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letters, "That he came on shore from the Vulture sloop of war, in the night of the 21 it of September," &c. &c. as in the report of the board of general officers.
Prom these proceedings it is evident, Major Andre was employed in the execution of measures very foreign to the objects of flags of truce, and such as they were never meant to authorize or countenance in the most distant degree; and this gentleman confessed, wiib the greatest candour, in the course of his examination, *• That it was impossible for him to suppose, he came on shore under the sanction of a flag."
I have- the honour 'to be your excellency's most obedient, and most humble servant,
G. Washington. (Addressed) His Excellency Sir Henry Clinton.
In this letter, Major Andre's, of the 29th of September, to Sir Henry Clinton, was transmitted.
Ke-wYork, Sept. 26, 17 80. S IR,
PERSUADED that you are inclined rather to promote than prevent the civilities and acts of humanity, wbich the rules of war permit between civilized nations, I find no difficulty in representing to you, that several letters and messages sent from hence, have been disregarded, are unanswered, and the flags of truce that carried them detained. As I ever had treated all flags of truce with civility and respect, I have a right to hope, that you will order my complaint to be immediately repressed.
Major Andre, who visited an officer commanding in a district at his own desire, and acted in eveijr circumstance agreeable to his direction, 1 find is detained a prisoner: my friendship for him leads me to tear, he may faster some inconvenience for want of necessaries 5 I wish to be allowed to fend him a few, and (hall take it as a favour if you will be pleased to permit his servant to deliver them. In Sir Henry Clinton's absence, it becomes a part of my duty to make this representation and request.
I am, Sir, your Excellency's most obedient humble servant,
James Robertson, Lieut. Gen.
His Excellency Gen. Washington.
Taffav, Seft. 30, 1780. Sir,
I HAVE just received your letter of the 26th. Any delay which may have attended your flags has proceeded from accident, and the peculiar circumstances of the occasion, not from any intentional neglect, or violation. The letter that admitted of an answer, has received one as early as it could be given with propriety, transmitted by a flag this morning. As to messages, I am uninformed of any that have been sent.
The necessaries for Major Andre will be delivered to him, agreeable to your request.
I am, Sir, your most obedient humble servant,
His Excellency Lieut. Gen. Bobert/on, NeW'Yori.
Netu* . New-York, Sept. JO, 1780.
FROM your excellency's letter Of this date, I am persuaded the Board of Generu officers, to w hom you referred the cafe of Major Andres cannot have been rightly informed of all the circumstances on Which a judgment ought to be formed.- I think it of the highest moment to humanity, that your excellency should be perfectly apprised of the state of this matter, before you proceed to put that judgment in execution.
For this reason, J shall send his Excellency Lieutenant-general Robertson, and two other gentlemen, to give you a true state of facts, and to declare to you my sentiments and resolutions. They will set out to-morrow as early as the wind and tide will permit, and wait near Dobb's-fefry for your permission and safe conduct, to meet your Excellency, or such persons as you may appoint to converse with them on this subject.
I have the honour to be, your Excellency's most obedient and humble servant,
P. S. The Hon. Andrew Elliot, Esq; Lieutenant - governor, and the Hon. William Smith, Chief
iustice of this province, will attend is Excellency Lieutenant-general atobertson. H. C.
His Excellency Gen. Washington.
Lieutenant - general Robertson, Mr. Elliot, and Mr. Smith, came up in a flag vessel to Dobb's ferry, agreeable to the above letter. The two last were not suffered to land. General Robertson was permitted to come on (Lore, and was met by
Major-general Greene, who vnbally reported, that General Robertson mentioned to him in substance what is contained in bis letter of the ad of October, to General Washington.
Aew-Yori, OS. 1, 17S0.
S T B,
I TAKE this opportunity to inform your Excellency, tint I consider myself no longer acting under the commission of Congress: their last to me being among my papers ' at Weft Point, yon. Sir, will make such use of it a$ you think proper.
At the same time I beg leave to assure your Excellency, that my attachment to the true'intereft of rhy country is invariable, and that I am actuated by the fame principle which has ever been the governing rule of my conduct in this unhappy contest.
I have the honour to be, very respectfully, your Excellency's most obedient humble servant,
B. Aknoid. 'His Excellency Gen. Wa/lihtgton.
Greyhound Schooner, Flag of Truce, bobb's-Fcrry, 03. 2, 1780.
A NOTE I have from General Greene, leaves me in doubt if h:s memory had served him to relate to you, with exactness, the substance of the conversation that had passed between him and myself, on the subject of Major Andre: in an affair of so much consequence to my friend, to the two armies, and humanity, I would leave no possibility of-a misunderstanding, and therefore take the
liberty liberty to put in writing the substance of what I said to General Greene.
I offered to prove, by the evidence of Colonel Robinson, and the officers of the Vulture, that Major Andre Went on shore at General Arnold's desire, in a boat sent for him with a flag of truce j that he not only came ashore with the knowledge and under the protection of the general who commanded in the district, but that he took no step while on shore, but by the direction of General Arnold, as will appear by the inclosed letter from him to your Excellency. Under these circumstances, I could not, and hoped you would not, consider Major Andre as a spy, for any improper phrase in his letter to you.
The facts he relates correspond with the evidence I offer; but he admits a conclusion that does not follow. The change of cloaths and name was ordered by General Arnold, under whose directions he necessarily was while within his command.
As General Greene and I did not agree in opinion, I wished, that disinterested gentlemen of knowledge of the law of war and nations might be asked their opinion on the subject, and mentioned Monsieur Knyphausen and General Rochambault.
I related, that a Captain Robinson had been delivered to Sir Henry Clinton as a spy, and undoubtedly was such; but that it being signified to him, that you' ■were desirous that the man should be exchanged, he had ordered him to be exchanged.
I wished that an intercourse of such Civilities, as the rules of war
admit of, might take off many of/ its horrors. I admitted that Major Andre had a great share of Sir Henry Clinton's esteem, and that he would be infinitely obliged by his liberation; and that, if he was permitted to return with me, I would engage to have any person you would be pleased to name, set at liberty.
I added, that Sir Henry Clinton had never put to death any person for a breach of the rules of war, though he had, and now has, many in his power. Under the present circumstances, much good may arise from humanity, much ill from the want os it. Is that could give any weight, I beg leave to add, that your favourable treaU ment of Major Andre, will be a favour I should ever be intent to return to any you hold dear.
My memory does not retain, With the exactness 1 could wish, the. words of the letter which General Greene shewed me from Major Andre to your Excellency^ For Sir Henry Clinton's satisfaction, 1 beg you will order a copy of it to be seut to me at New-York.
I have the honour to be your Excellency's most obedient and most humble servant,
James Robektsow. His Excellency Gem Washington.
New-York, OS. I, 1780W
S 1 R, •THE polite attention shewn by your Excellency and the gentlemen of your family to Mrs. Arnold, when in distress, demands my grateful acknowledgment and thanks, which I beg leave to present.
From your Excellency's letter to Sir Henry Clinton, I find a Board of General Officers have given it as their opinion, that Major Andre comes under the description of a spy: my good opinion of the candour and. justice of those gentlemen leads me to bejieve, that if they had been made fully acquainted •with every circumstance respecting Major Andre* they would by no means Lave considered him in the light of a spy, or even of a prisoner. In justice to him, I, think it my duty to declare, that he came from on board the Vulture at my particular request, by a flag sent on purpose for him by Jostiua Smith, Esq; who had permission to go to Dobbs-serry to carry leiten, and for other purposes not mentioned, and to return. This was done as a blind to the spy-boats. Mr. Smith at the (ame time had my private .directions to go on board the Vulture, and bring on shore Colonel Robinson, or Mr. John Anderson, which was the name I had requested Major Andre to assume: at the fame time I desired Mr. Smith to inform him, that he mould have my protection, and a safe passport to return in the same boat, as soon as our business ■was completed. As several accidents intervened to prevent his being sent on board, 1 gave him my passport to return by land. Major Andre came on sliore in his uniform (without disguise) •which, with much reluctance, at my particular and pressing instance,
he exchanged for another coat. I furnished him with a horse and saddle, and pointed out the route by which he was to return: and as commanding officer in the departments I had an undoubted right
to transact all these matters, which, if wrong, Major Andre ought by no menus to suffer for them.
But if, after this just and candid representation of Major Andre's cafe, the Board of General Officers adhere to their former opinion, I iliall suppose it dictated by passion and- resentment; and if that gentleman fl)ould suffer the severity of their sentence, I should think myself bound by e*cry tie of duty and honour, to retaliate on such unhappy persons of your army as may fall within my power, that the respect due to flags, and to the law-of nations, may be better understood and observed.
I have farther to observe, that forty of the principal inhabitants of South Carolina have justly forfeited' their lives, which have hitherto been spared by the clemency of his Excellency Sir Henry Clinton, who cannot in justice extend his mercy to theru any longer, if Major < Andre fuflen; which, in all probability, will open a scene of blood, at which humanity will revolt.
Suffer me to entreat your Excellency, for your own, and the honour of humanity, and the love you have of justice, that you suffer not an unjust sentence to touch the life of Major Andre.
But if this warning should be disregarded, and he suffer, I call heaven and earth to witness, that your Excellency will be justly answerable for the torrent of blood that may be spilt in consequence.
I have the honour to be, with due respect, your Excellency's most obedient and very humble fen-act, B. Absold.
His Excellency Gen. Waflibigtan.
Tappan. Oct. I, 1780.
S 1 x,
BUOYED above the terror of death, by the consciousness of a life devoted to honourable pursuits, and stained with no action that can give me remorse, I trust that the request I make to your Excellency at this serious period, and ■which is to soften my last moments, will not be rejected.
Sympathy towards a soldier will surely induce your Excellency and a military tribunal to adapt the mode of my death to the feelings, of a man of honour.
Let me hope, Sir, that if aught in my character impresses you with esteem towards me, if aught in my misfortunes marks me as the victim of policy, and not of resentment, I sliall experience the operation of these feelings in your breast, by being informed that I am not to die on a gibbet.
I have the honour to be your Excellency's most obedient, and most humble servant,
Adj. Gen. to the British Army,
The time which elapsed between the capture of Major Andre, which was -the 23d of September, and, hi* execution, which did not take place till twelve o'clock on the ad of October j the mode of trying him; his letter to Sic Henry Clinton, K. B. on the 29th of September, in which he said,'" I receive the greatest attention from his Excellency General Washington, and from every person under whose charge it happen to be placed;" not to mention many other acknowledgments which he made of the good treatment he received; must evince, that the
proceedings against him were not guided by pailion or resentment. The practice and usage of war were against his request, arid made the indulgence he solicited, circumstanced as he was, inadmissible!
Published by order of Congress,
General Arnold'* Address to tlie In. habitants of America, as ter having abandoned the Service of the Congress.
Netv York,'Oct. 7, 178b.
I SHOULD forfeit, even in my own opinion, the place I have so long held in your's, if I could be indifferent to your approbation, and silent on the motives which have induced me tp join the king's arms.
A very few words, however, sliall suffice upon a subject so personal; for to the thousands who suffer under the tyranny of the usurpers in the revolted provinces, as well as to the great multitude who have long wistied for its subversion, this instance of my conduct can want no vindication: and as to the class of men who are criminally protracting the war from sinister views at the expence of the publio interest, I prefer their enmity to their applause. I am, therefore, only concerned in this address to explain myself to such of my countrymen, as want abilities or opportunities to detect the artifices by which they are duped.
Having sought by your fide when the love of our country animated our arms, I shall expect, from your justice and candour, what your deceivers, with more art and less honesty,