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Vienna and the King of Prullia for ever have kept open a source were renewed and confirmed ; and of litigation, trouble, mischief, the right of the king to succeed to and war. To which may be added, the margraviates in the remote that the establishment of a fixed younger branches of his own fa- and permanent barrier and bounmily, upon the failure of issue in dary between the two states, seems the immediate possessors (a right to be a measure fraught with which had been only called in greater advantage to the Elector of question through the vexation' of Bavaria, as the weaker prince, the late contest) was now fully than to the Arch. Duke of Austria, acknowledged and established. who is so abundantly his superior The ducal house of Mecklen- in strength. It may likewise be burgh was put off without any farther observed, that several parts other advantage in lieu of its of the ceded territory, were, what claims, than the promise of some may be called, debateable land; the new privilege with respect to ap- titles being disputed, opposite claims peals.

laid, and they having been hereto. Upon the whole, few treaties of fore, at different times, objects of peace have been conducted upon great conteft. ' more equitable principles, than Such was the early and happy those which seem to have prevail. termination of the German war. A ed in the present. The territory war of the greatcft expectation; not. acquired by the house of Austria is more from the great power, than not inconsiderable ; being about fiom the great abilities of the prin70 English miles in length, and cipal parties. something from about half to a Many circumstances attending third of that extent in breadth. the late war and peace between This acquisition lies between ihe Ruffia and the Porte, could not Danube, the river Inn, the Saltza, fail to sow the feeds of future and the borders of Austria; in- discontent, jealousy, ill.will, and cluding the towns of Scharding, litigation, between the parties. Ried, Altheim, Braunau, Burg- Extraordinary success and triumph hausen, Fryburg, and some others; on the one side, with an equal deforming, all together, a strong gree of loss and disgrace on the barrier, and a fixed unequivocal other, are little calculated to proboundary, the limits of which are more any intercourse of friend. decisively marked out by those thip, or cordiality of sentiment, great rivers, between that arch- among inen; nor will a recollec. duchy, and the present domi- tion of the hard necessity under nions of Bavaria. This accession which a peace was subscribed, of territory, the court of Vienna serve at all to render palateable the seems, however, to have purchas- bitterness of its conditions. On ed at something about a fair price; the other hand, the vi&ors are partiy to be paid in money, and sure to consider the vanquished as partly by a renunciation of old, owing them too much. They are vexatious, and otherwise inextin- apt to think, that they have al. guishable claims, which however, ways a right to claim those advanin general, unproductive, would tages, which they omitted to fe


cure in the moment of their fortune; commerce on that sea. It may and which they look upon as rights then be fairly presumed, without existing though neglected, as they an absolute poffeflion of facts, that could not at that time have been se- commercial avidity was continual. fused if demanded.

ly increased, in proportion to the The navigation of the Black number, magnitude, novelty, and Sea, the opening the gates of the value, of the objects which were Dardanelles and Bosphorus, so as gradually opened to its view; and to admit a free intercourse from that thus, new, and perhaps unreathe White Sea to the Black, the sonable claims, were as frequently affairs of the Crimea, with those started on the one fide, as an indifof the Greek dependent provinces pofition to comply with the fair and of Moldavia and Walachia, af- literal terms of the treaty, was preforded the grounds of those dif- valent on the other. putes between the two empires, . The second ground of dispute, which were now risen to such a seemed still more difficult and deheight, as seemed to render a new licate. The Porte bad unwillingwar inevitable.

. ly consented by the late treaty, to With respect to the firft of these admit or acknowledge the indearticles, we have formerly had pendence of the Crimea. That occafion to observe, that nothing independence must be considered less than the most urgent neceffity, only as nomiral. Between such under the pressure of immediate powers as Turkey and Rusia, and imminent danger, could have such a power as the Khân of the induced the Porte to admit Ruffia Crim Tartars, cannot be really to the navigation of the Black independent. The Turks were Sea. It might be compared in in hopes, as that prince and his private life, but under circam- subjects are Mahometans, to weak. stances of infinitely greater dan- en the force of that article, by their ger and loss, to a surrender of the natural inclination to the Porte : benefits, navigation and fisheries otherwise they would have confiof a fine lake, lying in the cen- , dered their concession in a ftill tre of an estate, into the hands of worse light. To have thrown that a powerful and litigious neigh- whole country, ficuaced as it is, bour, who was watching only for with its own and the adjoining nameans and opportunities to grap tions of Tartars, together with at every part of the whole manor. the reigning family, the imme. It is not then to be doubted, that diate descendants of Tamerlane, the Porte used every possible eva- and in direct succession to the Oifion to avoid a compliance with, toman throne, entirely into the and threw every obstacle in the hands of Rollia, were circumway which could tend to render stances exceedingly grievous to a ineffective, that article of the late power, which used to give and treaty. It seems, however, that not to receive the law. Yet this the Russians had potwithflanding, was already the disagreeable and with wonderful spirit and industry, alarming consequence of that convery speedily advanced large ca- ceffion. For Russia, by a judicious pitals, and opened a considerable but unsparing distribution of pre

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sents fents amongst the Tartars, and by seas, as nothing could afterwards be astfully fomenting some divifions capable of opposing. which had originated within them. The disputes relative to the selves, with respect to the suc- Greek nominal princes, but in ef. ceflon, had been able (as we fect governors, of Moldavia and have formerly thewn) to defeat Walachia, though not of a nature and depose the reigning khân, and so immediately alarming and dan. to place a creature of her own, al. gerous as the foregoing, yet were though a prince of the royal blood, founded on claims, and on an inin possession of the nominal sove. lerference, which tended ultireignty; whilft the government mately to the same point ; to the was now in effect more dependent depreciation of the Ottoman power upon Russia, than it had even for- and government, the parrowing merly been upon the Poste; the of its European dominion, and dependance being doubly secured, the finally throwing everything as well by a predominant faction on that side of the Danube into among the people, as by the dispo. the hands of Russia. The at. fition or attachment of the prince.' tachment which the Greek Chris. By these, and by other means, the tians, who inhabit these provinces, Crimea, with Little Tartary, and had thewn to Ruffia in the late the Budziac, were become scarcely war, had, along with other moany thing less than provinces to tives, induced her to obtain very Ruffia; or at least, they were as considerable concessions in their dependent on that empire, as the favour at the conclusion of the nature of that singular people will peace. The effect of the partial admit of their being, while they advantages granted to these iwo retain any considerable degree of in. provinces was soon apparent, by herent ftrength.

ine emigration of Christian inbaThis conduct, and these cir- bitants, from those on the other cumstances, which certainly mili side of the Danube which it natated, at least, with the spirit of turally occafioned; who, as well the late treaty, could not but give as the natives, looked up to anogreat umbrage to the Porie; and ther power, than that to which afforded, if not a clear justifica. they avowed allegiance, for fation, a tolerable ground of con- vour and protection. In order to troversy, with respect to any nack- fecure their independence on the ness or non-compliance on her fide, Porte, Ruslia made a demand, in fulfilling its conditions. But that those princes Thould not be they also afforded cause of the most deposed or punished (misfortunes serious concern and alarm, For to which they were particularly that peninsula, surrounded as it liable) on any pretence or account is by the Black Sea, and the Pa- whatever. . lus Mootis, and commanding the In so unhappy a state of weakcommunication between both, nefs and ditorder was that vast would afford such a claim of right and unwieldy empire, that it might to Russia, with such an interest be a question of doubt, whether in, and such a Itrength upon, those to admire the spirit, or to con


demn the rathness, which induced therefore very willing to receive the apparent resolution and vi- any mediation, consistent with her gour, with which she prepared for dignity, which in all events the war. The ill success of the late was resolved not to sacrifice. war, had drawn out and exhibited France had the address to avail in their utmost magnitude those fierself of this situation. The enormous disorders, which had French minister was again the for so many years been acquiring friendly mediator, and the fuccellgrowth, under a weak and wretchful negociator in bringing about ed system of government. The an accommodation. And his me. diftant provinces were still torn rits and services were again hoto pieces by faction and diffenfion; noured and rewarded, with simi and the officers of the state, as lar expressions of gratitude, and well as the great men of the re. with fimilar marks of favour from spective countries, were still, in both sides. many instances, 100 powerful 10 lt was, in the first instance more be governed. To crown the cala- especially, a matter of no small mity, the plague had in the pre- general astonishment, that Great ceding year made such horrible Britain, which had been so long savages in Constantinople, as had and so closely unired, in the stria. not been before known in that ca. eft bands of friendship, and ap. pital (to which it is so frequent parent political communion of a vifiton since its first acquisition views and interests, with Ruffia, by the Ottomans. It was com- and which had even gone some exputed that above 16,000 persons, traordinary length in the late war perished by that dreadful disorder, in her favour, should not bave upwithin the metropolis and its en- dertaken the friendly office of me. virons.

diator; by which means the would On the other hand, though, likewise have had an opportunity Russia 'was conscious of the advan- of wearing off that, not unfoundtages acquired by the late treaty, ed, jealousy, which the Porte the was far from desirous of war. could not but entertain of her That war, amidst its great and late conduct. On the other hand, Splendid successes, had discovered a flrong jealousy had for several some Symptoms of internal weak. years lubfilted between France ness. The sebellion of Pugats. and Russia; and their polit cal incheff was a fit which laid open , tereits and regards so much clashed some defect in the constitution. with respect to that war, that all Besides, Ruffia probably could ne- the world knew, it was in a good ver hope, with the consent of measure the apprehension of Eng. other powers, to obtain advantages land, which prevented the house equal to the victories she might of Bourbon from taking a decided hereafter purchase as dearly as the part against the latter, upon her had done those of the preceding fending a feet to the Mediterrawar. By which, along with her nean. laurels, the brought the plague Whether it was that we were into a country exhausted of men too feeble in the Mediterranean to and treasure. The empress was appear with any lustre in such a

negociation, negociation, the effect seemed to of displaying her authority, by be be, that France, for some time at coming an arbiter in the public affairs least, seemed to attain the ascendant of Europe; although, perhaps, the at St. Petersburgh, and the credit of means of her becoming the greatest Great Britain in that court propor- monarchy in the univerle (if the be tionably to decline.

not already such) do not lie on the o We are not en- side of Europe, March 21t. ti

1. Auto tirely mallers of the With regard to other powers, conditions of the new convention Spain, in conformity to the new, which was now signed. Concer. and, to us, dangerous system, adopte fions were made on both sides; and ed by the house of Bourbon, dimatters of claim, interf renice, rected her whole attention to her and litigation, amically adjusted. navy; whilst her land force contiSome conceffions were made by the nued in its usual form. As her Porte with respect to commerce, rescript to the court of London, on and some new regulations made in the 16th of June, avowed the favour of its Christian subjects. part she would take, so the fiege On the other hand, Russia relaxed of Gibraltar, which speedily folin some matters with respect to the lowed, pointed out the first and Crimca, and the provinces of Mol. immediate object of her dedavia and Walachia, and obtained figns. Satisfaction in others. The new France, under a new king, and Khân of the Tartars was acknow who was not originally suspected of ledged by the Porte, and the appa- great designs, experienced a won. rent independency of the Crimea derful change in her circumstances. confirmed on both sides. The Tbat prince very soon appeared to Empress of Rufia had an oppor- foilow better maxims than those of tunity of displaying her usual his predecessors. His first step was magnificence, by the splendid pre- to reconcile all differences between fents which she made to the French the crown and the body of the law. and Turkish ministers, as well as He drew from neglect and obscu. to M. de Stachief, her own refi. rity men without intrigue, who dent at Constantinople ; who ren were rendered. respectable to the ceived the valuable, but in other public by a general opinion of countries unheard of gift, of a their probity. Maurepas was a thousand peasants; a kind of gift, perfon long laid aside, and now which also includes the land which much advanced in years; but he they cultivate and inhabit. Upon preserved, in that great age, consithe whole, this convention seems derable vigour of mind. He is to have afforded confiderable fatis. at present, without any office, the faction to buih parties; nor has most prevalent in the French counany matter of complaint or dif- cils. St. Germain, whose conpute fince arisen on either side. duet in the late war had entitled By this arrangement, the Porte him to universal esteem, was in a has had time to breathe, and like manner drawn from the bote to settle its affairs. · With re- tom of his province, and placed spect to Ruffia, it has afforded in the office of secretary of state ; her leisure to direct her arten- in which, if he had lived, there tion to her constant object; that is no doubt he would have done


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