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duplex'; Apollo and Diana: 'Janum'; see note to Book VII. 180. Vim deûm,' for 'deos,' as canum vis,' Book IV. 132. 'duri-Ditis,' the sacred abode of inexorable Pluto.
204-7. In this order; non, si ulla vis, miscens Diluvio, effundat tellurem,' &c.; no, not even if some force, mingling them together in a deluge, should dissolve the earth in the waves, and bring down the skies into Tartarus. Ut-hoc,' Nunquam- umbras,' as this sceptre shall never send forth shoots with light foliage, nor cause a shade.
209. Matre,' its mother root: brachia,' brunches.
213-4. Conspectu procerum,' in the full view of the assembled chieftains: rite sacratas, having received the proper rites; see lines 172-4. In- jugulant,' they kill and throw into the flames.
217-20. et motu,' and their minds were agitated with various thoughts: ut æquis,' as they see the contest drawing nigh, which would be waged with powers not equally matched. Adjuvat, this fear is strengthened, when they see Turnus advancing, &c. ' demisso lumine, with downcast eyes.
222-5. Quem Sermonem crebrescere,' this conversation-expressive of fear increasing labantia corda,' failing hearts: formammerti,' taking the shape of Cumers: genus ingens,' noble descent. 227. In 6 acies,' she goes into the midst of the ranks. 229-33.pro-talibus,' for all these brave men: Objectare,' to ex'Fatalis habemus, and the destructive bands, the Etrurians hostile to Turnus. If only every other man- - only half of our force should engage, we should hardly have an enemy for each.
234-8.Ille,' Turnus: 'quorum aris,' to whose service he devotes himself: Succedet,' will be exalted: vivus-feretur,' and will obtain immortal reputation; per ora,' that is, in sermonibus.' 'lenti,' idle: 'sententia, feelings, opinions, yróun.
241-3. Qui jam Sperabant,' who were just now hoping for: 'salutem,' security: 'foedus Infectumn,' that the treaty might be broken off
245-50.præsentius,' more clear and manifest: monstro,' prodigy: 'rubrâ,' ruddy, as the sky sometimes appears in a peculiar state of the atmosphere: Jovis ales,' the eagle: Littoreas aves,' shore birds: 'sonantem,' noisy. lapsus,' gliding down: 'improbus,' ravenous. 252-4. Convertunt fugam,' wheel about, screaming, in order to attack-hostem,' the eagle: Factà nube,' for agmine'; banding together, in a body: premunt,' follow closely, harass.
258. Expediunt manus,' raise their hands, — a gesture expressive of sudden conviction and resolution.
260. Accipio deos,' I receive the omen and acknowledge the power of the gods. Any one might accept an omen, that is, acknowledge its truth and act upon it, or not.
262-3. As Tolumnius interprets the omen, the eagle signified Ænethe swan Turnus, and the other birds the Latins. 'penitùs profundo,' far off on the deep sea.
267-71. cornus,' a spear made of cornel-wood: Certa,' well-aimed. The repetition of simul' expresses the hurry and agitation of the moment. 'cunei' here means the assembled spectators; see note to Geor. II. 509. 'fratrum Corpora,' for 'fratres.'
273-6. Horum medium Transadigit costas,' the flying spear (line 270) pierced the side of one of these brothers, in the middle of his body: 'et- - mordet,' and where the clasp holds together the ends of the belt; laterum' of the belt, not of the body.
280-1.hinc-Troes,' then again sweep forth in crowds the Trojans, &c. Agyllini'; see note to Book VIII. 479.
285-6. Crateras ferunt,' they hurl goblets and brands of fire, snatched from the altars. Pulsatos,' for violatos': 'divos,' images of the gods.
289-91. 'insigne,' the badge, the diadem: 'Aaverso — equo,' frightens by urging his horse against him: ruit,' he falls.
292. And unluckily tumbles over the altars that were behind him. 294. trabali,' like a beam, very great.
296. Hoc habet'; the cry used in the amphitheatre, when a gladiator was hit by his opponent.
300-1. Occupat-flammis,' strikes him in the mouth with the flaming brand: reluxit - dedit,' caught fire, and emitted a burnt smell. 303-8. Putting his knee against him, by a great effort throws him to the ground. 'securi— reducta,' drawing back the axe: frontem medianı Disjicit,' cleaves the middle of his forehead.
312. Nudato capite,' without his helmet; sceking, by this show of confidence, to still the tumult.
315-7.mihi soli,' I alone have the right to combat. for firmabo'; 'faxo,' for 'fecero'; Gr. § 162. 7 and 9. the solemn rites with which the treaty had been confirmed.
319-22.allapsa alis,' for advolavit': 'Incertum adacta,' no one knowing by what hand it was sent, by what whirlwind force it was impelled. Pressa est,' was suppressed, kept secret.
324. cedentem,' departing in consequence of his wound.
326-8. saltu- currum, confidently jumps into his chariot: molitur,' takes hold of, assumes: 6 volitans,' driving round.
330-5. aut-hastas,' or hurls in quick succession the spears, which he had seized, against the enemy. 'Qualis increpat,' as the bloodthirsty Mars, when irritated, near the streams of the cold Hebrus, strikes his shield. gemit-pedum,' distant Thrace echoes the tramp of his horses' feet:atræ. -ora,' dark and fearful shapes. 338-9.quatit,' urges on: miserabilè — insultans,' trampling terribly over his slain foes.
342. congressus,' having met in close conflict: illum,' Sthenelus. 347-9. The offspring of noble Dolon, renowned in war; 'Antiqui,' for nobilis'; this is said ironically, for Homer makes Dolon a coward, and Eumedes is slain in a rather ignominious way. Representing his grandfather in name, but his father in disposition and actions; which father, when he visited as a spy the camp of the Greeks, &c.
351-2. alio Affecit pretio,' gave him another sort of reward, him for his audacity: nec adspirat,' he no longer aspired after. 354. Having first wounded him by a light arrow, hurled through the air from a distance.
357-62. alto tingit jugulo,' deep in his neck, so that it was stained with blood. In this order; En, Trojane, jacens metire agros et Hesperiam,' &c. Huic comitem,' as a companion to him in death.
365-6.Ac-Egeo,' as when the blast of the Thracian Boreas
the northeast wind resounds over the deep gean sea. The Edoni were a people of Thrace; hence, Edonus,' Thracian.
370-2. And the wind raised by his swiftly-gliding chariot shakes his waving plume. 'spumantia frænis,' foaming on the bits.
374-6. hunc consequitur,' the broad lance reaches him, as he was unprotected by his shield: degustat,' grazes.
379-80. Quum solo,' when the wheel and axle-tree, urged swiftly
on, struck him, and hurled him headlong to the ground.
386-8. Alternos nitentem gressus,' supporting every other step; one leg being wounded, he used his spear as a crutch. Sævit,' he is impatient and angry auxilio poscit,' and calls for the readiest means of healing the wound.
penitùs,' and that they should cut deep into the hidingplace of the weapon in the flesh. Phœbo dilectus,' 'loved by Apollo, who gave him skill in surgery.
395-7. That he might retard the fate of his dying father; 'depositi,' laid out, as if already deceased: 'usum,' the art founded on experience. 'et — artes,' and to practise ingloriously the obscure art of medicine.
400-4. lacrymis immobilis,' unmoved by their tears. Ille amictu,' the old man girding himself up after the manner of the physicians, by throwing back his garment. Pæon was the physician of the gods. Pæonium is here a trisyllable, as if spelled 'Paonyum.' Multa - trepidat,' trembling, makes many efforts, though in vain, with his healing hand and the potent herbs of Apollo, the god of medicine; trepidat,' for trepidanter facit.' 'Sollicitat,' works to and fro.
405-8. Nulla - regit,' no good fortune attends the process: 'horror,' the clash of arms; Book II. 301: malum,' the prospect of defeat: 'pulvere - Stare,' the air is full of dust.
412-4. Dictamnum,' the herb dittany; so called from mount Dicte, which formed a part of mount Ida, in Crete. Puberibus-Purpureo,' a plant with downy leaves and crested with a purple flower.
417-20. She steeps this in the water poured into the shining cup, secretly making the infusion; and mixes with it extract of wholesome ambrosia, and the fragrant cure-all; amnem' for aquam'; 'labris,' the brim put for the whole vessel; panaceam,' from ar and zos. 'Fovit,' bathed eâ lymphâ,' with this medicated water.
424-5. in pristina,' to his former vigor: statis,' do you delay?
429-30. agit,' urges you on: remittit,' 'te' understood: 'auro,' as in Book X1.488.
habilis - clypeus,' the shield was fitted on to his side.
435. verumque laborem.' and true fortitude.
437-9. Defensum dabit,' for defendet': 'præmia,' great deeds, victories. 'Tu facito Sis memor,' take good care to remember this.
444-6. Tum- Miscetur,' then the field is covered with blinding dust. "Vidit,' saw Æneas and his companions.
450-1. ‘Ille,' Æneas: rapit,' hurries along with him. sidere,' a tempest rushing forth;sidere,' as in Book XI. 260. 453-7. dabit - Arboribus,' it will overthrow the trees: ruet,' for 'evertet.'Rhætetus,' Trojan; see note to Book III. 108. 'densicoactis,' all crowding themselves together in wedge-shaped troops. 462. 'versi vicissim,' routed in their turn.
464-5. Ipse neque dignatur,' Eneas himself does not deign: 'aversos,' the fugitives: 'Nec-ferentes,' nor those who stood their ground against him, nor those who hurled weapons at him from a distance. 469-71.media. lora,' while he was holding the reins: Excutit,' throws him off the seat: longè' is applied by the poets to any distance, however small: subit,' takes his place.
473-5. As when the black house-swallow flies through the spacious dwelling of a rich lord, and sweeps on its pinions through the lofty halls, avoiding the inmates of the house, so Juturna drives through the field, shunning Æneas. nidis loquacibus,' nests containing its noisy young. 478-81. obit omnia,' traverses the whole field: Jamque hic,' now here, now there: conferre manum,' to meet in conflict with Æneas. tortos-orbes,' follows the winding track in order to meet with him.
484-6. And running on foot, tried the speed of the swift horses, endeavouring to overtake them, so often did Juturna wheel about the chariot in another direction, so as to escape him. 'æstu '; as in Book IV. 532: nequidquam,' without coming to any determination.
488-93. Huic dirigit,' directed against him: certo ictu,' with sure aim. 'et-arma,' and covered himself with his shield: summum apicem,' the top of his helmet: tulit,' for abstulit.'
494. insidiis subactus,' enraged by the secret attack.
496. læsi fœderis,' the treaty broken by the Latins.
498-9. nullo discrimine,' making no distinction of persons: 'irarum -habenas,' gave full course to his anger.
500-4. Quis mihi deus Expediat,' what god (Muse) will relate to me: Inque vicem,' by tmesis; by turns both Turnus, &c: 'Tanton'. futuras,' did it please thee, O Jove, that the nations, who were hereafter to be united in permanent union, should meet in such a furious conflict?
505-8. ea-Teucros,' this battle — the engagement of Æneas with Sucro-first caused the disordered Trojans to stand their ground. Excipit,' for vulnerat': 'quâ — celerrima,' where a blow would most quickly kill: costas et crates'; the ribs afford, as it were, a crates, or covering for the chest.
510-1.hunc,' the one: Hunc,' the other.
513-6. Ille,' Eneas: Nomen Echionium,' a Theban name; Echion assisted in building Thebes. matris - Peridia,' the son of Peridia. 'Hic,' Turnus: Lyciâ missos,' who came from Lycia, a country famous for the temples and oracles of Apollo.
518-20. Arcada,' an Arcadian; Gr. § 80. I. 'Lernæ'; see note to Book VI. 287. Ars,' occupation: potentum,' of great people: 'conductâ tellure,' in ground that he had hired.
524-7. in æquora,' over the plains: suumiter,' laying waste its track. rumpuntur,' swell even to bursting with rage.
529-32. In this order; hic Excutit scopulo-saxi Murranum Præcipitem,' &c.: 'hic,' Æneas:atavos sonantem,' who boasted of his ancestors: actum,' for ductum,' or procedens': 'scopulo-saxi,' by a great stone hurled with the force of a whirlwind.
534-6. nec memorum,' unmindful of their master. 'Ille,' Turnus: aurata,' that is, auratâ galeâ tecta.'
539-40. Nec sui,' nor did his peculiar gods protect Cupencus, when Eneas came against him; 'sui': Gr. § 208. (8.)'
543. Oppetere,' to die; see Book I. 96.
546-8. mortis metæ,' for 'mors,' which is the goal and end of life. 'Lyrnessi alta,' your lofty house was in the city of Lyrnessus, in the Troad, near mount Ida. conversa,' were mixed up together.
552-6. Pro- quisque,' each one fighting for himself: 'tendunt,' for 'contendunt.' 'mentem misit,' for consilium dedit,' gave him this counsel. clade'; fear of a massacre after the capture of the city.
559. Immunem,' untouched by: 'impunè,' without anxiety. 562. tumulum capit,' ascends an eminence, so as to be heard. 565-6. Jupiter - stat,' Jove is on our side, - favors us. Nor let any one engage less zealously in the work, because the plan was suddenly conceived by me.
568-9.frænum accipere,' receive the bit, become our subjects: 'fatentur,'' hostes' understood: æqua solo,' level with the ground.
570-5. Scilicet — pati,' am I to wait, forsooth, till it pleases Turnus to brave the contest with me? fœdus,' the fulfilment of the treaty: 'certantibus,' striving with each other in zeal: Dant cuneum,' they form a wedge-shaped troop: densâ mole,' in solid battalion.
577. primos, the first who are found at the gates; the guards. 579. dextram tendit,' stretches out his right arm towards the city. 582. altera,' for the second time.
585. trahunt-regem'; they bring forward king Latinus, to persuade him to make terms with the Trojans.
587-9. latebroso pumice'; see Book V. 214, and note. Vestigavit,' has traced home: trepida rerum,' alarmed at their condition. 592-3.saxa,' the rocks in which they had made their hives. hæc fortuna,' this new misfortune: 'fessis,' discouraged.
596. Incessi,' were beleaguered.
603-4. And tied the knot for an ignominious death around a lofty beam. This mode of committing suicide was common in the heroic age; Sophocles makes Jocasta and Antigone destroy themselves in this way. 'Quam cladem accepêre,' heard of this horrible event.
609. Demittunt mentes,' they become disheartened.
612-3. Repeated from Book XI. 471-2; but their authenticity here
is doubtful, for they are wanting in many manuscripts.
614. extremo in æquore,' on the farther part of the plain. 616-7. minùs 6 equorum'; the strength and speed of his horses began to fail: cæcis'; the cause of which was unknown to him.
621.diversâ ab urbe,' from the distant city. 625-6. 'Hâc,' in this direction: 'quâ opens a way for us.
629-30. Let our hands cause fearful havoc among the Trojans. In this way, you will kill as many as Eneas, and gain as much honor from the contest. numero,'' casorum,' understood.
632-5. 'quum-dedisti,' when first you disturbed the treaty by your artifices, and engaged yourself in this war. 'dea,' though you are a goddess: Olympo Demissam te,' that you, descending from Olympus.
639-40. Murranum - ingentem,' the great Murranus die, than whom no one survives more dear to me. This speech of Turnus is full of deep pathos, and enlists the feelings of the reader wholly on his side, and against the Trojans.
643-4. Shall I suffer our homes to be destroyed, since this alone is wanting to complete our misfortunes? Shall I not refute by my right hand the bitter words of Drances? rebus,' ' adversis understood. 646-8. Manes,' gods of the lower world, in distinction from 'Superis,' the celestial deities. istius- culpæ,' free from this ignominy, of seeking safety by flight.
653. in-salus, the last hope of safety rests on thee.
656-7.In-referunt,' the Latins turn their faces and look upon you: 6 mussat,' wavers, deliberates in silence.
662-8. aciem,' for 'prælium': 'strictis - Ferrea'; see Book VII. 526. 'tu-versas,' you drive round your chariot in a deserted part of the field. 'varià - rerum,' bewildered by the picture of the various things, that had happened; the death of Amata, the assault of the city, &c. Repeated from Book X. 871 - 2.
669. Anxiety and grief are called ' umbræ,' the darkness of the mind, and returning resolution lux,' the light.
pandit,' where first victory.
671-3. 'eque rotis,' and from his chariot; 'eque'; see note to Ecl. VII. 13. flammis- vortex,' a sheet of flame, wreathing round the framework (of the fortified towers,) rolled up to heaven.
675. These towers rested on wheels, so that they could be moved to and fro; and they had bridges, by which the garrison could make a sally. 678-80.stat- pati,' whatever bitterness there is in death, I am determined to suffer it: indecorem,' dishonored by fear. 'Hunc - furorem,' I pray thee, let me give full course to this frenzy before I die; 'furere furorem '; Gr. § 232.
686-8. Hath washed away the earth beneath it, or the lapse of years gliding away hath loosened it from its foundation. magno actu,' the vast fragment of a mountain with a great impulse: Exsultat solo,' and rebounds from the ground. The simile is borrowed from Homer.
692. Significat,' he makes a sign: magno ore,' with a loud voice. 694-5. 6 meluere,' it is more just, that I should expiate the breach of the treaty for you.
699. Præcipitat - omnes,' lays aside all delay: 'rumpit,' breaks off. 701-3. aut - Eryx,' or as great as Eryx; see note to Book I. 570 : 'autauras,' or as great as father Apennine himself, as he rises rejoicing with his snow-capped head into the air, when the wind roars among his waving holm-oaks. Compare "Paradise Lost"; Book IV. 985-9.
708-9. That these great men, born in different quarters of the globe, should meet and contend with the sword; cernere,' for 'decernere.' 712. Invadunt Martem,' begin the fight: clypeis atque ære'; Gr. § 323. 2. (3.)
714-5. Fors et virtus'; partly chance and partly valor rule the contest. ingenti - Taburno, in great Sila, or on huge Taburnus; Sila was the name of a vast forest in the country of the Brutii, in Italy; Taburnus, a lofty mountain in Samnium. The simile, which commences here, is very grand and magnificent. 717-8. 'magistri,' the keepers of the herd:
mussant,' as in line 657.