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H. of R.]

Refuse Lands in Tennessee.--Western Armory.

Dec. 14, 15, 1829.


only tea and coffee, concerning which the gentleman from

TUESDAY, DECEMBER 15, 1829. New York seemed to feel the deepest anxiety, but all ar

REFUSE LANDS IN TENNESSEE. ticles on which high duties are laid for the purpose of

Mr. CROCKETT moved the following resolution, viz. revenue, should be referred to the Committee of Ways and Means. That was his object.

Resolved, That a select committee be appointed, with

instructions to inquire as to the most equitable and adMr. POLK agreed that this discussion, which had so unexpectedly arisen, was merely a discussion about words. vantagcous mode of disposing of the refuse lands lying He could assure the House that his only object was to re.

south and west of the Congressional reservation line in

the State of Tennessee. fer that part of the message which relates to manufac

This resolution being read, tures to the appropriate committee. It was now the time to determine what the duties of the Committee of Ways lution, by striking out so much as proposes a select coin

Mr. POLK, of Tennessee, morell to amend the reso. and Means are. Whatever concerns the revenue of the Union belongs appropriately to that committee. He had mittee, and moving to refer the subject of the resolution to thought, when he made his proposition, that tea and coffee the Committee on the Public Lands.

Mr. CROCKETT said, that he wished this subject to required a separate specification. In this he had been corrected by the Chair, who regarded these as subjects take the same course now as it had done heretofore. The to be considered within the cognizance of that committee resolution referred (he said) to a few scraps of land lying as a matter of course. If so, the amendment offered by along in his district, which it was high time should be disthe gentleman from South Carolina would be as unneces. before Congress, and had always heretofore been referred

posed of. The subject had been already several times sary as that which he himself had withdrawn, which was to a select committee; and all that he asked was, that it similar in its import. He had supposed that the resolu: should take the same course now as it had done heretofore. tion embraced all which the gentleman from New York

Mr. POLK said, that a part of this subject was always should require. He thought it premature to raise discussions merely as to forms of words, the effect of which before the Committee on the Public Lands in the shape of a miglit be to give an interpretation to the message which memorial from the Legislature of Tennessee. He thought, might not be warranted, on partial views, and without that therefore, that a reference of this resolution to that cuma

mittee was expedient, that all parts of the subject should deliberate examination which ought to be taken.

be placed before the same committee. Mr. H. R. STORRS asked if it would be in order to move to strike out the words " modification of the tariff," late session of Congress, a proposition had been made for

Mr. STERIGERE, of Pennsylvania, said, that, at the and substitute “domestic manufactures?

The SPEAKER decided that the motion would not be distributing the vacant public lands, or the proceeds of in order, until the question should be determined on the them, among the several States. This proposition was so

connected with the subject of this resolution, that, as he amendment of the gentleman from New York.

Mr. STORRS said, that, on reading the message, it did expected it would be renewed at this session, he moved not occur to him that that part which relates to tea and that the pending resolution lie upon the table for the precoffee had any reference to the question of manufactures.

The motion to lay the resolution on the table was negaThe question intended to be submitted in the message is,

tived. whether the duties on tea and coffee may not be reduced when the state of the revenue will no longer require he was understood to say that the Legislature of Tennes

Mr. CROCKETT made some further remarks, in which these duties. He thought this had no reference whatever to the subject of manufactures. His object was to strike however that might be, he said his colleague (Mr. Polk]

see was disposed to withdraw its former memorial. But, out the words “the modification of the tariff,” and to in- had heretofore bad this matter in his charge as head of a sert, in lieuthereof, the words “domestic manufactures." select committee; and, said Mr. C. as I live among the This would be plain language, not to be misunderstood.

The motion of Mr. TAYLOR to amend the resolution people who are interested in these lands, I want now to was then decided in the negative.

bave something to do myself with the disposition of the Mr. STORRS then inade his motion to strike out the

subject. words « the modification of the tariff," and to insert the resolve was then negatived, 92 to 65; and Mr. C.’s resolu•

The motion of Mr. POLK to amend Mr. CROCKETT'S words “domestic manufactures." Mr. McDUFFIE said it was originally his object to

tion was agreed to. avoid the inference that the President intended either to

WESTERN ARMORY. recommend any increase, or only a diminution of duties.

Mr. DESHA moved the following resolution, viz. He thought the amendment seemed to imply that there Resolved, That the Committee on Military Affairs be inwas nothing in the message on the subject of the modifi-structed to inquire into the expediency of establishing an cation of the tariff, which did not look to the increase of armory at some suitable point upon the Western waters. duties. He thought it might as reasonably be presumed Mr. CHILTON, of Kentucky, proposed to amend the to look to the reduction of the duties. The language of resolution, by adding to it "or at the falls of the message is equally applicable to reduction as to in the State of Kentucky," and added some observations to crease of duties. He preferred the amendment of the show the strong claims of this location for the proposed gentleman from New York," which had been just nega- armory: tived. His object was to convey the idea that the modifi Mr. 'VANCE, of Ohio, thought that, considering the cation of all duties , whether to increase or diminish them, variety of conflicting claims for this object

, the resolution should be referred to the Committee on Manufactures. had better be general in its terms, and refer the whole

The question was then taken on the amendment of Mr. subject of the establishment of an armory on the Western STORRS, and decided in the affirmative.

waters to the same committee; that all the sites in the The resolution, as thus amended, was then agreed to; and Western country might be considered together. The House adjourned to Monday.

The resolution was then modified, with the consent of

the mover, so as to propose a general inquiry into the es. MONDAY, DECEMBER 14, 1829.

pediency of establishing an armory on the waters of the The different Standing and Select Committees, which Western States. had been appointed by the SPEAKER during the recess, were this day announced. No other business was trans of the country possessed more valuable water power than

Mr. CARSON, of North Carolina, remarking that no part acted.

the western part of the State of North Carolina, proposed

Dec. 16, 1829. }
Annual Treasury Report.---Committee on Education.

[H. of R. to amend the resolution by adding “or on the Western nomy recommended in the report of the Committee of Rewaters of the State of North Carolina.”

trenchment at the session before the last; and he could Mr. JOHNSON, of Kentucky, said, he regretted this not conceal his surprise that gentlemen who were, at the motion on the part of his friend from North Carolina, as last session, so anxious to reduce the amount of expendi. calculated to produce a collision between the West and ture, especially on objects of this nature, to which they the South as to the location of an armory. He was per- seemed to have directed much of their attention, should fectly willing to vote for an independent proposition to row show such a disposition to swell it instead of reducinquire into the expediency of the erection of an armory ing it. in the South, but he was unwilling to connect it with a Mr. BUCHANAN said, he was happy to find that the proposition for an armory in the West. For the last fif- gentleman from Ohio was now so decided an advocate for teen years it had been in vain attempted to procure the retrenchment; not knowing, however, that he had ever establishment of a National Armory on the Western wa- found him otherwise. He did not know but, in pursuit of ters, notwithstanding the unanimous opinion of the West, this object, he and the gentleman from Ohio would be concurred in by the executive officers of the Government, found going hand in hand. But this (Mr. B. said) was that a Western armory was necessary, not to gratify indi- not the point at which they ought to begin to retrench. viduals interested in its location, but for the defence of Retrenchment ought not to begin with communication of the country, and to prevent prodigal expenditure of the information of this sort to the people, who are more public moneys in transportation of arms, &c. We have interested in knowing exactly what has been the ma. now National Armories at Springfield, in Massachusetts, nagement of their financial concerns, than, perhaps, in and at Harper's ferry, in Virginia; and a report had been any other subject. If we are to begin the work, (said made to Congress, at his own instance, pointing out the Mr. B.) let it be with something else, more in accordvarious sites which the United States' engineers had ance with the proper principles of retrenchment than this. thought would be advantageous for an armory in the The question was then taken on printing the largest Western country. But, although his immediate constitu- number proposed, ten thousand copies, and decided in ents were deeply interested in the establishment of an the affirmative. armory at the Horse Shoe bend, and others equally interested in other sites, he despaired ever seeing in his day

WEDNESDAY, DECEMBER 16, 1829. an armory established in the West at all, unless upon the broad principle of giving the Executive of the United Mr. RICHARDSON, of Massachusetts, for the addition to

The resolution came up which was yesterday moved by States the power of selecting a site, as had been done here. the standing committees of a tofore in the case of the armory at Springfield, and that at Harper's ferry. Having no objection to inquiring into

COMMITTEE ON EDUCATION. the expediency of establishing an armory in the West, as The resolution having been read, well as in the South, but being opposed to confounding Mr. RICHARDSON said that his proposition was a simthe two propositions, Mr. J. moved to strike out of Mr. ple one, proposing only that a standing Committee on Carsor's amendment the conjunction or, and insert and, Education should be provided, by the rules and orders of which would have the effect to separate the two proposi- the House. Unless it was made necessary, by objections tions, instead of connecting them.

to the resolution, he should not occupy any portion of the Nir. CARSON said, he was entirely disposed to gratify time of the House upon it, but submit it for decision withhis friend from Kentucky; but, as his motion had been out remark. znade on the impulse of the moment, and could be readily Mr. HALL said, in due deference to the gentleman who modified to meet his friend's views, he moved, to give op- presented this resolution, the subject was one which he portunity for that purpose, that the resolution shoukl be conceived did not-properly come within the control of ordered to lie upon the table for the present.

Congress. I shall, (said he,] therefore, feel myself bound The motion was agreed to.

to object to the resolution. The subject of education, ANNUAL TREASURY REPORT.

evidently, so far as legislation can be carried to it, properly

belongs to the State authorities. If we go on assuming The SPEAKER laid before the House a letter from authority over subjects entirely foreign to our sphere of the Secretary of the Treasury, transmitting his annual re-authority, where are we to end? We already have much port upon the state of the finances.

extrinsic matter. As an instance, I will mention the sub. The report having been announced from the Chair, ject of agriculture; over which we have, I believe, a

Mr. BUCHANAN moved that ten thousand copies of standing committee. This, I have always been at a loss the report, and the documents accompanying it, be printed. to reconcile to my idea of the just power of Congress.

Mr.'WHITTLESEY proposed six thousand copies, be- If we go on engulphing every subject to which legislation ing the largest number ever printed of a public document can be carried, to what result must we come? Shall we not before this session.

effectually assume all the power of the State authorities? Mr. BUCHANAN said that the Annual Report from This must necessarily be the result. Sir, there is a doctrine the Treasury Department was always looked to with great advanced, and properly advanced, and sustained by the interest by the people; that it was tou voluminous to find Supreme Court of the United States, a doctrine properly admission at large into the newspapers; that its general deduced from one of the plainest provisions of the concirculation was very desirable, &c. Ten thousand copies stitution—it is, that all the powers of this Government, had been ordered to be printed of the documents accom- though limited, are plenary, within their proper sphere. panying the message of the President; and this document, I admit the soundness of this doctrine; but if it at once he presumed, would be considered of at least equal import- puts this subject to rest. I presume neither the gentle

man himself, nor any other, will pretend that the States Mr. WHITTLESEY said, be aclmitted that thit docu- have not the right to legislate upon this subject. If this ment was one of importance, and sought for with avidity. be so, it is decisive that this Government cannot, because He thought, however, that the largest number of copies its power over the subject, being plenary, is necessarily ever before printed, was sufficiently large nuw; especially exclusive, and therefore not to be participated. It is not as the material and substantial part of the report would my object to detain the House; but for the reasons given, find its way into every newspaper in the country. He was I object to the resolution. disposed, he said, to observe, as far as was consistent with Mr. DAVIS, of South Carolina, expressed a desire to a prudent regard to the public interest, the system of eco- know what were the particular views which had induced

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H. of R.]

Committee on Education.

{Dec. 16, 1829.

the gentleman from Massachusetts to bring forward this committees on agriculture, manufactures, Indian affaits, proposition.

and various interests, never named in the constitution? Mr. STORRS, of New York, made a few observations, What is the language of the constitution? “We, the the import of which was, that he was perfectly willing, people of the United States, in order (among other things] when any subject requiring it should be before the House, to promote the general welfare, and secure the blessto give it direction to a proper committee. He was not ings of liberty to ourselves and our posterity, do ordain aware, however, of any necessity for a standing committee and establish this constitution for the United States of on the subject. The only way in which it had heretofore America.” The eighth section, which cnumerates the been directly presented to the consideration of the House, powers of Congress, declares expressly that “the Conwas in the shape of propositions connected with grants of gress shall have power to provide for the general welfare public lands, which had been, as matter of course, referred of the United States;" and is to make all laws which shall be to the Committee on the Public Lands. Believing the con- necessary and proper for carrying into execution the fore. sideration of such propositions to be safely lodged in the going powers, and all other powers vested by this constihands of that committee, he had no disposition to transfer tution.” Is it possible to doubt that Congress is vested by it to another select committee. As at present advised, the constitution with power to pass any laws, or adopt any therefore, he should vote against the resolution. measures, not prohibited by it, which are essential "to

Mr. RICHARDSON said, that the importance of educa- promote the general welfare?” All unite in bearing testition to the people of the United States, induced him to ad, mony that the general diffusion of knowledge in the United * vocate the adoption of the resolution now before the House. States is essential “ to the general welfare, and to secure

The gentleman from New York (Mr. H. R. Storrs] the blessings of liberty.” Singular, indeed, would it be, has said that he knows not what a standing Committee on if the framers of the constitution had bound their own Education can have to act upon. Mr. R. said, he would hands, and the hands of their posterity, under articles and reply to the gentleman, that such a committee would have sections to exclude the great law of self-preservation from the whole subject to act upon-a long neglected subject, the system. I cannot impute to them, nor to the system, and of the highest importance to the welfare of this Union. a folly so stupendous.

This subject had been most earnestly and repeatedly It is demanded, if measures for the promotion of educa. recommended by the great patrons of liberty--the fathers tion were deemed so important, why have they not been of American independence--the founders of this republic. adopted? My answer is, that a favorable moment for the Permit me (said Mr. R.} to call the attention of the House purpose has not before occurred. Soon after the immerto the opinion contained in the message of the first Presi- tal Washington recommended this subject to the attention dent of the United States to Congress, 1790:

of Congress, the civilized world was wrapt in a flame of “Nor am I less persuaded that you will agree with me war and revolution. Our revenue was reduced or exin opinion that there is nothing which can better deserve hausted in measures for self-defence. This country sufferyour patronage than the promotion of science and litera-ed from many causes of embarrassment. ture. Knowledge is, in every country, the surest basis of When prosperity began again to dawn upon the repubpublic happiness. In one, in which the measures of Gov-lic, the illustrious Jefferson recommenıled to Congress ernment receive their impressions so immediately from the the same subject. But soon again embarrassinents and sense of the community as in ours, it is proportionally war dried up and exhausted the resources of the country. essential. To the security of a free constitution it contri- To the discharge of the public debt the revenue has been butes in various ways. By convincing those who are en applied, until the moment has nearly arrived when it will trusted with the public administration, that every valuable have been wholly cancelled. At the same time the reve: end of government is best answered by the enlightened nue is gradually increasing, so that a large surplus will confidence of the people, and by teaching the people remain in the national treasury. To what purpose more themselves to know and 'to value their own rights; to valuable to the United States, or more honorable to this discern and provide against invasions of them; to distin. Government, can that surplus be applied, than to the purguish between oppression and the necessary exercise of pose of education? It may well become the guardians lawful authority--between burdens proceeding from a lof the public welfare to consider, that if this surplus of disregard to their convenience, and those resulting from revenue should not be applied in a manner to satisfy the the inevitable exigencies of society; to discriminate the people that it is beneficial to the general welfare, they may spirit of liberty from that of licentiousness--cherishing the indignantly send up a power here that shall cause the revefirst--avoiding the lastand uniting a speedy, but tempe- nue to be abulished; an event which all would bave cause rate vigilance against encroachments, with an inviolable to deplore. Let the revenue be abolished, and the Union respect to the laws. Whether this desirable object will would be prostrate at the feet of her enemies. No, sir; be best promoted by affording aids to seminaries of learn. rather let measures be adopted to apply the surplus of ing already established, by the institution of a National revenue to the promotion of education. The present is a University, or by any other expedients, will be well wor- most favorable moment to devise a plan for this purpose. thy of a place in the deliberations of the Legislature. .” It is virtually recommended by the President, in his ines-- Washington's Message to Congress.

sage just communicated, where we are informed that the Mr. Speaker, this is not a solitary recommendation of amount required for the discharge of the public debt will this subject to the attention of Congress. In similar lan- be at the disposal of the Government for other important guage, it has been repeatedly urged upon Congress by objects. For these general reasons, I am in favor of the Washington, Jefferson, Madison, and others.

resolution. Regretting to occupy thc time of the House, If it be true, as the gentleman from New York says, I submit the question without further remarks. that a committee on education would have nothing to act Mr. ARCHER, of Virginia, said, that, in common, he upon, the fact is enough to encrimson the cheek of every had no doubt, with many members of the House, he should friend to his country with the blush of deep mortification have a good deal to say on the subject of this resolution, It is high time that there were a committee to make this a if he could conceive (which he did not) that there were subject of attention--to devise and mature measures to any danger of its adoption. He was persuaded that the promote an object of vital importance to this republic. honorable mover had not meditated fully the extent of the

The gentleman from North Carolina (Mr. Hall) has question which the resolution went to raise. It was one stated that he has constitutional objections to the proposed of the largest, and, in the most favorable aspect

, contest

; Is it possible that the constitution prohibits the able questions of power which had been ever presented power to raise a committee on education, whilst there are in the operation of the Government. It was true, as the


Dec. 17, 1829.]

Honor to a deceased Member.- Distribution of Public Lands.

[H. of R.

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gentleman bad suggested, that the subject had been As a further mark of respect to the memory of the debrought to the attention of Congress heretofore, on more ceased, Mr. BARRINGER then moved that the House do than one occasion, but in modes very different from that now adjourn. now proposed. It had been suggested in the messages of Chief Magistrates as a topic of the gravest deliberation,

ThursdAY, DECEMBER 17, 1829. or there had been a formal assertion by resolution that the

DISTRIBUTION OF PUBLIC LANDS. power resided in the Government, accompanied by propos sitions for a practical application of it. Mr. A. had sup. Mr. HUNT, of Vermont, submitted for consideration posed that these were times in which republican principles the following resolution: had attained ascendancy, and the revival of this doctrine Resolved, that the Committee on the Public Lands be would not be thought of in this House. If the gentleman instructed to inquire into the expediency of appropriatdid desire the revival, however, and thought he could finding the nett annual proceeds of the sales of the public any considerable number to think with him, the mode of lands among the several States, for the purposes of eduproceeding should be that to which he [Mr. A.; had just cation and internal improvement, in proportion to the rereferred; by resolution affirming the power, to which the presentation of each in the House of Representatives. present resolution might be a sequel. It could not be The question of consideration of this resolve was deexpected that, by indirection on a mere proposition to raise manded by Mr. STANBERY, of Ohio, and decided in the a committee, a decision was to be had, to let in not only affirmative. this jurisdiction, but the mass of connected constructions Mr. STERIGERE, of Pennsylvania, then moved to which were equally involved. Mr. A. professed himselt amend the resolution by striking out, after the word entirely prepared now to enter into the discussion and “ States,” the words “for the purposes of education and disprove the power. He could not conceive that it could internal improvement." He had no objection whatever be necessary to do so, however; and in that view, he to the principle of distributing the nett proceeds of the should content himself with moving that the resolution be sales of public lands among the States, but he was opposed laid on the table, with the purpose that it should not be to the restriction upon the application of them proposed taken up again.

by the resolution. The question on laying the resolution on the table was Mr. HUNT said, that, by repeated special grants, donathen taken by yeas and nays, and decided as follows: tions of the public lands had been made to some of the yeas, 156—nays, 52.

States, and to particular institutions in others of the States, HONOR TO A DECEASED MEMBER.

but in all cases for the purposes of education and inter

nal improvement, and for none other. He wished, in the Mr. BARRINGER, of North Carolina, rose for the pur- distribution of the avails of the residue of the public lands, pose of performing the last sad office due to friendship, in to adhere to the same principle. announcing to the House the death of his late esteemed Mr. TEST, of Indiana, said, that he considered the colleague, the honorable GabrieI Holmes. He said he principle involved in the resolution to be one of great im. would have performed this duty at an earlier day, but for portance, and one which this House ought not to be called his own impaired health. Before tendering to the House to act upon without due consideration. He objected to a resolution which he had prepared in relation to the me the resolution, as well in its details as in its principle. It lancholy event which he had just announced, he might, seemed to him to embrace, in effect, the proposition that he hoped, be excused for saying, that those to whom the the public lands should be divided among the States genelate Governor Holmes was known, eulogy would be unne- rally; to which he coull never consent. He thought that cessary, and to those to whom his deceased friend and time should be given to reflect upon the subject before it colleague was unknown, he felt, in his present state of was further acted upon.

With that view he moved to impaired health, an utter inability to do justice to the lay the resolution upon the table. eminent virtues of the deceased. He should not, there The motion to lay the resolution on the table was negafore, make the attempt. He had the pleasure of knowing tived, 108 votes to 71. him in all the relations of life; in the endearing domestic The question on Mr. STERIGERE'S motion to amend relations, in which he was unsurpassed for the gentler the resolve was then also decided in the negative, 102 virtues of conjugal tenderness and affection, for parental votes to 72. kindness and indulgence; as the chief magistrate of his na Mr. SEVIER, Delegate from Arkansas, moved to tive State, in which he discharged the duties devolved upon amend the resolve, by inserting, after the word “States," him with a dignity becoming his own elevated character, the words “and Territories;" and and the confidence reposed in him by his own constituents; This motion to amend was agreed to. as a representative of the people in this House.

Mr. VANCE, of Ohio, asked how the resolve would propriately he performed bis duties here, was too well read thus amended? How could the Territories become known to require a recital from him.

entitled to land, &c. "in proportion to the representation Mr. B. said, his deceased friend and colleague had been of each,” &c.? The Territories (he said) have no reprean honored member of the nineteenth and twentieth Con- sentation on this floor. They would have no claim to land gresses, and member elect of the twenty-first Congress of under this resolve, unless the House should further rethis House. It had pleased Heaven to remove him, and solve that delegates are representatives. it was due to him to say that his loss was most regretted Mr. MARTIN, of South Carolina, entered his protest by those who knew him best; and, as a testimonial of re- against the number and variety of propositions brought spect for the memory of the deceased, he asked of the before the House concerning the public lands, and proposkindness of the House the adoption of the resolution which ing to dispose of them in various ways. It seemed as if he now offered.

the four quarters of the Union were striving with one Mr. B. then presented the following:

another which should get the most out of these lands. Resolved, That the members of the House of Repre. The appetite for them appeared to be insatiable and unsentatives, from a sincere desire of showing every mark. controllable. Ile was opposed to the whole of these pro. of respect due to the memory of the honorable GABRIEL positions. This was not the time to express at large his Holmes, late a member thereof, from the State of North views on this subject; but if there was any justice, truth, Carolina, will go into mourning for one month, by the 'or reason, in the proposition now submitted to the House, usual mode of wearing crape around the left arm. the amendment which he was about to propose ought to The resolution was unanimously agreed to.

have its weight with the House, Mr. M. said, he did not

How ap

H. of R.]

Distribution of Public Lands.

(Dec. 17, 1829.

conceal from the House that he meant to vote against the the committee should turn their attention to it, and he resolution in any shape; but if the resolution is entitled to hoped that the result of their inquiries would be to prepass at all, it should be with the amendment. The princi- sent an interesting document, going to show how much ple of the resolution is, that a distribution of the proceeds land has been appropriated by Congress for public pur. of sales of the public lands shall be made among the seve. poses in the several States, When the facts were ascer. ral States for certain purposes. If this be a right dispo- tained, it would be seen whether, in a general apportionsition of them, [said Mr. M.] it then follows that those who ment, there ought to be a reduction from the quotas of have bad land heretofore should render an account of these States or not. Mr. M. did not conceive it at all imwhat they have already had. Let us see how the balance portant whether the amendment should be rejected or not; sheet stands. Let us see what proportion of the public but, of the two, he should prefer its being carried. For lands has been given to the Atlantic States, from Maine to himself, he supposed that these donations of land have Georgia. Let us compare that proposition with what has been beneficially bestowed. He felt, therefore, no alarm been given to the States west of the Alleghany. If there at the idea of ascertaining the amount of them; nor would be any propriety in the mode of disposing of the public the insertion of such an amendment deter him from purlands at all, let us bring this question to the test; what pro- suing the main object of the resolution. portion has been heretofore given to the States respec Mr. JOHNSON, of Kentucky, said, that the subject of tively, or to institutions within those States? He would this resolution was one very deeply interesting to the State not now pursue the inquiry in detail, but he said the which he partly represented, and that he should much amount which had been given to the States west of the prefer that it should be made to contain no proposition or Alleghany was incalculable; he should hardly be credited sentiment that in the commencement of the inquiry should were he to attempt to state it. He concluded by moving promise a quarrel between the different members of the to insert after the word " inquire,” in the resolution, the Union. He should prefer that the resolution should stand words “into the amount and value of the public lands upon the liberal basis of looking to the future rather than which have been given by Congress to any State, or to to the time past, though he believed that the State of any public institution in said State."

Kentucky, in regard to donations from the General GoMr. VANCE, of Ohio, said, that he was very much of vernment, whether in money or in land, would not lose by opinion that, in the views which he had taken of it, the the general settlement of the question which the gentleman gentleman from South Carolina had looked to but one side from South Carolina had spoken of. At its last session, the of this question. The people of the Western States had Legislature of the State of Kentucky had had this subject certainly received from the United States grants of land under its consideration, and hail requested its Representa

. for the purpose of promoting education; or, rather, the tives to present a claim to Congress for a part of the public Government had said to them, if you will buy thirty-five domain, which (Mr. J. said] was rendered more interesting sections of the public land, we will give you one section to the district which he represented, from the fact of its for the purpose of promoting education. And the gentle bordering on the Ohio river, by which it was separated man from South Carolina, if he had gone to the Western from two or three of those States which are alleged to country, as the settlers of that country did, and waded have received an undue proportion of the donations of through fevers and fogs to clear it, and paid as much public land. He thought, however, that the general dismoney as they did for their lands, would have been enti- cussion of this subject had better be postponed. He should tled to the same benefit as they from this sort of donation. vote for the proposition for inquiry on the most liberal Sir, (said Mr. V.] I am as willing to meet this question at principle: but, in doing so, he did by no means admit that one time as another: I say, that we of the West have had the State of Kentucky had received from the United States no donations of public land. Every body that got lands an undue proportion of aid, either in land or in money. in that country paid for them; and the people of that Mr. REED, of Massachusetts, rose, not (he said) to country know how they have been fleeced of their last engage in debate on this subject, but to show that the dollar for that purpose. It was well known (he said) to information sought for by the amendment under considera. the people of that country how they had earned their tion was furnished to Congress at the last session, as would school lands. They had paid for them a sufficiently valu- be found by a document on the files of the House, to which able consideration. He was not prepared, [he said,] any he called the attention of gentlemen. more than the gentleman from South Carolina, to go into Mr. TAYLOR, of New York, said, he had risen at the this discussion; but at the threshold he was willing to meet same moment as the gentleman from Massachusetts

, for the doctrine of the gentleman concerning these lands. the purpose of stating the same thing as that gentleman Any one who had been raised in the West, or had pur- had already done. The report of the committee raised at chased lands there, had their feelings on this subject; and the last session on this subject did not give the value of the he, for one, knew how to sympathize with them from his lands granted to the several states, but he thought that it was own experience.

sufficiently minute for all practical purposes. The amend. Mr. MALLARY,of Vermont, said, that it was true that the ment now proposed was, he thought, calculated to embarsubject of inquiry proposed by this resolution was of great rass the main question. He invited the attention of genimportance; but the resolution proposed only to invite to it tlemen to the report of the committee of the last session the attention of a committee of the House, and not to settle on this subject, which he thought contained a good deal any principle. The subject of a disposition of the public of useful information, and which was deemed so inte. lands, it is well known,' is agitated in every part of the resting that six thousand copies of it had been ordered to Union. Various views are entertained of it. We know be printed. that, in many parts of the country, the people believe Mr. WILDE, of Georgia, avowed himself in favor of that the avails of the public lands, after the national debt the amendment of his friend from South Carolina, and is paid, ought to be divided among the several States. did not consider it a sufficient reason for rejecting it, that Whether this course should be pursued, or not, was not an inquiry had been made into similar topics at the last the question before the House, but whether the subject session of Congress, and that the result of it is now to be itself was of sufficient importance to invite an investigation found on the files of the House. He was opposed to the here. In relation to the amendment which had been pro- original proposition. He understood that the whole sub. posed (Mr: M. said] he did not see any thing injurious in ject of the disposition of the surplus revenue of the Unitits character, or adverse to the object of the mover of the ed States, over and above the payment of the public debt, original resolution. He did not see any thing insulting in constituting, as it did, one of the topics of the President's this proposed amendment: he was perfectly willing that message, had been already referred to a committee of the

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