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prize, or of overwhelming the quire the most watchful attention British force by their great supé- on the other to prevent disadvan. riority. The good disposition of tage. The French fleet were conthe troops made by Gen. Vaughan, fiderably superior in forco; aand of the ships' by Rear Admiral mounting to 23 sail of the line, Parker, however, frustrated their and a 50 gun ship. The English defign in both reípe&s.
feet, as before, consisted of 20 of This vifit was soon returned by the line, and the Centurion. The Sir George Rodney, who with 20 van was led by Rear Admiral Ships of the line, and the Centu. Hyde Parker; the center, by the rion of 50 gans, for two days in- commander in chief; and the rear sulted M. de Guichen in Fort division, by Rear Admiral Rowley. Royal harbour in Martinique, go- A little before one April och ing so close at times, as to be able o'clock, the French phi lyhete to count all the enemy's guns, and were brought to action by some of being even within random shot of the headmost ships; and about that their batteries. Nothing being hour, Sir G. Rodney, in the Sand able, notwithstanding his supeo wich of 90 guns, commenced the riority, to draw the French com. action in the center. After beating maader out to an engagement, the three French ships out of the line, British Admiral found it necessary the Sandwich was at length ento depart with the bulk of the fleet countered alone, by M. de Guito Grors Jet Bay in St. Lucia, chen, in the Couronne of the same leaving a fquadron of copper bot- force, and supported by his two tomed ihips to watch the motions seconds, the Fendant and Triof the enemy, and to give him umphant. It seems little less than the earliest possible notice of their wonderful, that the Sandwich not attempting to fail.
only sustained this unequal combat Things hung into this state until for an hour and half, but at length the middle of April, when the obliged the French commander, French fleet put to sea in the with his two seconds, to bear away, night, and were so speedily pur- whereby their line of battle was sued by Sir George Rodney, that totally broken in the center. This he came in fight of them on the happened at a quarter past four following day. A general chace o'clock, when the enemy seemed took place; and all the maneuvres to be completely beaten. But the of the enemy during the night, great distance of the British van clearly indicating their full inten- and rear from the center, with the tion of avoiding an engagement, crippled condition of several of the their motions were counteracted ships, and the particularly dangerwith great ability by the British ous state of the Sandwich, which, for commander.
the succeeding 24 hours, was with On the succeeding morning, a difficulty kept above water, render. very extraordinary degree of ikilled it imposfible to make the vi&tory and judgment in leamanship seems complete by an immediate parfuit. to have been displayed on both The circumstances of this acfides ; the evolutions on each be- tion were never well explained or ing fo rapid and various, as to re- understood. The public letter EUROPE. [*2227 from the commander in chief, the service felt all the evils ariswhicb was published in the Ga- ing from those diffenfions which zette, teems with implied cen- ' were sown by our great men at fure against his officers in general, home. It held out, besides other without the smalleit praise or ap- matter, that the thips were foul, probation of any one, excepting the and out of repair; that there was captain of a frigate. It was said, a great scarcity of all kinds of that his signals were treated with naval stores; and that the comcontempt and disobeyed; and he mander in chief was not only seems himself to convey a charge much diffatisfied with the conduet against some, of not engaging close and failure in duty of several of ly. It is certain, that a few of the his officers, but likewise with those thips suffered none, or very little who had deceived him, relative to loss; whilft several others were the state and condition of the great sufferers. If we recollect Squadron which he commanded. rightly, one captain was broke, The noble reader, in his comor at least put under arreft, and ments on the letter, said, that the his thip given to another officer; causes of this public misfortune bor are we sure, that more than had originated at home; that be. one court martial was not held. fides the bad condition of the On the other hand, Sir George ships, officers were put into comRodney passes high encomiums mand, more from their political on the French admiral, and is attachments or prikiples, than not more sparing in his commen, from their reputation or service'; dations of the gallantry of his and that faction had accordingly officers.
spread itself through, and divided The affair seemed so dark and the whole fleet. As the firft Lord myfterious at home, that it brought of the Admiralty declared himself ont a motion in the House of equally in the dark with every Peers on the 3d of the following other peer present, as to the par. June, from Lord St. John (whose ticular tranfa&tions of the 17th brother or near relation had been of April, which were now the ov. killed, gallantly fighting in the je&ts of enquiry, and assured the ađion) for papers, tending to an house, that he had not, by private enquiry into the subject. Upon communication or otherwise, rethat occafion, a noble military ceived any explanation of the pu. earl, read a letter in his place, blic Gazette letter, the motion was which be said he had received eaGly overruled upon a divifion, and from an officer who was present in the business continues in its original the action, and who stood high obscurity. in point of character and honour. The lofs in the British Aeet, In that letter, it was said, that amounted to 120 killed, and to the spirit of a certain vice admi. 353 wounded. Of there, it is reral (whose name and conduct have markable, that the Hon. Capt. fo long been objects of public dif- St. John of the Intrepid, and cuffion) had gone forth, and in- three of his lieutenants, were killfeeted the British feet; and that ed. Some other brave officers
[* P] 2 .
were killed, and several wound. again put to sea, and in four days ed.
had the fortune to v Such expedition was used in gain light of them, was
em May roth. repairing the damage done to the within a few leagues to windward.. Thips, and the pursuit was renew. Both fleets continued in this state ed and continued with so much of wind and condition for several spirit, that on the 20th they again days; the French baving it congot sight of the enemy, and Itantly in their power to bring chaced them for three fucceflive on an engagement, and, notwith. days without intermillion. The ftanding their suporiority, as conobject of the French commander, standy uling effe&ual means for besides that of using all possible its prevention. Besides the setmeans to avoid a second action, tled advantage of the wind, being to recover Fort Royal Bay, they foon perceived, that the which he had so lately quitted, cleanness and condition of their but where only he could repair thips, afforded such a fuperiority his shattered feet; and that of in point of sailing, that they seemSir George Rodney, besides the ed to grow playful with respect to hope of bringing him again to the British fleet; and accordingly a&ion, to cut him off from that used for several days to come place of refuge and supply., M. de down in a line of battle abreast, Guichen was obliged to give up as if they meant seriously and di. his second object, and for the really to hazard an engagement, preservation of his first, to take until they were arrived within Thelter under Gaudaloupe. No. little more than random cannon thing could afford a clearer acknow- Ihot, when they suddenly hauled ledgment of victory to 'the Britith their wind, and again departed out commander; although unfortunate of all reach. ly it was not attended with all It is at all times bad jefting be. those substantial advantages which fore an enemy; even fuppofing were to be withed. Sir George that enemy to be a much less deRodney returned to cruize off termined and formidable foe than Fort Royal, hoping thereby to in- a British fleet. In the course of tercept that enemy whom he could this maneuvring, the bravade not overtake.
being encouraged by a sudden The enemy, however, not ap and masterly movement made by pearing, the admiral found it the British admiral for gaining necessary from the condition of the wind, and which was mittaken the feet, after several days cruize, for a symptom of fight, the whole and greatly alarming the island French fleet were nearly entangof Martinique, to put into Choc- led into that which of all things que Bay in St. Lucia, as well tu they most wished to avoid. They Jaod the sick and wounded, as were only saved from a clole to water and refit the fleet. There and general engagement by- & purpofes being fulfilled with great critical thift of wind; and eren dispatch, and advice received of with that aid, and all the fails the motions of the enemy, he they could carry, were not able
to preserve their rear entirely from get up. It was accordingly ob-, conflict.
served that they suffered very con. Rear Admiral Rowley's division fiderably. As soon as their rear now composed the van of the was extricated, the enemy's whole Britith fleet, and was most gal. fleet bore away, with all the fail, Jantly led by Capt. Bowyer of the they could poflibly press. : Albion, the headmost thip. That It appears that twelve fail of
th brave officer arrested the the British fleet, including the "1. flight of the enemy about Preston of o guns, were able to seven in the evening, and sustained come up fo far with the enemy, for no thort time the fire of feve- as to sustain some loss. Although ral of their heavy ships, before the the van was led on this day, by. rear admiral, in the Conqueror, Commodore Hotham, in the Venand two or three more of his divi. geance, with great reputation, fion, were able to come up to his yet it was the fortune, of the Alaffifiance. It was perceivable, from bion, Capt. Bow yer, to stand the the latter flackness of the enemy's brunt of this action, as well as of fire, that their rear had suffered the preceding. She suffered ac. considerably in this rencounter; cordingly. The whole loss of the Albion and Conqueror were the fleet in both engagements, the ships that suffered most on our amounted to 68 Nain, and 293 fide; only three more were able wounded ; and of these 24 were to come within reach of danger. killed, and 123 wounded, in the
The enemy from this kept an Albion only... Admiral Rowley awful distance, and ventured no suffered considerably in the former more to repeat the parade of com- action, but much more deeply in ing down, as if they meant to this; in which his brave Captainy engage. A vigorous effort made, Watson, likewise fell. All the however, by the British command officers who could get into action er, a few days after, in order to in either, are entitled to the high, weather them, although it failed est applause. n
., of the intended effect, yet in The British fleet continued the volved the feets in fuch a man- pursuit of the enemy for two days, ner, that the French, for the pre- when they totally loft fight of
servation of their rear, were them; the chaçe had then led
i under the necessity of ha. them 40 leagues directly to the zarding a partial engagement. windward of Martinique. The They accordingly bore along the ftate of the fleet rendered it now. British line to windward, and absolutely necessary for the com. maintained a heavy cannonde, mander in chief to proceed to at a diftance which w onde, mander in chief to proceed to at a distance wbich could not ad: Carlisle Bay, in the iNand of Bar. mit of any great effect, but which badoes; which afforded, at lengths they endeavoured constantly to an opportunity to the French of preserve. The rear, however, and attaining that object which they fome part of the center, could had so long fought, and of se. not escape being closely and fe, pairing their fhattered fleet in verely attacked by the British Fort Royal harbour. van, and such other ships as could Notwithstanding the tranquil.ap
pearances pearances of things in South Ca. that government, or, as they said, rolina, at the time of Sir Henry by its oppression and cruelty, renClinton's departure from thence, dered them incapable of profit. iť foon became obvious, that many ing of such falutary counseli ina of the inhabitants were so little furrections accordingly took place, satisfied with the present govern, which being conduced without or ment, that they endeavoured to der or caution, as well as premadifpose of their property upon ture, were eally fuppreffet. A furch terms as they could obtain, Col. Bryan, however, with about and totally to abandon the pro- 800 halt armed men, escaped into viace, This condu& became i lo South-Carolina, where they jone frequent and glaring, that Lord ed the royal forces. Cory Corriwallis found it necessary to- During the necessary continuwards the end of July to iffue a ance of the commander in chief at proclamation, ftriétly forbidding Charles Town, in regulating the all sales and transfers of property, government and affairs of the proinclnding' even negroes, without vince, the part of the army deftine a licence firit obtained from the ed to active service, was advanced dommandant of Charles Town; towards the frontiers, under the and likewise forbidding all matters conduct of Lord Rawdon, who of veffels, from carrying any per- fixed his head quarters at the föns' whatever, whether black or town of Camden. The advan: White, out of the colony, without tageous situation of that place on à mitten passport from the same the great river Santee, which afoficer"in linis
i forded an easy communication will Din the nicat time, Lord Corn. feveraly, aud" remote. parts of the Wullis who extended his view's country, together with other into the redudidn of North Caroé viting and favourable circuma Hine, had kept up a constant cor. Aances, induced Earl Corowallis respondence with the loyalists in to make it not only a place of that colony, who eagerly urged ärmis, but a general store-house him to the prosecution of bis de- or repository for the fupply of figno - But befides that the heat the army in its intended operaof the summer was so exceffive, tions. He accordingly used the that it would have rendered ac- utmost dispatch in .conveying thi. tion exceedingly destructive to the ther from Charles Town, rum, troops, he likewile 'found, that salt, arms, ammunition, and vas Hb army could be subfifted in that rious stores, which from the difcountry; utstil the harvest was tance, and excessive heat of the over. Upon these accounts, he weather, proved a work of infi. earneftly pressed the friends of the nite labour and difficulty. That British government in North Ca noble commander bikwise fpared Jolina; to keep themselves quiet, no pains in arming and embody: and free from all suspicion, though ing tbe militia of the provisce, in readiness, until the proper sea and in raising new military corps son arrived. But the usual im. under well-affected leaders. patience of thote people, operated But during these transactions, a upon by the 'vigilant jealousy of great change took place in the