« PreviousContinue »
es May 7th.
cupy the passes in such a manner, to surrender themselves,
Thus enclosed on every fide, As the arrival of a large rein- and driven to its last defences, che forcement from New York, en general withing to preserve Charles abled the general considerably to Town from destruction, and to strengthen the corps under Web- prevent that effusion of human ster, so the importance of the fiblood, which must be the inevittuation induced Earl Cornwallis able consequence of a storm, open. to take the command on that side ed a correspondence on the followof Cooper's River. Under the ing day with Lincoln, for the conduct of this nobleman, Tarle- purpose of a surrender. But the ton attacked, defeated, and ruined conditions demanded by that com. anoiher body of cavalry, which mander being deemed higher than the enemy had with infinite diffi. his present circumstances and fituaculty collected together. , . tion entitled him to, they were
In the mean time, the besiegers rejected, and hostilities renewed. had completed their third parallel, The batteries on the third parallel which they carried close to the re- were then opened, and so great a bel canal; and by a sap, pushed to superiority of fire obtained, that the dam which supplied it with the besiegers were enabled under rater on the right, they had it to gain the counterscarp of the drained it in several parts to the out-work which flanked the canal: bit:om. On the other hand, the which they likewise pasled; and admira!, who had constantly prel- then pushed on their works direc., sed and diftreffod the enemy, in ly towards the ditch of the place. ! every part within his reach, hav- The objections to the late coning taken the fort at Mount Plea- ditions required by Gen. Line on, sant, acquired from its vicinity, went principally to some tipuand the information of the defere- lations in favour of the citizens eta which it encouraged, a full and inilitia; but the present state knowledge of the flate of the gar- of danger having brought those rison and defences of Fort Mould people to acquiesce in their betric, io Sullivan's Illand. "In pur ing relinquilhed, as, the price of suance of this information, and security, that commander accorddetermined not to weaken the ingly proposed to surrender upon, operations of the army, he land- the terms which were then offered. ed a body of seamen and marines, The British commanders, besides in order to Horm the place by land, their averseness to the cruel excrewhile the ships battered it in every mity of a Itorm, were not disposed pobble direction. In these cir- to press to unconditional · submis. Cumilances, the garrison (amount- fion, an enemy whom they wished ing to something more than 200 to conciliate by clemency. They men) seeing the imminent danger granted now the same conditions to which they were exposed, and which they had before M fenfible of the impossibility of re- offered; and the capi. Ma
May uth. Ticf, were glad, by a capitulacion, cuiation was accordingly signed.
. The garrison were allowed some letter, that he lost only twenty
of the honours of war; but they men by desertion, in six weeks bewere not to uncase their colours, fore the surrender. nor their drums to beat a British As the fiege was not productive march. The continental troops of fallies or desperate assaults, and seamen were to keep their which were in a considerablc debaggage, and to remain prisoners gree prevented by fituation, and of war until they were exchanged. the nature of the works, the loss The militia were to be permitted of men was not great on either to return to their respectives homes, fide, and was not very unequally as prisoners on parole; and while shared. A prodigious artillery they adhered to their parole, weré was taken; amounting, of every not to be molested by the British sort, and including those in the troops in person or property: The forts and tips, to considerably citizens of all sorts to be confidere more than 400 pieces. Of these, ed as prisoners on parole; and to 311 were found in Charles Town hold their property on the same only. Three ftout rebel frigates, terms with the militia. The offi- one French, and a polacre of 16 cers of the army and navy to re- guns, of the same nation, which tain their servants, swords, pistols, escaped the operation of being and their baggage, unsearched, funk to bar the river, fell like. Horses were refuled, as to carry wise into the hands of the viciors. ing them out of Charles Town; The Caroliniaus complained but they were allowed to dispose greatly of their not being properly of them in the town..
aflisted by their neighbours, par: Şeven general officers, ten con- ticularly the Virginians, in this tinental regiments, and three batlong and arduous struggle. If the talions of artillery, became pri- complaint is at all founded, it can foners upon this occasion. The only relate to the not fending of whole number of men, in arms who reinforcements to the garrison be. were taken, including town and fore the city was closely invested ; country militia and French, a- for the southern colonies poffefed mounted to 5611, exclusive of no force, which was in any degree near a thousand seamen. The equal to the railing, or even to the number of rank and file, which much incommoding cf the ficge. appear on this list, bear no pro. Nor does it feem that the augmentaportion to the clouds of commillion tion of the earrison would have and non-commilion officers, which answered any effectual purpose. exceed nine hurdred. The thin. At the commencement of the ness of the continental regiments fiege, an American lieutenant-coaccounts partly for this circum- lonel, of the name of Hamilton Itance; it appearing from Lin. Ballendine, having the fortune of coln's return to congress, that the being detected in his attempt 10 whole number of men of every pass to the English camp at night, fort, included in so many regi. with draughts of the town and ments and battalions, at the time works, immediately suffered the of the surrender, did not amount unpitied death of a traitor, to quite 2500. He boaits in that The mott rapid and brilliant
fuccefs success now attended every exer- colours, baggage, with the resion of the British arms ; Lord mains of the artillery of the Cornwallis, on hi: march up the southern army, fell into the hands north fide of the great Santee of the victors. The loss on their river, having received intelli- fide, though the rebels were supegence that the remaining force of rior in number, was very trifling. the rebels were collected near the After this success, there was borders of North Carolira, dif- nothing to resist the arms of Lord patched Colonel Tarleton, with Cornwallis; and the reduction of ihe cavalry, and a new corps of that extensive colony of South light infantry, called the Legion, Carolina was deem d so commounted on horseback, in order to plete, at the tiine of rout and disperse that body, be- Sir Henry Clinton's June 5th.
June 5th. fore it could receive any addition departure, on returning to his goof force írom the neighbouring vernment of New York, that he colonies.
informs the American minister in The enemy being at so great a his letter, that there were few men distance, as not to apprehend als in the province who were not either most the possibility of any near prisoners to, or in arms with, the darger, had considered other cir- British forces; and he cannot recumstances of convenience more, ftrain his exaltation, at the num. than the means of securing a good ter of the inhabitants who came retreat, in their choice of fitua. in from every quarter, to teltifu cion. No such negligence could their allegiance, and to offer their pass unpunished, under any cir- services, in arms, in support of cumstance of distance, with such his Majesty's government; and an enemy as they had now to en- who, in many instances, had counter. Colonel Tarleton, up- brought as prisoners their former on this occasion, exceeded even oppressors or leaders. his own usual celerity; and hav. That commander accordingly, ing marched 105 miles in 54 hours, in fettling the affairs and govern
presented himself sud. ment of the province, adopted a way 29th. denly and unexpect. scheme of obliging it to contribute May 29th. edly, at a place called Waxsaw, largely to its own defence; and before an astoniched and dispirited even to look forward, in present enemy. 'They, however, posi- exertion, to future security, by tively rejected the conditions taking an active share in the fupwhich were offered them, of sur- preffion of the rebellion on its borrendering upon the same terms ders. In this view, he seemed to with the garrison of Charles admic of no neutrals; but thac Town. The attack was highly every man, who did not avow spirited; the defence, notwith- himself an enemy to the British fanding the cover of a wood, faint ; government, should take an alive and the suin complete. Above part in its support. On this pria. 100 were killed on the spot; a- ciple, all persons were expected to bout 150 so badly wounded as to be in readiness with their arms at be unable to travel, and about 50 a moment's warning; "thofe who brought away prisoners. Their had families, to form a militia for
, 1780. the home defence; but those who became Sir Henry Clinton and had none, to serve with the royal his noble successor, to use every forces, for any six months of the method their genius suggested to ensuing twelve, in which they them, for securing or extending might be called upon, to a flist their conquests; but the success “ in driving their rebel oppref- of the measure in a partial expesors, and all the miseries of war, riment has been such, as will jorfar from the province.” Their tify other commanders for not service was, however, limited, be. placing an intire and general defides their own province, to North pendence upon assurances of faCarolina and Georgia, beyond the vourable dispositions in the coloboundaries of which they were not nists, extorted under the influence to be marched; and, after the ex. of fear, which have every where piration of the limited term, they proved entirely delusive. were to be free from all future. The departure of Sir Henry military claims of service, except: Clinton from New York had exing their local militia duties. So posed that city to an apparent warm were the hopes of success danger upon the outset of his ex- , then formed, that a few months pedition, which, as it could not were thought equal to the subju- possibly have been foreseen, no gation of, at leait, that part of wisdom could provide against.the continent.
A winter, unequalled in that cliThis system, of subduing one mate for its length and severity, part of the Americans by the had deprived New York, and the other; and of eltablishing such an adjoining islands, of all the deinternal force in each subjugated fenlive benefits of their insular colony, as would be nearly, if situation; and while it also denot entirely, equal to its future prived them of their naval propreservation and defence, had ie&tion, exposed that protection been often held out, and much itself to an equal degree of dan. suggested in England, as exceed, ger. The North river, with the ingly piaciicable; and indeed, as itraits and channels by which requiring only adoption to insure they are divided and surrounded, its success. And our preceding were every where cloathed with commanders on the American ser. ice of such a strength and thickvice had suffered much ohloquy and nels, as would have admitted the bitterness of reproach, for their passage of armies, with their supposed negligence, io not pro heaviest carriages and artillery ;fiting of means which were repre. fo that the idands, and the adsented as so obvious, and which, joining countries, presented to the as it was said, would have been so vicw, and in effect, one whole and fortunately decisive with respect to unbroken continent. the war.
In this alarming change, so sudThe wisdom of the measure in denly wrought in the nature of question depended entirely upon the situation, Major General Patthe number of persons in the re. tison, who commanded at New spective colonies attached to the York, with the Heflian General British government. It certainly Knyphausen, and other officers on
that station, took the most pru- 64 guns, with the dential and speedy measures for Bristol of 50, and
À March 20th.'
are the common defence. All orders the Janus of 44, he fell in with, of men in New York were embo. and was chaced by the French died, armed and officered ; and, commander, who had four 74 gun including about 1500 seamen, a- fhips and two frigates. The ene.. mounted to something near Looo my came within cannon Shot by men. The officers and crews of five in the evening, and a running the royal frigates, which were fight was maintained through the locked up in the ice, undertook whole night, without the enemy's the charge of a redoubt; and those venturing to come alongside, of the transports, viduallers, and which it was in their power to do. merchantmen, were armed with In the morning, the Janus being pikes, for the defence of tbe wharfs a good deal disabled, and at some and shipping.
distance, the Lion and Bristol, It, however, happened fortu. 'through the defect of wind, were nately, that General Washington obliged to be towed by their boats was in no condition to profit of to her affiftance. This brought this unlooked for event. The on a general engagement, which small' army which remained with lasted between two and three hours, him, hutted at Morris-Town, was and in which the enemy suffered inferior in strength to the royal so much, that they were obliged military defensive force, exclufive to lie by to repair. They, how. of the armed inhabitants and mi- ever, renewed the pursuit, and litia. He, notwithstanding, made continued it during the night, such movements and preparations, without coming within gun fhot. as sufficiently indicated design, and But the appearance of the Ruby afforded cause for aların. An in- man of war, of 64 guns, with two effective attempt was even made British frigates, in the morning of by Lord Stirling, with 2700 men the third day, suddenly changed and some artillery, upon Staten the face of things. The French Inand. But he continued on the commander was now, notwithiland only one day, and retreated ftanding the superiority of force in the night. In a number of which he still retained, chaced in small skirmishes and enterprizes, turn, and pursued for several which took place during the win- hours, with the utmost exultation ter, the British forces had conti- and triumph by the British com. qually the advantage.
manders. During there iransactions in Sir George Rodney had arrived North America, Captain Corn- at St. Lucia, and taken the comwallis, on the Jamaica station, mand of the fleet upon the Leeacquired great honour, by the ward Inand station, by the latter gallant defence which he made end of March. Just previous to with a very inferior force, against his arrival, M. de Guichen, with M. de la Motte Piquet, who was 25 flips of the line, and eight frihimself wounded in the action. gates, all full of troops, had pa. Being on a cruize off Monte Chris- raded for several days before that ti, in his own ship, the Lion, of island, with a view either of furVol. XXIII. . [*P]