proceed against them all according to law.
His majesty! iq consideration of the said injustice, has presented
the miller Arnold with the sum os list ecu hundred rix-dollars. He also ordered, that a sum, equal to that produced by ,'the sale of the miller's effects, be stopped and paid to him from the salaries due to the respective judges. &c. 'who had any than: in that unjust sentence; and has, moreover, condemned the proprietor of the mill to reimburse to the miller all the rent he bad received from the time when be silt opened the canal.