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721. Cornua-infigunt,' they strive together, interlocking their horns. 723. Daunius heros,' Turnus, so named from his father.

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725-8. Jove himself holds the two scales suspended in an equal balance, and puts into them respectively the opposite fates of the tico men. Which one the contest should condemn to death, and with which weight the fatal balance should incline; letum,' for 'lanx letifera. Jove himself could only ascertain the decree of fate, which he could not overrule. impunè putans,' thinking he might with impunity.


733-40. Ni-subeat'; the sentence is elliptical; unless flight had aided him, instant death had been his portion. ignotum,' strange, not his own, as hereafter explained. There is a report, that when he was hurriedly mounting his horses yoked for the beginning of the fight, in his haste, he left behind his father's sword, and took that of his charioteer Metiscus. 'arma- Vulcania'; the arms of Æneas made by Vulcan : 'futilis,' brittle.

743. 'incertos-orbes,' winds about irregularly, to elude his pursuer. 746. sagittà,' the wound received from an arrow some hours before, which was not yet entirely healed.

748. trepidi- urget,' and eagerly presses his own foot upon the foot of the trembling fugitive; - as we say, treads upon his heels.

750. formidine pennæ'; see note to Geor. III. 372.

752-3.Ille,' the stag: 'insidiis'; that is, by the feathers: 'Umber,' a dog from Umbria, a district in the north of Italy.


755. Increpuit malis,' grinds his teeth.


763. Quinque cursu,' they run over the entire circuit of the plain five times: retexunt,' for 'recurrunt'; pass over it again.

767-9. signum,' a landmark: 'et - vestes,' and to hang up gar ments as votive offerings.

770-3. nullo discrimine,' with no reverence: Sustulerant,' had cut down the tree 'puro,' open, unobstructed. 'hasta Æneæ'; see line 711: 'lentâ,' tenacious.

778-80. honores,' rites in your honor: 'fecêre profanos,' have profaned. non-vota,' not with ineffectual vows, -not in vain.

782-3. 'discludere - Roboris, to open the grasp of the tough wood, 785-90.dea Daunia,' Juturna, the sister of Turnus. Quod Accessit,' Venus, indignant that the audacious nymph should take this license, came up. Hic,' Turnus: hic,' Eneas: arduus,' elated in mind, Stand opposed to each other, panting for the bloody contest.


794-5. Indigetem cœlo,' you well know, and confess that you know, that Eneas is fated to attain heavenly honors as the god of the country; Indigetem'; see note to Geor. I. 498.


797. divum, Æneas, here called a god by anticipation.


799–803. 'victis,' for 'victo': 'edat,' devour, eat into your soul: recursent,' and do not let words from your dear mouth so often cause me trouble and anxiety; Nec - et,' for nec- - nec.' Ventum est,' the affair has now come to an end.



805. Deformare domum,' to trouble the family of Latinus.

810-1.Nec tu videres me'; the sentence is elliptical; if this was not so, if your determination was not made evident, you would not see me: Digna - pati,' suffering all manner of treatment.

814-5. et probavi,' and I approved her great audacity in attempting to save her brother's life. But I did not approve her in hurling weapons and bending the bow for this purpose.

816-7. See note to Book VI. 324. reddita,' is binding upon. 819-20.nullà - tenetur,' which is not opposed by any law of fate: 'tuorum,' of your people; the father of Jove had reigned in Latium.


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825. vocem aut vestes,' language or dress. The poet here artfully anticipates the objection made to the story, that Æneas with his companions had settled in Italy, because no traces of the Trojan name or language had remained in the country.

827-8. Let the Romans acquire greatness as an Italian, not as a Trojan race. Troy has perished, and let it perish, and its name also. 832-3.submitte,' calm down your anger: me remitto,' I yield. 835-6. Utque · " Teucri,' the name shall remain as it is; united in blood only, the Trojans shall be absorbed into the Latin race, and shall disappear as a distinct people.

841-2. 'retorsit,' for mutavit': 'cœlo,' for 'ex aëre.'

844-50. fratris ab armis, from aiding the arms of her brother. 'Dicuntur cognomine Diræ,' called "Dira" by name, -the Furies.

Quas partu, whom, together with the infernal Megara, dismal Night brought forth at one birth. The Furies were three in number, Allecto, Tisiphone, and Megara. paribus,' for 'pariter'; all in the same way:


ventosas,' swift as the wind. 'Apparent,' wait as ministers.


854. inque-occurrere,' and to appear to Juturna as a fatal omen. 857-9.Armatam - veneni torsit,' which, armed with a deadly poisonous extract, the Parthian hurled: 'Cydon'; see note to Ecl. X. 59. incognita,' because unexpected.


862. Alitis parvæ'; the owl is meant, which, though large as a bird, was a small shape for the Fury to assume: 'subitam,' for 'subitò.' 863-7. Compare Book IV. 462-3. 'serùm per umbras,' late, and in the dark. Turni-sonans,' the Fury, screaming, flies to and fro before the face of Turnus: solvit,' unnerved.

871. Repeated from Book IV. 673.


873-6.dure,' unhappy: 'quâ—morer,' by what means can I prolong your life? Obscœnæ volucres,' ye birds of fatal omen.



æternam'; see lines 139-41: Quò,' wherefore. 882-4. aut erit,' or will any thing that is mine be pleasant to me, without thee, my brother? 'O-mihi'; repeated from Book X. 675-6. 887-9. coruscat,' brandishes: arboreum,' like a tree in size: 'aut - retractas,' or why do you now hesitate?

891-4. et-vales,' and bring together to your aid whatever you can, whether by courage or by cunning: 'sequi pennis,' to fly up to. fervida,' arrogant.


898-900. Limes,' as a landmark: 'litem-arvis,' that it might decide any dispute respecting the boundaries of the fields. Twelve chosen men, of such degenerate bodies as the earth now yields, could hardly bear it on their shoulders; see note to Geor. I. 497. This passage is in close imitation of Homer.

903. nec cognoscit se,' he does not recognise himself, — he finds that his usual strength and speed have deserted him.


909-10. nequidquam — videmur,' we seem to make an eager but vain effort to run. The simile is admirable both for correct and graphic description, and for illustrative effect. See note to Book IV. 466.

913-6. quâcumque petivit,' however bravely he makes the effort: 'dea'; the Fury mentioned above. Tum - varii,' then various emotions pass over his mind. He turns his eyes back upon the city, as if for a last look at his friends, and then forward upon the weapon, which he cannot escape. telum-tremiscit,' and shudders at the impending spear. His feelings are described with great pathos and truth.


920-5. Sortitus-oculis,' watching for an opportunity, for a vulnerable part, whither to direct the spear: corpore toto,' with his whole strength. Murali concita Tormento,' hurled by a mural catapult: nec- crepitus,' nor does so great a crash follow the thunderbolt. Lorica,' the lower extremity of the coat of mail. 'septemplicis'; formed of seven folds of bull's hide, or of metal.



932-3. sorte tuâ,' your good fortune.


potest,' but if any regard for my unhappy parent can move you. 935. seu-mavis,' either alive, or if you prefer it, as a lifeless corpse. Too proud to beg openly, Turnus insinuates a prayer for mercy. 940-3. Et-Cœperat,' and now the language of Turnus had begun

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to soften the hesitating Æneas more and more: 'infelix,' unlucky: 'cingula bullis'; see Book IX. 359–60, and note. 'Pallantis — Turnus'; see Book X. 501 -5.

945-6. Exuvias hausit,' eagerly eyed the spoils of Pallas, which Turnus wore: sævi - doloris; these renewed his recollection of the pain, which he had suffered at the death of Pallas.

947-9.Tune Eripiare mihi,' would you escape me: 'meorum,' of my friend. Immolat,' sacrifices thee to the infernal gods: 'scelerato ex sanguine,' by taking your wicked life.

951-2. frigore,' the coldness of death: 'solvuntur- umbras'; repeated from Book 1. 92, and XI. 831.

The poem closes rather abruptly with the death of Turnus, no obstacle then remaining to the marriage of Eneas with Lavinia, and the establishment of the Trojans in Italy. The concluding part of the contest between the two chieftains is finely described; but the narration, as a whole, is too much spun out, and the interest flags. Indeed, the last book is less pleasing than either of the others, for it contains no episode of remarkable brilliancy, and the incidents do not follow each other with sufficient rapidity and spirit. As the latest effort of Virgil's genius, executed when his health was already sinking under the disease, which at last proved fatal to him, it shows the want of that severe and tasteful revision, which has left such an air of exquisite finish upon all his other productions. But it still displays many traces of that chaste and elegant genius, which has rendered the whole poem an object of study and imitation for all later ages.

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