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Declaration of the King of Den. the maintenance of the inseparable mark and Norway, to the Courts rights of liberty and independence. of London, Versailles, and Ma- It the duties of neutrality are sadrid.

cred, the law of nations has also

its rights avowed by all impartial TF the most exact and perfect powers, established by cuftom, and

neutrality, with the most re. founded upon equity and reason. gular navigation, and the most A nation independent and neuter, inviolable relpect to treaties, could does not lose by the war of others have kept free the commerce of the rights which the had before the subjects of the King of Den. the war, because peace exifts bemark and Norway from the in- tween her and all the belligerent roads of the powers with whom powers. Without receiving or he is at peace, free and inde- being obliged to follow the laws pendent, it would not be necef. of either of them, the is allowed sary to take measures to insure to to follow, in all places (contra. his subje&s that liberty to which band excepted) the traffic which they have the most incontroverti. ihe would have a right to do, if ble right. The King of Denmark peace existed with all Europe, as has always founded his glory, it exists with her. The king preand his grandeur, upon the esteem tends to nothing beyond what the and confidence of other people. neutrality allows him. This is It has been his rule, from the his rule, and that of his people ; beginning of his reign, to testify and the king cannot accord to the to all the powers, bis friends, a principle, that a power at war has conduct the most capable of con- a right to interrupt the commerce vincing them of his pacific inten- of his subjects. He thinks it due tions, and of his desire to contri. to himself, and his subjects, faithbute to the general happiness of ful observers of these rules, and Europe. His proceedings have to the powers at war themselves, always been conformable to there to declare to them the following principles, against which nothing principles, which he has always can be alledged; he has not, till held, and which he will always now, addreiled himself, but to avow and maintain, in concert the powers at war, to obtain a with the Empress of all the Russias, redress of his griefs; and he has whose sentiments he finds entirely never wanted moderation in his conformable with his own. demands, nor acknowledgments I. That neutral vessels have a when they have received the suc: right to navigate freely from port cess they deserved: but the neu- to port, even on the coasts of the tral navigation has been too often powers at war. molelted, and the most innocent II. That the effects of the subcommerce of his fubjcars too je&s of the powers at war shall be frequently troubled; so that the free in neutral vessels, except such king finds himself obliged to take as are deemed contraband. proper measures to aflure to him. III. That nothing is to be unlelf and his allies the safety of derstood under the denominations commerce and navigation, and of contraband, that is not ex


pressly mentioned as such in the third tñeir officers, 'conformably to the article of his treaty of commerce principles above recited, which tend with Great Britain, in the year 1679, to the general happiness and interest and the 26th and 27th articles of his of all Europe. , treaty of commerce with France, in Copenhagen, July 8, 1780. the year 1742 ; and the king will equally maintain these rules with those powers with whom he has no Declaration of the King of Sweden treaty.

I to the fame Courts. IV. That he will look opon as a fort blocked up, into which no vessel

LVER fince the beginning of can enter without evident danger, L the present war, the king on account of vessels of war ita- has taken particular care to mani. tioned there, which form an effectual fest his intentions to all Europe. blockade,

He imposed unto himself the law V. That these principles serve of a perfect neutrality; he fula for rules in procedure, and that filled all the duties thereof, with justice fall be expeditiously ren- the most scrupulous exactitude ; dered, after the rules of the sea, and in consequence thereof, he conformably to treaty and usage thought himself entitled to all Jeceived.

the prerogatives naturally apperVI. His majesty does not hesi. taining to the qualification of a tate to declare, that he will main- sovereign perfectly neuter. But tain these principles with the ho- notwithstanding this, his commer. nour of his flag, and the liberty cial subjects have been obliged to and independence of the com claim his protection, and his mamerce and navigation of his jesty has found himself under the subjects; and that it is for this necessity to grant it to them. purpose he has armed a part of To effect this, the king ordered his pavy, although he is desirous last year a certain number of men to preserve, with all the powers of war to be fitted out. He emat war, not only a good under- ployed a part thereof on the coasts ftanding, but all the friendíhip of his kingdom, and the rest which the neutrality can admit of. served as convoys for the Swedish The king will never recede from merchant ships in the different feas these principles, unless he is which the commerce of his subforced to it: he knows the duties jects required them to navigate. and the obligations, he respects. He acquainted the several bellithem as he does his treaties, and gerent powers with these meadefires no other than to maintain sures, and was preparing to conthem. His majesty is "persuaded, tinue the same during the course that the belligerent powers will of this year, when other courts, acknowledge the juftice of his mo. who had likewise adopted a pertives ; that they will be as averse as feet neutrality, communicated their himself to doing any thing that may sentiments unto him, which the oppress the liberties of mankind, king found entirely conformable to and that they will give their or- his own, and tending to the same ders to their admiralty and to object. Vol. XXIII.



The Empress of Ruffia caused Explanation which the Court of a declaration to be delivered to Sweden bas demanded, relative to the Courts of London, Versailles, the Propoful which the Court of and Madrid, in which she acquaint. : Russia bas made for the reciprocal ed them of her refolution to pro. Protection and Navigation of their tect the commerce of her subjects, Subjeéts. and to defend the universal rights and prerogatives of neutralna- I. L OW and in what manner tions. This declaration was found. Il a reciprocal protection ed upon such just principles of the and mutual aslistance hall be law of nations and the fubfisting given. treaties, that it was impossible to II. Whether each particular call them into queftion. The power shall be obliged to protect the king found them entirely concor- general commerce of the whole, or dant with his own cause, and if in the mean time it may employ with the treaty concluded in the à part of its armament in the year 1666, between Sweden and protection of its own particular France; and his majesty could commerce. - not forbear to acknowledge and · III. If several of these combined to adopt the same principles, not squadrons should meet, .or, for exonly with regard to those powers, ample, one or more of their vesels, with whom the said treaties are in what shall be the rule of their force, but also with regard to such conduct towards each other, and others as are already engaged in how far fhall the neutral protection the present war, or may be in- extend. . . . volved therein hereafter, and with IV. It seems essential to agree whom the king has no treaties to, upon the manner in which reprereclaim. It is the universal law, fentations shall be made to the and when there are no particu- powers at war, if, notwithstandlar engagements existing, it be- ing our ineasures, their ships of war, comes obligatory upon all na. or armed vessels, hould continue tions.

to interrupt our commerce in any In consequence thereof, the king manner. Must these remonftrance's declares hereby again, " That he be made in the general name of will observe the same neutrality, the united powers, or shall each and with the same exactitude as particular power plead its own cause he has hitherto done, He will only? enjoin all his subjects, under ri- V. Lastly, it appears effentially gorous pains, not to act in any necessary to provide againit this manner whatever contrary to the posible event, where one of the duties which a friet neutrality united powers seeing itself driven impofes unto them; but he will to extremities against any of the effectually protect their lawful powers actually at war, should commerce, by all possible means, claim the assistance of the allies in whenever they carry on the same, this convention to do ber justice; conformably to the principles here in what manner can this bc belt "above mentioned.”

concerted ? A circumstance which

equally equally requires a ftipulation, that lies, though the convention in all . the reprisals in that case thall not other points, will be communicated be at the will of such party injur to the powers at war, accompanied ed, but that the common voice with all the protestations of a tri& shall decide; otherwise an individual neutrality. power might at its pleasure draw the 111. It is undoubtedly the prinreft againit their inclinations and in- ciple of a perfect equality, which terests into disagreeable extremities, must regulate this point. We or break the whole league, and re- shall follow the common mode duce matters into their original state, with regard to safety. In case which would render the whole fruit- the squadrons should meet and less and of no effect.

engage, the commanders will conform to the usages of the sea fer

vice, because, as is observed Antwer of the Court of Russia. above, the reciprocal protection,

under these conditions, should be I. A S to the manner in which unlimited.

H protection and mutual as. IV. It seems expedient that the listance fhall be granted, it must representations mentioned in this be settled by a formal convention, article be made by the party agto which all the neutral powers grieved ; and that the ministers of will be invited, the principal end the other confederate powers supof which is, to insure a free na- port those remonftrances in the vigation to the merchant thips most forcible and efficacious man. of all nations. Whenever such ner. . vessel fall have proved from its V. We feel all the importance papers that it carries no contra of this consideration ; and, to renband goods, the protection of a der it clear, it is necessary to diftin. {quadron, or vessels of war, shall be guilh the case.

Tanted her, under whose care the . If any one of the allied powers thall put herself, and which thall should suffer itself to be drawn in prevent her being interrupted. From by motives contrary to the estahence it follows:

blished principles of a neutrality II. That each power must con- and perfect impartiality, mould cur in the general security of injure its laws, for extend their commerce. In the mean time, bounds, it cannot certainly be exthe better to accomplish this ob- pected that the others should ject, it will be necessary to settle, espouse the quarrel; on the conby means of a separate article, trary, such a conduct would be the places and distances which deemed an abandoning the ties may be judged proper for the sta- which' unite them. But if the intion of each power. From that sult offered to one of the allies method will arise this advantage, should be hostile to the principles that all the squadrons of the allies adopted and announced in the will form a kind of chain, and be face of all Europe, or should be able to aflift each other; the par. marked with the character of ha. ticular arrangement to be confined tred and animosity, inspired by only to the knowledge of the al. Yesentment, these common mea

[2] :


sures of the confederacy, which holder, and which were taken ast liave no other, tendency than to of Mr. Laurens's Trunk. . make, in a precise and irrevocable manner, laws for the liberty of THE following are the outcommerce, and the rights of every 1. lincs of a treaty of comneutral nation, then it shall be merce, which, agreeably to the held indispensable for the united orders and instructions of Mr. powers to make a common cause Engelbert Francis Van Berkel, of it (at fea only) without its Counsellor and Pensionary of the being a ground-work for other city of Amsterdam, directed to operations, as these connections me, John de Neufville, citizen of are purely maritime, having no the said city of Amsterdam, I have other object than naval commerce examined, weighed, and reguand navigation.

lated with William Lee, 'Esq; From all that is said above, it commillioner from the Congress, evidently results, that the com. as a treaty of commerce, destined mon will of all, founded upon to be or as might be concluded the principles admitted and adopt. hereafter, between their High ed by the contracting parties, muft Mightinesses the States-General of alone decide, and that it will al. the Seven United Provinces of Hol. ways be the fixed basis of the con- land, and the United States of duct and operations of this union. North America. Finally, we mall observe, that. Done at Aix-la-Chapelle, the 4th ihsse conventions suppose no other of September, 1778, naval armament than what thall Signed. JOHN DE NEÚFVILLE. be conformable to circumilances, according as those shall render I hereby certify that the above is them necessary, or as may be a true copy. agreed. It is probable that Signed, SAMUEL W. STOKTON. this agreement, once ratified and establithed, will be of the greatest Noi Trente,

No. I. Treaty of Amity and Commerce consequence; and that the belli.

between the Republic of Holland gerent powers will find in it fuffi

and the United States of Ame. cient motives to perfuade them to

rica. respect the neutral flag, and prevent their provoking the refent.

M HE preamble recites, that ment of a respectable communion,

1 the Taid contracting states founded under the auspices of the

of Holland, and America, wishing most evident justice, and the sole

to establick a treaty of commerce, idea of which is received with the

have resolved to fix it on the bafis universal applause of all impartial

of a perfect equality, and the reEurope.

ciprocal utility arising from the equitable laws of a free trade;

provided that the contracting pare Papers which were communicated by ties thall be a: liberty to admit,

Sir Joseph Yorke, by express Ors as they think good, other nations ders from the King bis Müfter, 10 to partake of the advantages aribis Srene Highness she Prince Stadia fing from the said trade. Actuat.

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