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B.ignal, an English Roman Ca- compensation and relief to the tholic; who being a native of sufferers, until the minister gave Staffordshire, had introduced the an assurance, that the matter art peculiar to his own country would be privately settled to their into Glasgow, where he had esta- satisfaction. Upon these occatlistied, and for several years con- sions, the conduct of the magisducted a considerable manufacto- tracy of Edinburgh underwent no ry of stone ware. The mob small degree of animadversion; burned his houses; totally de- and the assumption of the chief stroyed his manufactory and stock magistrate, in venturing to answer in trade; and obliged himself in his proclamation for the so»nd his family to fly for their ture conduct and measures to be lives into the fields. But the pursued or adopted by the Brilaudable measures pursued by the tifli legislature, was particularly tnagiltrates and principal inhabi- and severely reprehended. Neitants for restoring the public peace ther did the ministers, nor parand tranquillity were so effica- liament itself, escape a (hare of cious, that the mischief went no that censure, which was upon farther, and order and security this occasion freely administered were soon restored. Being also, by one or two members of the opal the fame time, equally afham- position; who observed, that it ed and concerned, that the cha- was too near and too cruel an inracter and government of so ex- suit, so soon after the immense tensively commercial a city should sacrifices which we had made to suffer under the imputation and the false pretence os supporting disgrace of such an act of outrage the supremacy and dignity of the and persecution, they seemed British legislature in every part of willing, so far as it could be the empire, to softer a frantic done, to obliterate every trace of ar.d contemptible rabble at home, it from the memory. Bagnal was not only to fly in the face of its accordingly speedily acquainted, present authority, but to prescribe that he should be reimbursed for limits, beyond which it was not every port of his losses to the ut- to pass, to its future operation, termoll farthing; and several of Thus, they said, sowing, under the principal inhabitants, includ- the sanction of a recorded preceing relpectablc names among the dent, the feeds of disorder, outc'erj>yi acquired no small honour, rage, contempt of authority, and L>y the attention and tenderness absolute rebellion, in every rewhich the wife and family of the inaining part of the Britilh domisufferer experienced from them, nions.
during the immediate pressure of However unequal to the cause
their terror and diltttss. the effect mny seem, it was through
These matters were of course this religious combustion, and the
agitated more than once in parlia- circumstances attending it, that
nient during that session; and a administration lost that firm hold
patriotic member of the house of of the temper and disposition of
comnions was upon the point of the people of bcotland, which
bringing in a biU sot aft'ordinjf nothing else, pcrliap:, lou.ld have
loosened. loosened. For the cry and alarm in the south seems to have proof popery being once raised, and duced.
freely propagated by the press in With respect to the charge of every part of the country, the supporting popery, they hold the violent spirit thus conjure! up, following language, having first was not satisfied to confine its laid it down as -a poltulatum, that wrath to the immediate objects of whenever that religion is establishapprehension and aversion; but ed, liberty is banished; viz. tracing the supposed grievance "We are certainly authorized to „and danger to its primary source, "say, that, from the passing the would fix the mo<e refined part "Quebec bill to the . present of its resentments much higher. "hour, the encouraging and Thus by degrees, not only the "tolerating that bloody reliininisters were held out as objects "gion seems to be the only of public execration; but every "consistent, and (we observe it department of the state, includ- "with pain) the only successful ing the highest and moll sacred "measure, which the present sources of the legislative and ex- "ministry have adopted. And ecutive government, were little, "perhaps this single principle if any thing, less than directly "may account for all that seeaicharged and represented with "ing weakness and fluctuation forming a conspiracy for the de- "of councils which have so restruction of the p otestant reli- "markably . characterized their gion, and the establishment of " administration." — They conpopery on its ruins. Under this elude the charges against mipersuasion or pretence, the zea- nisters by this declaration or opilots in Scotland, not content nion, that, —" If Great Britain with combating and defeating the "for manifold fins is devoted phantom of danger which had "to'perdition,"—" whether her appeared in their own country, "ministers have acted from weakw.ould pursue it to its last refuge "ness or design,"—'* her a-in England; and eagerly under- '' venging angel could not have took to preserve or free their bre- "hit on more proper instruthren in the southern part of the "ments to hasten her ruin." united kingdom from those reli- Nor is parliament treated with gious dangers, to which they had much more ceremony. They themselves been hitherto totally in- disclaim all hope of redress from sensible. that body; which, they say,— One, among the rest of these "Not satisfied with repealing publications, being a kind of " their own foolish acts, have protest, issued by the heritors of "dared to repeal the wise-enactthe town and parish of Carlukc, "ed penal statutes against pain the county of Lancrk, seems "pists, the palladium of our e^ a more direct and pointed libel "stabhlhed religion and civil liupon administration in particular, '* berties," &c. and government in general, than These specimens will afford the licence of the present times seme idea of the spirit and tem
per of the time in that country, surcs, under which the American
The original of this curious pub- disputes and contest had been fuf
lication, was ordered to be depo- fered to linger for so many years,
sited in the archives of the com- had, they said, totally changed
mittee os correspondence in Glas- the slate and nature of things.
gow, and copies of it to be pub- If we have lost, laid they, the
liflied in the Edinburgh and advantages which me afforded, by
Glasgow newspapers. It was pro- our folly, let our wisdom now
bably about this time they opened immediately cut away those fatal
a correspondence with some fana- incumbrances which are left be
tics in London, then obscure and hind; thole incumbrances which
little noticed, calling themselves clog and impede all our motions,
the Protestant Association, whose and render all our exertions a
object teems to have been the fame gainst the common enemy inef-.
■with theirs, but yet pursued with festive. Let the evils follow the
hss violence. benefits. It mult be the extreme
Such was the state of public of madness to retain one without
affairs in Ireland aiid Scotland, the other.
In England, besides all other or Such was now the language former real or supposed causes of held by no small number of those, dissatisfaction, the long continu- who had formerly supported or aace, contrary to the expectations approved of the American meaheld out, of the American war, fares, and by the whole of thole and its hopelessness of ultimate who had constantly opposed or success in the minds of man)-, condemned them. They also unibegm now to affect the feelings family coincided in another gcof the people, so generally and ueral opinion; which was, by potrerfully, as to open a source no means to shrink from the war «f discontent, which, by degrees, with the house of Bourbon, formed to grow wider, than any Holding a firm confidence, that other of which they had hitherto if America was in any manner coaiplained. Many of those who detached from the quarrel, or even hid been among the foremost in rendered so far ineffective as not liipporting, aod the wannest in to be considered as a principal approving, the measures which object, and our whole force, unled to that iti'oe, auu the princi- d»T the guidance of wife counsels, pie cu which they were founded, and the ability of those great coinwere now among the loudest in maiiders, which all the world lamenting the consequences of knew we possessed, was directed the w«ir, and the most eager for against our natural enemies in' its being brought lo a speedy con- their most vulnerable parts, they elusion. No change, they said, would not only be' soon sickened had taken place in their original of ihe part which they had taken principle or opinion; but they in our domestic contest: but that »'ere compelled to conform their we might also make such re.prisentimenu, and to submit, to the zab oh them, r.s would afford no present necessity of the times. The inconsiderable compensation lor the weakness of the counsels and ruca- losses we had fullered. Vot.XXIil. [C] The
The danger held out of an invasion, and the proclamation ordering provisions to be made against it, •were severely criticized by opposition; as tending more to alarm the people than to secure the country; as weak aud indefinite in its directions, and only calculated to draw out a few miserable subscriptions, which might lay. a claim of merit for individuals, but, could never be a substantial aid to government. It was only indeed a little trick, to confound an attachment to ministers with a regard to the safety of the country.
On the other hand it was contended, that to caution without ajarruing was a thing impostible. That future directions, when occasions arose, would render the proclamation more explicit. That the whole intent was to make the people alert, and to call forth the general exertion. And as for subscription, if it should shew a confidence in administration, it was a confidence deserved, and would be repaid in the honour aud safety of the nation.
The measure was not without effect. Large sums were raised in several counties, and applied lo the levying of independent corps or companies. About zo.oool. was subscribed in the city of Westminster, although some considerable paristies refused to qoncur in the measure. Some of the inhabitants also of that city associated, and were formed into distinct bodies, arined and officered, wUh a view of beipg so far trained in military discipline and exercise, as would enable them to act with effect, under the immediate necessity of common deduce. In some counties, how
ever, the measure was rejected; and in others it was not proposed. In one, where a considerable subscription was made, the money was transmitted to the disposal of the Marine Society; as a more useful and constitutional application than to the raising of land forces.
In London, the proposal brought out another for a strong petition to the throne, as a previous measure, requiring the dismission of incapable ministers and evil counsellors, and the employment of men in whom the nation could place a confidence, and who might be capable of retrieving its affairs. The final consequence was, that the first proposal, aster much discussion, was rejected, and the petition then laid by. In the trading cities and towns, the money was applied to the manning of the navy; by which means, the various bounties to seamen, accumulated in some places, particularly Liverpool, to a height before unheard of. The East India company behaved with a magnificence, suited to its greatness, and to the apparent prosperity of its affairs. Besides a considerable bounty for the rais ing of oT>oo men for the naval service, it made a liberal offer to the crown, which was accepted, of building and furnishing three seventy-four gun stiips, as an addition to the royal navy.
The measures of home defence met with similar animadversion. The vast military force which was kept for our internal defence, a purpose to which, they said, the minister had avowedly in parliament sacrificed all other considerations, and particularly cularly hazarded the preservation of our West India Islands, was said to be so injudiciously disposed, at to be rendered incompetent to its only design. Towns of the greatest commercial consequence, and garrisons which defended the most valuable inlets and harbours, were left in a state of nakedness. The defenceless state in which even the great securities to our strength, Portsmouth and Plymouth, were astenvaids reported to be, and the consequent danger to which they were supposed to be exposed, upon the approach of the enemy, served much to corroborate these assertions and opinions; and even afforded a degree of strength to others of a similar nature.
All these and many more topicks were agitated, and they were agitated with the greater effect, from the junction of the French and Spanilh fleets in the channel. The sending the fleets out to America and the East Indies, under the decided superiority of the enemy in our own seas, was much condemned.—Events, which usually decide the publick on political measures, and the inefficiency of those mighty fleets, have at length answered all these criticisms.
The proclamation which had been issued by the commissioners upon their departure from America, together with some ministerial declarations in parliament, had occasioned a very general persuasion, that as no farther lenity or forbearance was to be practised with respect to the refractory colonies, (a mistaken tenderness* to which many were apt to attribute the spinning out of .the con
test for so ro3ny years) so the war would have been carried on in the ensuing campaign, with a degree of vigour and activity hithertp unknown. At the same time, the declaration made by the American minister in parliament, that a vast majority of the people on that continent were zealously attached to the interests and government of Great Britain, and that even the remainder were eiter tired out and heartily lick of the war, or torn to pieces by factions and dissensions among themselves, spread an opinion no lese genera], that the defence on the one side would be proportionally as weak and ineffective, as the coercion on the other would be powerful and conclusive.
In, proportion to the sanguine expectations thus raised, was the disappointment and concern which prevailed towards the close of the year, as the failure of success or inactivity in the American campaign, and the loss and dangef in the West Indies, came by degrees to be known. The people were wearied out by the tediousness aud length of that war, and disgusted by the continued repetition of hopes and disappointments which they had so long experienced.
■ In this state of danger from without, and of discontent within, the ministers seemed as little united among themselves, as any class or part of the people who were committed to their government. At the fame time, the several parties which formed the opposition seemed to be drawing closer together, and to act with/ more apparent union aod concert than hitherto they had dwie. At
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