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pie, whom, in every other instance, they had so heavily burthened and oppressed.

The noble marquis applied a similar train of reasoning to the suppert of this doctrine with respect to the American measures. He declared without reserve, that it was, what be called, the fame traitoroas principle, that produced the Aœerican war, and the long train of evils which have flowed from it; and he was persuaded, besides that great object, that in the course of some of the events which fell out in America, one great spur which induced ministers to rush blindly on, was in expectation of being gratified, and of gratifying their friends and supporters, wi:h expected confiscations of the lands and properties of those who took up arms against government; and should they now persist in turning a deaf ear to the voice of the people of this country, and thereby force them into measures of resist, aoce, he should likewise be convinced, that one motive among ethers would be, a prospect of coofiscatior.s nearer home, and the proscript'on of the lives and fortunes cf those who should stand forth the friends of their country, and of, as yet, its unrivalled conihtution.

How far, and whether at all, these political opinions may be tinged with the colour of party, are questions on which we are not to form any public opinion; but the authority from which they proteed, and still more, the magnitude of the objects to which they relate, bestow on them an appearance of so much importance, that we deemed it fitting, if not necessary, to preserve them to the pub

lie; referring their validity to the explanations of time, and to the decision of a more temperate season.

The business of this day was likewise particularly distinguished, from the part taken, and the cir-' cumstances attending it, by the Marquis of Carmarthen. This young nobleman ■ had possessed a place of high honour and emolument, at the head of the queen's household, and was also lord lieutenant of the north riding of the county of York. Private business had prevented his attending the great meeting at York; but he sent a letter a few days after to the committee, approving in general of their proceedings, but making some objection to the scheme of association, and to the proposed committees of correspondence. Although this conduct could not but excite observation, and perhaps surprize, nothing consequent to it appeared, until a few days preceding the motion now before us, when he voluntarily resigned his office at court.

In the present debate, the noble marquis thought proper to explain, and to assign the motives of his conduct in both instances. He said, he gave his full assent to the motion, as he thought it the only means of preserving this country from inevitable ruin, by promoting union among all ranks and descriptions of men, and of course restoring energy and confidence to government.—He declared, that he liked and applauded the principle of the petitions; they breathed the fame spirit with the present motion. And he stated the particulars of his conduct with respect to the York meeting.

He

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He then said, that he had a few days since resigned a place, the holding of which he should ever esteem one of the greatelt honours of his life. Why had he resigned it? Because his duty to his iovexeign and his country, and a regard for his cwn honour, would not permit him longer to retain it. He could no longer give his support to a ministry, which had, after a series of repeated trials, proved themselves pusillanimous, incapable, and corrupt; who had brought the nation to the brink of destruction, and still persisted to plunge it deeper into misery, calamity, and danger. They were the curie os this country, and, he feared, they would prove its ruin. One of them from his deserved ignominy, and the other from his criminal indolence, incapability, and neglect. The first, in, a season, when talents and abilities were most wanted, having driven almost every man under those descriptions from the service, by insult and bad treatment.

He said, that while he remained in place, he did not think it decent to oppose government. He could not in conscience absent himself from his duty in parliament at so momentous a crisis; the only method therefore which presented itself to him, in order to get rid of the embarrassment, was to resign, hut what had been the consequence of this moderate conduct? That of dismissing him, on that very morning, from an office he held under the crown, the lord lieutenancy of the north riding of the county of York. He did not pretend to say who it was that advised that measure: but let it come from whom it may, he despised 4

the mean resentment which gave it birth; he laughed at the folly, but he felt the injustice and intended inlult as he ought.

As some passages in this speech were supposed to allude, if not to point directly, to the first lord os the admiralty then present, the marer was zealously taken up by a young earl, who entered into a warm and cordial vindication of his friend; which, from the nature of the subject, could not however go any farther, than assertion, denial, or opinion. But, although the matter was a good deal agitated, and the noble earl immediately concerned, thought it necessary to enter personally into the discussion, no satisfaction whatever could be obtained from the noble marquis. And though he was called up several times, instead of retracting any part of what he had advanced, or even softening it by explanation, he rather strengthened and enforced it, by entering more sally into particulars. He still said, that the best men, men of the highest professional merit, were either drivtu totally from the service by the noble minister, or were deterred from accepting any command under his direclion. Every iran who accepted of a command, he said, accepted it under the copditions of a double peril; that of being employed and deceived i and that of being certain, that those who deceived him, would be the first, as they were the most powerful, in effecting his disgrace. He should not, he said, enter into detail, or quote name.", as be believed it totally unnecessary to descend to particulars; for every person who had been employed

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CHAP. VI.

Colonel Barre gives notice of his intended propositions relative to a committee of accounts. Scheme apprm>cd of fy the minijler. Sir George Saville's motion, for an account of patent places and salaries, agreed to. Second motion, for an account of pensions, during pleasure or otherwise, opposed. Debate bro/en off" fy the illness of the speaker. Resumed in the following "week. Amendment, moved fy the minijler. Long debates. Minijler s amendment carried, on an exceedingly close division. Jamaica petition presented in the House of Lords, and the subject strongly enforced, by the Marquis of Buckingham. Thanks of the lords ana commons to Admiral Sir George Bodmy, for his late eminent services. Attempt fy the opposition, in both houses, to obtain some mark of royal favour for that commander. Scheme, for a enmmisfion of accounts, announced fy the minijler, in the House of Commons. Strictures on that business. Mr. Burke's establishment bill read a first and-second time-without oppqfit'ion; debate and divi/ion, relative only to time, on its committal. Motion by the Earl of Shelburne, relative to the removal of the Mar</uis of Carmarthen, and the Earl of Pembroke, from the lieutenancy of their respective counties. (Question, much agitated. Motion rejected on a dhjjion.

IN a few days after the disclosure of Mr. Burke's scheme of reform, Colonel Barre gave notice p , , of his intention to ^ " move for a committee of accounts, as supplemental to, and an useful enlargement of that plan. He considered the appointment of such a committee as affording the nearest and the most easy, if not the most effectual means, for correcting the evils arising from the present mode of voting great sums of the public money without estimate, and for, in some degree, remedying the procrastinating forms, and the dilatory course of conducting business, which prevailed in the exchequer; and by which it was at present rendered totally inadequate to its purposes. He hoped great advantages, he said, from a committee consisting only of a few

men; for though he knew that the minister's strength in the house would virtually rest their nomination with him; yet he depended much, that the smallness of their number, and a consciousness that the eyes of the public were fully fixed upon them, would operate powerfully upon their conduct.

As the views of the minister could not yet be penetrated, the lull and open approbation which he gave to this proposal, could not but excite some surprize on all sides. He saw the temper of the nation was such, that something must be done to gratify the people, and he quickly perceived) that as the adoption of the present measure would carry a fair appearance of intended examination and enquiry into the present great objects of complaint and grievance, and hold out a prospect,

f*ct, however remote, of redress, lb it might be happily substituted for some other proposed measures of reform, which would be exceedingly troublesome in their progress, and could not be finally disposed of without much difficulty; nor probably without some loss to government, whether by absolute concession, or by admitting some new restrictions and powers of controul, with respect to the administration of the public finance and expenditure. At any rate, the first operation of the proposed measure would be to g.iin time, which, in the present circumstances, was every thing; the fervor of the people would thereby be allayed; and their views being drawn off to a distant object, might be entirely worn away, and even the subject forgotten, before the result of the enquiry could be known. In the mean time, it could require no extraordinary sagacity, to modify the business in such a manner, as would effectually prevent its extending any farther than was wished and intended

The minister accordingly applauded the proposal highly; and only wondered, that a measure of such obvious utility had not been thought of sooner; he considered this as the most elsenlial ground of reform that could be proposed, and expected that it would have been taken up before. For himself, he wished to hear the propositions of gentlemen from every side of the house; and he assured ti.em, that no man in it would be more ready to adopt any plan that appeared calculated for the promotion of œconomy, and for Jtduciug the public expense to

order and limit. He acknowledged, that the expenditure of the public money should ber brought as much as possible under check and controul; and that the present course of exchequer was inimical to a speedy and effectual controul; that system was unequal to the present extent of business, and created delays and inconveniences, which tended to obstruct, instead of expediting the national service. The people, he said, ought to be satisfied with respect to the expenditure; it was their right; they expected itj and, for his own part, there was nothing he wished more, thaa that the utmost clearness and precision should be found in the public acounts.— He concluded by declaring, that he thought a commillion of accounts would afford the most eligible means of checking the public expence; that a committee, composed of a small number of gentlemen, rendered permanent, and sitting through the year, would be capable of rendering solid service to the country; and that he wished to see so salutary", and indeed so necessary a measure adopted;

The opposition, on their side, congratulated and applauded the minister; but although they ackr.owle.lged the canJour and fairness which he had shewn in adopting the. proposed idea, one gentleman of great discernment observed, that he could by no means go along with him in the opinion, that a better, or a more ready mode of accounting to that house for the expenditure of public monies, might not be devised, and reduced to practice, than that of appointing coramistioners of ac

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