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CH A P. I. Retrospective view of the affairs of Europe in the year 1775. State of

the billigerant powers in Germany. Event of the late campaign, in. duces a disposition favourable to the pacific views of the Emprejs-Queen; which are furtber feconded by the mediation of Russia and France. A Juspension of arms published, and the Congress for negociating a peace offembles at Tifcben. Treaty of peace . concluded. Differences between Ruffa and the Porte, breaten a new war. Negociation conduited, and a new convention concluded, under the mediation of the French mi nifter. Naval preparations by Spain. Opens the war with the fiege of Gibraltar. France. ' Consequences of the appointment of M. Necker to the government of the French finances. Successful expedition to the coaft of Africa. Ineffettual attempt upon the island of Jersey. Threat of an invasion, and great preparations apparently for that purpose. French fleet fails from Bre/l, and proceeds 10 the coast of Spain. Combined fleets of France and Spain enter the British channel, and appear in great force before Plymouth. Enemy quit the channel, return again ; at length finally quit the Britis crafts, and proceed to Brest. . ,

T HE little effect produced by if not entirely sufficie it to pro

1 the contention of the great. duce an actual desire o peace on eft leaders, and of the greatest both fides, could not, however, armies in the world, during the fail to induce a kind of languor campaign of 1778, in Bohemia, and wearisomeness, and in some VOL. XXIII,

considerable

considerable degree to wear away extended to all the other ftates that quick relish, and keen ap- that compose the Germanic body. perite for war, which great and Upon the whole it would almost untried force and talents, acting seemn, as if fortune, who had so under the sanguine hopes of yet often wonderfully befriended that unfoiled ambition, are so emi. hero, and whose apparent delernently calculated to excite.

tions of him in cases of great We have heretofore Thewn, that danger, (which were no less conthis was not so much a war of spicuous than her favours) always choice, as of prudence, foresight, tended ultimately to the increase and political necessity, on the side of his fame, was now anxious to of the King of Prusia. He affix a new stamp to the renown made no claims; he had no im- of her old favourite; and of clomediate object of enlarging his fing his great military actions by dominions in view ; nor if he had, a war, in which he was to apwas the present state of public pear, rather as the generous proaffairs in any degree favourable iector of the rights and liberties to such a design. Neither his of the Germanic body at large, time of life, his great experience than as acting at all under the in war, nor the full knowledge influence of any partial policy. be had of the power and ability On the other side, the past of his adversary, were at all cal. campaign had afforded a full conculated to excite a spirit of enviction to the emperor, (a prince terprize. On the contrary, the prepared for war beyond almost desire of settling, improving, and any other, by the fine fate of his 'consolidating with his antient armies, and the resources of his people and dominions, the new own indefatigable and resolute subjects and acquisitions he had spirit) of the immense difficulty, gained on the side of Poland, to- of making any successful impres. gether with that still stronger fion upon such an adversary as wish, of transmitting a peaceable the King of Prussia. With fo possession, and undiminished force, vast a force, and aslifted by such to his successor, were objects confummate commanders, he which tended powerfully to dis- could only act upon the defen. pose him to the preservation, so five; and could not prevent his far as it could be properly and own dominions from being renwisely done, of the public tranquil. dered the theatre, and being con.

fequently subjected to all the caBut no motives, however co- lamities of war. It was true ingent, could justify to him, in a deed, and no small matter of boast political view, the admitting of in such a contest, that he had sufany considerable addition of fered neither defeat nor disgrace; strength and dominion, to the that the enemy had been obliged -power of the house of Auftria; to abandon Bohemia, notwithmore especially, when this addi. Standing their utmost endeavours rion was to establish a precedent to establish a secure footing there of innovation and dismemberment, during the winter; and likewise, which might in time be equally that the losses on both sides were

- pretty

lity.

pretty equally balanced. But fenfe of religion. This disposi. then it was obvious, that the sea- tion, which naturally increased son was the immediate cause which with years, was farther strengthcompelled the enemy to retreat ened by the melancholy arising from Bohemia; however, the from the early loss of a husband good dispositions made by the whom she tenderly loved; and emperor, which equally bafted was latterly finally confirmed by all the efforts made by the King the happy settlement of her nuof Prussia, for gaining his favou. merous offspring, which freeing rite point of a general action, and the mind from care and folicidefeated his views of obtaining tude, tended equallý to wean it any sure hold in the country, from the affairs of the world. tended more remotely to that ef. The event of the late struggle fe&. Such a view of the circum- with the King of Prussia, notstances of the campaign, could withstanding the immense afef. afford no great encouragement tance the then received, and to an, obftinate perseverance in which she could not hope now to the contest. A defensive war,, receive, must have added great however ably conducted, or how- force to these motives. She ever abounding with negative could not wish to end her life in success, could by no means, when the midit of such a war. It was, ther in point of honour or effect, accordingly, much against the answer the purposes for which it inclination of that great princess was undertaken; and the pros- that the present war was underpects of changing its nature were taken; and she is said to bave confined indeed.

submitted with the greatest reHowever numerous or cogent luctance to the opinion of her the causes and motives we have council, and the desire of the afligned, or others of a similar emperor on that point. For, nature, might have been on ei- although that prince could only ther fide, for the discontinuance derive his means of action through of an unprofitable war, they the power of his mother; yet it would have been found unable to would have been a matter of exlubdue the Atrong passions by ceeding difficulty to her, directwhich they were opposed, if ano. ly to thwart the opinion and inther, of greater power than the clinations of a son, who was in whole taken together, had not, the highest degree deservedly dear happily for Germany, and per- to her, who was to be her sole and haps for no small part of the rest immediate successor, and who of Europe, supervened in restor- scarcely stood higher in her affecing the public tranquillity. The tion than in her esteem. It was late illustrious Maria Theresa, probably this reluctance to the along with her other eminent war, on the side of the Empress. virtoes and great qualities, por- Queen, which produced those sessed at all times, however coun. various appearances, of fluétua. teracted by the operation of a high tion in the councils, or of irrelo. and powerful ambition, a mind lution and indecision in the conItrongly impressed with an aweful duct of the court of Vienna, of

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which we have formerly taken upon by the court of Vienna to notice.

support. She must therefore, in The ineffectiveness of the cam- any fituation, in which she was paign, the equal fortune of the not disposed to become an abso. war, and the cessation of action lute party in the contest, with to occasioned by the winter, served, be relieved from this dilemma. all together, to produce a state of But her war with England, and temper, and disposition, which was her views with respect to Ame. far more favourable to the pacific rica, operated more forcibly upon views and wishes of the empress, her conduct on this occasion, than than that which had hitherto pre- any German treaties or connecvailed. She perceived, and seiz- tions. In the contemplation and ed the opportunity; and imme. pursuit of these grand and capital diately applying her powerful in- objects, the necessity of keeping fluence to remove the obstacles her force whole, her attention unwhich stood in the way of an ac- divided, and of restoring peace commodation on the one side, had upon the continent, were all equal. foon the satisfaction of discovering ly obvious, and were all mutually that her views were well feconded, dependent. No wisdom could by the temperate disposition which foresee, or venture to prescribe, prevailed on the ocher.

what unexpected connections and It is however to be observed, alliances might spring up, and that the mediation of the court what new collisions of interests of Versailles, and the powerful might take place, under a further interposition of the court of Peters- progress of the war. France could burg, contributed essentially to not recollect the ruin brought further the work of peace. France upon her in the late war, without was bound by the treaty of 1756, shuddering at the thoughts of Ger. to assist the court of Vienna with many. It is not then to be won. a considerable body of forces, in dered, that she was equally fin. case of a war in Germany, and cere and zealous in her endeaThe had been called upon early in vours to restore tranquillity on the the present contest to fulfil that continent. engagement. The court of Ver. The court of Petersburg had failles was likewise disposed to from the beginning thewn and exwilh well to the house of Austria pressed the trongest disapproba. from private motives ; as well as tion of the conduct, and paid no to cultivate and cement the new favourable attention to the claims, friendship and alliance from pub- of that of Vienna; and had early lic. But France being likewise a avowed a full intention of effecguarantee of the treaty of West- tually supporting the rights of the phalia, her old engagements mi- Germanic body ; at the same time litated totally with her new in that preparations were actually the present instance; The being made, for the march of a large thereby bound to realt all such ·body of Russian troops. Her infractions and invasions of the powerful interposition, through rights of the Germanic body, as the medium of her minister Prince those which she was now called Repnin, had no small effect in

facilis

facilitating the negociations for place, the garrison being prepeace.

viously withdrawn, the Imperial Under such circumstances, and and Prussian ministers, with those the offices of such mediators, little of all the princes engaged or indoubt was to be entertained of the terested in the present contest, as event. Whether it proceeded from well as of the two mediating pow. 2 view of giving weight to their ers, were allembled, immediately claims in the expected treaty, or after the publication of the armir. from any jealousy in point of arms tice. And so happy were the dis. or honour, which might have lain positions which now prevailed behind from the preceding cam- among the contending parties, and paign, however it was, the Au. so efficacious the endeavours of the Atrians attacked with extraordinary mediators, that the peace » vigour, and with no fmall degree was finally concluded in way

in May 13th. of success, several of the Prussian two months. posts on the Gde of Silesia and the By this treaty, the late conven. county of Glaiz, soon after the tion between the court of Vienna commencement of the year. The and the Elector Palatine was toliveliness of thele insults did not tally annulled; and the former induce the king to any eagerness restored all the places and districts of retaliation. Points of honour which had been seized in Bavaria, of that nature weighed but little excepting only the territory apwith him. He foresaw that an pertaining to the regency of Bergaccommodation would take place; hausen, which was ceded to the and he knew that no advantages house of Austria, as an equiva-, which could now be gained would lent' or indemnification for her tell in the account upon that set. claims and pretensions. That dement; whilft a number of brave court likewise gave up to the men would be idly lost without Eleclor Palatine, all the Fiefs March 1oth. Objec hoch object or equivalent. which had been possessed by the

M. An armistice on all late Elector of Bavaria ; and agreed 779 fides was, however, also to pay to the court of Saxony, published, before the season could as an indemnification for the allo. have admitted the doing of any thing dial estates, and other claims on essential, if such had even been the that fide, the sum of fix millions intention.

of florins (amounting to someThe Congress which was to pre. thing near 600,000 pounds sterserve Germany, from the most ling), to be paid in the course of alarming and dangerous war to twelve years, without interest, by which it could have been exposed, ftipulated balf-yearly payments. was held at Teschen in Austrian Some cessions were likewise made Silesia; a town and district, which by the elector, in favour of the the emperor had generously con- house of Saxony; and some equisented to contitute into a Duchy, valent satisfaction promised by the under the title of Saxe-Teschen, emperor 10 the Duke of Deux in favour of Prince Albert of Sax. Ponts, on his succession to the ony, upon his marriage with an double electorate. All former Auch-Duchels in 1765. At that treaties between the court of

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