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the secretary of state for that de- ment. The representation of partment, a first lord of trade and something in the news-papers, plantations.

, which had fallen from Mr. The defection of a young no. Charles Fox in his speech, and bleman, who then pofTefTed, and which was passed over at the time had for some years held, a fine- without any particular notice, af: cure office of considerable emolu. fording some dissatisfaction to Mr. ment and distinction, and who Adam, another member, he had constantly been one of the thought it necessary to require of warmest and most able advocates the former gentleman, a pablic, of administration in that house, disavowal and contradiction of it, was not more a matter of obser through the same vehicles of invation or surprize, than the ex. telligence in which it had ap ceeding severity of censure, and peared. This requisition or debitterness of language, which mand, being deemed highly immarked his exposure and condem- proper by Mr. Fox, he absolutely nation of their conduct and mica. refused a concellion, which he sures. Such a desertion, at such thought it would be inconsistent a period, and so untoward a dic with his character to make. The rection of abilities, of no ordi- consequence was, a message from pary form, might well have been Mr. Adam, and a duel with pil. considered as ominous to admin tols in Hyde Park, in which nistration, if the sudden death Mr. Fox was wounded. The of this nobleman, which happen- novelty of the affair would, in ed almoit immediately after, had any case, have excited much cunot put an end to all expectation riosity; and this was not only and apprehension in that respect. greatly increased, but blended

"The question being at length with scarcely a lefs degree of anx. put, at half after one o'clock in iety, through the interest which the morning, the amendment was the public took in the life of that rejected, upon a division, by a gentleman. . At the same time, majority of just two to one; the that the affair being generally atnumbers being 82 to 41. The tributed rather to the animosity or address was then carried without a views of party, than to the oftenfible division.

motives, so it contributed, not a The debate of this day in the little, to spread and inflame that House of Commons, was distin- spirit without doors, from which guilhed by a circumstance, at that it was supposed to have originated time, rather unusual in parlia within *.

* For the particulars of this duel, see the Chronicle part of our last-vo. lume, page 235.

C H A P.

CHA P. IV.

Vole of cenfure against minifiers, relative to their conduet with respect to

Ireland, moved by the Earl of Shelburne. Debates on the quejion. Part taken by the late lord president of the courcil. Motion rejected upon a divihon. Similar motion in the House of Commons by the Earl of Upper Ofory. Defence of adminiftration. Animadversion. Moo tion rejected upon a division. Motion by the Duke of Richmond, for an economical reform of the civil lift ostablishment. Motion, after cone fideral le debates, rejected upon a division. Minister opens bis propofi. tions, in the House of Commons, for affording relief to Ireland. Agreed 10 without oppofition. Two bills accordingly brought in, and prijed before the recefs. Third bill to lie open till after the holidays. Earl of Shelburne's motion relative to the extraordinaries of the army; and introductory 10 a farther reform in the public expenditure. Motion rejected on a divifion. Notice given of a second intended motion, and the lord's fummoned for the 8th of February. Letters of thanks from the city of London to the duke of Richmond and to the Earl of Shellurne, for their attempts to introduce a reform in the public expenditure ; and fimilar letters sent to his royal highness the Duke of Cumberland, and to all tbe orber lords who supported the two late motions. Mr. Burke gives notice of his plan of public reform and economy, which he proposes bringing forward after the recess.

A S the affairs of Ireland held a fore them, as would enable the A principal place in point of national wisdom to pursue effecimportance, so they took the lead tual measures for the common inin the buliness of the present fefterest of both kingdoms; 'and Der fion. The subject was likewise, that the answer, reDo It first brought forward in turned from the throne on the the House of Lords, where the following day, was entirely conEarl of Shelburne prefaced an in- fonant to the ideas and requisition tended and avowed vote of cen- held out in the address. sure on ministers, by shewing He then referred to the addressfrom the journals, that their ad which he had himself moved for, dress, which had heen moved for and which had been rejected by by a noble marquis, and unani- a great majority on the second of mously passed on the 11th of May the following June, which relalt, had strongly recommended stated the neceflity of giving to his majesty's most serious con- speedy and effectual relief to Irefideration, the distressed and im- land, and offered the full copoverihed state of that loyal and operation of that house for the well-deserving people ; at the purpose; at the same time recomlame time requiring, that such mending, that if the royal prerodocuments, relative to the trade gative, as vested in the throne by and manofactures of Great Bric the constitution, was not adequate tain and Ireland might be laid be, to the administering of the relief

: wanted,

wanted, that his majesty would fecual and immediate relief for be pleased to continue the parlia. Ireland, was to be fixed and inment of this kingdom fitting, and violable. He then observed, that give orders forthwith, for calling a similar address had on the same the parliament of Ireland, in ore day been passed by the House of der that their juft complaints Commons; so that these two ad. might be fully considered, and dresses, with the answers from the remedied without delay.

throne to both, held out the full He obierved, with respect to concurrence of every part of the the first-mentioned address, that legislature in granting the propos. it contained, in its original tate, ed relief. as framed by the poble marquis, Thus, he said, a new æra was an implied and just censure on commenced in the affairs of Ireministers, for their so long and so land. This furnished a ground shamefully neglecting the imme. of hope, and even of certainty to diate concerns of our Gifter island, that kingdom. But what mult her and in so doing, endangering the indigoacion and resentment be, union, and sacrificing the prospe- when the discovered that her hopes rity of both kingdoms. That were totally unfounded; and that the noble earl, then at the head no reliance could be placed on of his majesty's counsels, propose any fanction, however solemn or ed an amendment, by which the sacred, held out by the British censure was omitted, and the ad. legislature: Three weeks had dress reduced to its present form. elapsed, without a single lep beThat, although the amendment did ing taken, or a single measure not meet the ideas of many lords on adopted which could tend to the that fide of the house, any more than proposed business. That, in or. his own, yet they agreed to ac- der, if posible, to prevent the cept of it, left their rigid adhe- fatal and inevitable effects of such rence to the original terms of the a conduct, he had himself, on the address, Tould produce the abso- 2d of June, moved for that feJute rejection of the whole. They cond address which had been juft beheld a people already driven to read. The minifters set their the verge of despair, and they faces directly against the remedy, could not look forward, without which their own faults had renthe greatest apprehension, to the dered necessary. The lateness of fatal consequences which were to that season, the waste of which be expected, from the rejection, constituted no small part of their by a majority in that house, of crime, was the oftenfible arguany proposal, which at so criti- ment which uphappily prevailed cal a period, carried even the ap. in chat house to the rejection of pearance of being in their favour. his motion; and thus the fate of

That the noble framer of the Ireland was, by a British ministry address, with several other lords and parliament, committed to on that lide, in consenting to the fortune, chance, or accident. modification, which extracted the 'The Situation and circumstances fting against ministers, did it ex- of that country were at the time prelsly on the condition, that its fingular. She had long maintaingreat obje&, the obtaining of ef. ed, for internal defence and se

curity,

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carity, a great military force, at perishing, or finding the means an expence which exceeded her of preservation within berself. ability. Of this, contrary to Through the public spirit, and royal faith and compact, she had gallantry of her sons, she was hapbeen tripped, for the support of pily saved. With a peculiar magthe American war; a conteft in nanimity, the most divided people which he had no other nacional in the universe instantly forgot concern, chan a well founded cause all their differences, and united of apprehension, that the princi- as one man to ward off the imple from which it had generated, pending destruction of their counwould, in the next instance, be try. The miracle in this ins applied to the subversion of her stance, could only be equalled by Own conftitution. •Struggling, as that which ministers had already The had been before, under long produced, in the union of the continued oppreffion, this addi. thirteen American colonies. Above tional misfortune was decisive. For forty thousand men were already to crown' the climax, in this ftate arrayed, officered, and formed of weakness, she was known to be into regular bodies. This, althe marked object of 'hostile in- ready formidable, and daily in. ration from our powerful and in- creasing force, was not composed veterate enemies.

of mercenaries who had no intereft Still, however, the thought that in the cause for which they arm. the wisdom and justice of a Bri- ed; it was composed of the notith parliament would afford full bility, gentry, merchants, respect. redress to her domestic evils; and able citizens, and substantial far. that deprived as she was of her mers; men who had each a stake internal strength, in the support to lose; and who were willing of our quarrel, the power of this and able to devote their time, and country would be her fure protec. a part of their property, to the tion against the designs of the ene- defence of the whole. my. Bat the time was now ar. By this union and exertion of rived, which was to fhew her native ftrength and spirit, all ideas hopes to be equally delusive in of invasion were effectually erased both respects. After appearances, from the designs of the enemy. which seemed only intended as a But the Irish became fenfible at mockery of ber distress, every pro- the same time, of the respe& due spect of relief was finally closed to that internal force, which, unby the rising of the Britila par- til it' was called forth through the liament. On the other hand, as to weakness of government, they the point of defence, the mini. were unconscious of poffefling. The kters told them plainly they must means were in their hands; and take care of themselves; they they seized the occasion with that would spare them some arms; but spirit and wisdom, which shewed as to protection, they acknowledg. they were worthy of whatever ad. ed openly, and pleaded, inability. vantages it was capable of afford

Thas exposed, defenceless, and ing. abandoned, Ireland was reduced to In thefe circumstances, Ireland the fimple altergative, of either only acted the part, which every

thinking

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thinking man must have foreseen. the contrary, their eyes were The government had been abdi. now opened in such a manner, cated, and the people resumed the that they viewed it as a natural, powers vested in it; a measure in inherent, inalienable right; and which they were justified, by as it is natural to men to fly from every principle of the constitu- any extreme to its opposite, they tion, and every motive of self-pre- do not by any means stop there; fervation. But being now in full they not only call in question, buc pofseliion, they wisely and firmly they absolutely deny, the right of determined, that in again dele. the British parliament to bind gating this inherent power, they that country in any case whatwould have it so regulated, and ever; and upon that principle, placed upon so found and liberal have actually freighted a vessel a basis, as would effetually pre with woollen goods for a foreign vent a repetition of those opprefmarket, in order, that upon the fions which they had so long ex- doppage, or refusal of clearance perienced.

by the custom-house, the question Their parliament, csually at the might be brought to an issue in the devotion of the court, found itself, common courts of law. for once, obliged to conform to the It was obvious, that at the time universal sentiments of the peo- the noble marquis moved the first ple. The late address to the address, very moderate conceffions throne from both Houses of the would have afforded a full gratifi. Irish parliament declares, that no- cation to Ireland ; that she would thing less than a free trade could have thankfully received them, fave that country from certain both as a proof of present affecruin. This was the united voice tion, and as an earnest of further of that kingdom, and conveyed favour, when a more i auspicious through its proper conftitutional season should present a happier op. organs; there was but one dis- portunity; and all who know the senting voice in born Houses. character of that country would All orders and degrees of men, acknowledge, that with such a church of England Protestants, proof of our kindness and good and Roman Catholics ; Diflenters, disposition, the would have dirand sectaries of all denomina- dained to press us, during the tions; Whigs and Tories; place- time of our troubles and difficul. men, pensioners, and country ties, for any thing more, than gentlemén; Englishmen by birth, what her own ncceflities rendered all join in one voice, and concur indispensably and immediately nein one opinion, for a free trade. cessary. . . But however guarded and tem. On the other hand it was equalperate the language held by the ly evident that through the obIrish parliament upon that sub- stinacy of ministers, no less than ject may be in their address, the their incapacity, and the conpublic at large, in that country, tempt with which they rejected were by no means disposed to con- the advice of parliament, the sider the freedom of trade as a happy season of conciliation and matter of favour or affection ; on gratitude was now irrecoverably

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