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home. I could have wished that my fate bad been to remain in America, especially as I lhould have willingly supported all fatigues, and, with a good heart, braved all dangers, in preference to the plan of begging, which the necessity, occasioned by frequent deceptions, has forced me to adopt.

I most sincerely wish you health and happiness, and remain with due respect, Sir,

Your Excellency's
most obedient and
most humble servant,

(Signed) A. Gillon.

P. S. Mr. Beaumarchais will not yet pay any thing, nor furnish any account. His Excellency Jolm Rntledge, Esq.

Governor and Commander m

Chief of South Carolina.

Two letters were also communicated, written by J. D. Van Der Capellan to Mr. Laurens, but as they only contain the sentiments of a private individual, we have not thought it necessary to insert them.

Memorial presented to the StatesGeneral on the loth hijlant, ly Sir Joseph Yorke, his Majesty's ^tmbajjador at the Hague, coaeerning the five Papers found emongft those of Mr. Laurens, late President of the Congress,

High and Mighty Lords,

TH E King, my master, has, through the whole course of his reign, shewed the most sincere desire for preserving the union, which has subsisted upwards of 40 age, between Ids Crown and

the Republic. This union is founded on the durable basis of a reciprocal interest, and as it has greatly contributed to the welfare of both nations, the natural enemy of both the one and the other is using his utmost policy to destroy it; and for some time past his endeavours have been but too successful, being supported by a faction that aims at domineering over the republic, and which is at all times ready to sacrifice the general interest to tbeir own private views.

The king has beheld, with equal regret and surprise, the small effect which his repeated claims for the stipulated succours, and the representations of his ambassador, on the daily violation of the most solemn engagement*, have produced.

His Majesty's moderation has induced him to attribute this conduct of your High Mightinesses to the intrigues of a prevailing faction; and he would still persuade himself, that your justice and discernment will determine you to fulfil your engagements towards him, and to prove by your whole conduct, that you are resolved vigorously to adhere to the system formed by the wisdom of your ancestors, which is the only one that can secure the safety and glory of the republic.

The answer which your High Mightinesses return to this declaration, which the undersigned' makes by the express order of his Court, will be considered as the touchstone of your intentions and sentiments respecting the King.

For a long time past the King

has had innumerable indications

of the dangerous designs ot an up.

[A a] 3 ruly ruly cabal j but the papers of Mr. Laurens, who styles himself President of the pretended Congress, furnishes the discovery of a plot, unexampled in all the annals of the republic. It appears by these papers, that the Gentlemen of Amsterdam have been engaged in a clandestine correspondence with the American rebels, from the month of August 1778, and that instructions and full powers had been given by them for the conclusion of a treaty of indisputable amity with those rebels, who are the subjects of a sovereign to whom <he republic is united by the closest -engagements. The authors of this plot do not even attempt to deny it, but on the contrary vainly endeavour to justify their conduct.

374] ANNUAL REGISTE'R, 1780.

In these circumstances, his Majesty, relying on the equity of your High Mightinesses, demands a formal disavowal of such irregular conduct, which is no less contrary to your most sacred engagements than to the fundamental laws of the constitution of Batavia. The King demands equally a prompt satisfaction, proportioned to the ossence, and Jill exemplary punishment on the pensioner Von Berkel, and his accomplices, as disturbers of the

fiublic peace, and violaters of the aw of nations.

His "Majesty persuades himself, that the answer of your High Mightinesses will be speedy and satisfactory in all respects; but mould the contrary happen, — if your High Mightinesses mould refuse so just a demand, or endeavour to elude it by silence, which will he regarded as a refusal: then the King cannot but consider the republic itself as ap

proving of those outrages which they refuse to disavow, and to punisli; and after such conduct, bis Majesty will find himself under the necessity of taking those measures which the preservation of his own dignity and the essential interests of his people demand.

Given at the Hague,
Nov. 10, 1780.

(Signed) Joseph York*.

Hague, Nov. 16. The folhivmg is the licfolution taken by the States - General of the United Provinces, relative to the Insults and Violences committed it the IJLml of St. Martin, on the C)t/i 0/ last August.

THAT Count Welderen, the Minister Plenipotentiary from their High Mightinesses to the Britissi Court, be charged to make the strongest complaints of the said insults and violences, and to represent in the most energetic manner, That their High Mightinesses think themselves in the most supreme degree aggrieved by the premeditated violence of the incontestable territory of the State at the island of St. Martin, done by the officers of his Britith Majesty, according to the express orders of the King, aud in consequence of a written declaration of those officers.

That no power ever doubted but all bays and roads belonged to the fame powers as the lands annexed to them, and that all who might be in them were sheltered from the rights of war, and from all hostile pursuits; and that M power is in any way authorised to take, or in any respect to molest, veslels so sheltered, against the wiH


of the sovereign, without its be- time must protest solemnly against ing looked upon as an indirect at- it, and most strongly desire of his tack: that notwithstanding this, Majesty, what they hope from his the men of war of the King of justice, his friendlhip, and his Great-Britain, lent on purpose by equity, to obtain, which is, a full his Admiral, had by his order satisfaction for the violation of seized some American vessels their territory, in which the inwhich had taken refuge in the tensions of his Majesty may be istand of St. Martin, under the made appear relative to the'treatcannon of the fort, and took them ment of powers not included in * via facti,' threatening, if the least the troubles of the present war, resistance was made by the fort, and of their territories in general, that it, together with the whole and of those of the Republic of village belonging to their High the United Provinces in partiMightinesses, should be burnt to cular, See. the ground, and a force sufficient was sent to carry these their orders ■ into execution.

That their High Mightinesses Memorial fnsented to the States

cannot look upon this violent step General, hy Sir Joseph Yorkc,

in any other light than as an open °" t,tc "«* o/Decembtr, 1730. violation of their territory, and a

contempt of the independent so- Hi8h and Mighty Lords, vereignty of the State; and flatter T I ^H E uniform conduct of the. themselves that his Majesty must J. King towards the Republic; perceive, that, if an independent the friendlhip which hath so long power of Europe is to be exposed subsisted between the two nations; to such insults as this, all liberty the right of sovereigns, and the and security, both in and out of faith of the most solemn engageEurope, will then only depend ments, will decide, without doubt, upon force; and consequently, the answer of your High Mighthat the King will be displeased tinesses to the Memorial which the at' this hostile action committed under signed presented some time by his officers against the territory ago, by express order of his Court. of a power, which has not only It would be to mistrust the wisdom had the honour, to be allied to and the justice of your High MighGreat-Britain for upwards of a tinesses to suppose that you could century, and to live in peace and pause a moment in giving the sasriendlhip with her, but from the tissaction demanded by his Mabeginning of the present troubles jesty.

in America has not refused to re- As the resolutions of your High

strain its subjects from trading Mightinesses of the 27th of No

with North-America in a manner veniber, were the result os a deli

sor which his Majesty has acknow- Deration which regarded only the

ledged his satisfaction. interior of your government, and

That their High Mightinesses did not enter upon an Answer to

could not pass over in silence what the said Memorial, the only re

has happened, but at the fame mark to be made on those resort a] 4 lutious

lutions is, that the principles which have dictated them evidently prove the justice of the demand made by the King.

In deliberating upon that Memorial, to which the under-signed here requires,.in the name of his Court, an immediate and satisfactory answer in every respect, your High Mightintfles w ill doubtless consider that the affair is of the last importance; that it relates to the complaint of an of* fended sovereign; that the offence, for which he den a;ds an exemplary punishment, and a complete satisfaction, is a violation of the Balavian Constitution, of which the King is a guarantee; an infraction of the public faith j an attempt against the dignity of his Criwn! The King has never imagiicd that your High Mightinesses had approved of a treaty with h>s rebellious subjects. That had been raising the buckkr on

, your part; a declaration of war. But the offence has been committed by the magistrates of a city which makes a considerable part of the State ;• and it belongs to the sovereign power to punish and give (attraction for it

His .Majesty, by the complaints

. made by his Ambassador, has placed the putiishn.ent and the reparat'ou in the hands of your High Mightineffes; and it will not be till the last extremity, that IS to fay, in the cafe of a denial of justice, or of silence, which mult be interpreted as a refusal, that the King will take them upon {umself.

Dune at the Hague, the 12th
os December, r 780,

(Signed) Lfc Ciieval. Yorke.


Of the Court of Great Britain.

Geokgb R. (L.S.)' r HROUGH the whole X courle of our reign, our conduct towards the StatesGeneral of the United Provinces has been that of a sincere friend and faithful ally. Had they adhered to' those wise principles which used to govern the Republic, they must have shewn themselves equally solicitous to maintain the friendship which has so long subsisted between the two nations, and which is essential to the interests of both: but from tbo prevalence of a faction devoted to France, and following the dictates of that court, a very different policy has prevailed. The return made to our friendship, for some time past, has been an open contempt of the most solemn engagements, and a repeated violation us public faith.

On the commencement of the defensive war, in which we found ourselves engaged by the aggression of France, we a tender regard for the interests pf the StatesGeneral, and a desire of securing to their subjects every advantage of trade, consistent with the great and just principle of our own defence, Our Ambassador was instructed to offer a friendly negociation, to obviate every thing that might lead to disagreeable discussion j and to this offer, solemnly made by him to the StatesGeneral, the id of November, 1778, no attention was paid.

.After the number of our enemies, increased by the aggression of Sj>ain, equally unprovoked with tjiat of France, we found it ne^


cessary to call upon the StatesGeneral for the performance of their engagements. The fifth article of the perpetual defensive allunre between our crown and the States General, concluded at Westminster the ;d of March, 1678, besides the general engagements for succours, expressly stipulates, 'That that party of the two allies that is not attacked, shall be obliged to break with the aggressor in two months after the party attacked shall require it:'—Yet two years haye.pasled. without the least allistance given to us, without a Jingle syllable in answer to our repeated demands.

So totally regardless have the States been of their treaties with us, that they readily promised our enemies to observe a neutrality, in direct contradiction to those engagements; and whilst they have withheld from us the succours they were bound to furnish, every secret aliisiance has been given the enemy; and inland duties have been taken off, for the sole purpose os facilitating the carriage of navai stores to France.

In direct and open violation of treaty, they suffered an American1 pirate to remain several weeks in one of their ports, and even permitted a part of his crew to mount goard in a fort in the Texel.

In the East-Indies, the subjects of the States-General, in concert with France, have endeavoured to raise up enemies against us.

In the West-Indies., particularly at St. Eustatia, every protection and assistance has been given to our rebellions subjects. Their privateers are openly received in the Dutch harbours; allowed to refit tiKtf; supplied with arms and am-,

munition; their crews recruited; their prizes brought in and fold; and all this in direct violation of as clear and solemn stipulations as cau be made.

This conduct, so inconsistent with all good faith, so repugnant to the fense of the wisest part of the Dutch nation, is chiefly to be ascribed to the prevalence of the leading magistrates of Amsterdam, whose secret correspondence with our rebellious subjects was suspected, long before it was made known by the fortunate discovery of a treaty, the first article of which is:—

"There (hall be a firm, inviolable, and universal peace, and sincere friendlhip, between their High Mightinestes the States of the Seven United Provinces of Holland, and the United States of North-America, and the subjects and people of the said parties: and between the countries, istands, cities, and towns, situated under the jurisdiction of the said United States of Holland, and the said United States of America, and the people and inhabitants thereof, of every degree, without exception of persons or places."

This treaty was signed in September, 1778, by the express or-? der of the Pensionary of Amsterdam, and other principal magistrates of that city.—They now not only avow the whole transaction, but glory in it, -and exr pressly fay, even to the Statesr General, that what they did ' was what their indispensable duty required.'

In the mean time, the StatesGeneral declined to give any answer to the Memorial presented by our Ambassador; aud this refusal

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