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Esquilias contendit; Suet. Tib. 15, e Carinis ac Pompeiana domo Esquilias . . . transmigravit; cf. Livy, xxvi, 10, 5) the Carinae is referred to as a district leading to the Esquiliae. The site we have suggested for the Carinae would tend to clarify some troublesome features of Varro's account of the Four Regions, and especially the proximity of the Sucusa (and Caelian) to the Carinae (Pagus Succusanus, quod succurrit Carinis). A freedman of Pompey, Suetonius (de Gram. 15) tells us, taught in Carinis ad Telluris, and this temple Dionysius (VIII, 79) says was situated κarà Tη Tì Kapivas pépovo av odóv, the road which in another place (1, 68) he calls TÍTOμov. Remains of private buildings were discovered in the lengthening of the Via dei Serpenti (Lanciani, Forma Urbis Romae, p. 29), thus pushing the probable position of the Aedes Telluris as far to the southwest as the Via del Colosseo at least. In the Curiosum Urbis the Templum Telluris is named just before the Tigillum Sororium and the Colosseum. And finally, there is the church of S. Maria in Carinis (Armellini, Chiese di Roma, 1887; C. L. Visconti, Bull. Com. xv (1887), 211), evidence which Huelsen rejects without sufficient reason.

Closely connected with this question of the Carinae is that of the early settlement of the Velia. How large the settlement was, we don't know; but, since a part of the "street leading to the Carinae" continued down into the time of Augustus to be designated as sub Velia, it is an easy conjecture that the early Velia (the oppidum on the hilltop of Septimontial times) extended from the sub Velia (the site of the Aedes Penatium) up to the top of the ridge, embracing some of the territory that came to be known as the Carinae not long after the Velia ceased to be independent and was merged in the Roman urbs. Since the sub Velia led to the Carinae, the Velia, certainly, must have occupied a part at least of what later became the Carinae together with the short street leading to it. In other words, the Carinae, that fashionable quarter of the city stretching from the height of S. Francesca Romana over

toward that of S. Pietro in Vincoli, covered all the territory formerly occupied by the early oppidum known as Velia except the small area in the immediate vicinity of the Aedes Penatium. In addition to this temple, moreover, two other small shrines were located here, those of Vica Pota and Mutunus Tutunus. Both these deities Wissowa 36 is inclined to place among the oldest circle of gods, and when Festus (154) says: Mutini Titini sacellum fuit in Veliis, we can easily understand why the Sacellum Mutini Titini, as well as the Aedes deum Penatium, should ever have been referred to as being in Velia (or in Veliis). There can be little doubt that the worship of Mutunus Tutunus dates from the primitive Italic settlement of the Velia.

The third separate force, therefore, that we attributed to Velia turns out to be closely related to the first and derived directly from it, although at first glance they seem to be quite distinct. When, however, Augustus and Livy use the expression, Aedes deum Penatium in Velia, the original topographical force of Velia has, it would seem, entirely disappeared, and, because of this fact, it would not be incorrect to place the phrase, in Velia, in a separate category. There is no reason to believe that the word, Velia, in any sense whatsoever remained in use long after the time of Augustus.

Our conclusion, then, is that from a topographical point of view the word Velia, in historical times, must be restricted to very narrow limits,-merely the lower portion of the little street leading to the Carinae, and that this district is the only one to which either sub Velia or in Velia actually refer. At this spot, we know, stood the small shrines of the Penates, of Vica Pota, of Mutunus Tutunus. Little more than this do we have authority for stating, except that the sepulcher of the Valerii was closely associated with the site of the sacellum of Vica Pota. The ridge above this spot, moreover, seems to have been connected somewhat loosely with the Velia of the

36 Religion und Kultus der Römer, pp. 243 ff.

Valerian tale, but no actual structure on this ridge was ever said to have been in Velia, for the reason that in historical times this district was regularly known as the Carinae. A section of the Carinae, together with the little street, popularly known as sub Velia, leading up to it, constituted in all probability the site of an Italic settlement named the Velia.

V.-How the Apple Became the Token of Love



The most famous apple of history, the Apple of Discord,1 was inscribed, according to Lucian, kaλǹ λaßerw. It was an apple of discord only because it was an apple of love. Other famous apples are those with which Hippomenes won his race with his beloved. In antiquity apples were presented to sweethearts as a proffer or declaration of love.3. In some expressions the word 'apple' became synonymous with 'love.' Oftentimes apples were tossed or thrown. To say that a person had been struck by an apple' was tantamount to saying that he had been 'love-struck.' 4

A recent writer 5 thinks it probable “that there was some basis in real life for the throwing of apples at the bridegroom which Stesichorus speaks of in his Epithalamium of Helen.” 6 In view of evidence to be presented later and in view of an epigram in the Greek Anthology, quoted below, it would seem clear that the purpose was the same as the throwing of

1 The expression malum discordiae is used figuratively by Justinus, XII, 15, 11.

2 Dial. Mar. 5; Dial. Deor. 20, 7. Cf. Hyg. Fab. 92; Tzetzes on Lycophron, 93; Myth. Vat. 1, 208; 11, 205.

3 See, for example, Verg. E. 3, 64; Theocr. 5, 88; 6, 6; 11, 10; and especially the Greek Anthology v, 79. "The classical custom of throwing an apple into a girl's lap as a sign of love is a method of wooing still known to the rustic swain."-Lawson, Modern Greek Folklore and Ancient Greek Religion, p. 558. 4 Scholium on Ar. Nub. 997.


Foster on page 45 of the article cited three paragraphs farther on in the

6 Frag. 29 (Bergk, 1882).

7 v, 79.

τῷ μήλῳ βάλλω σε· σὺ δ ̓ εἰ μὲν ἑκοῦσα φιλεῖς με,
δεξαμένη, τῆς σῆς παρθενίης μετάδος·

εἰ δ ̓ ἄρ ̓ δ μὴ γίγνοιτο νοεῖς, τοῦτ ̓ αὐτὸ λαβοῦσα
σκέψαι τὴν ὥρην ὡς ὀλιγοχρόνιος.

rice among our own people or of wheat among other peoples. "At a certain stage in the wedding ceremony of the German Jews, the friends who stand round throw wheat on the couple and say, 'Be fruitful and multiply.'


A French writer 10 concludes that originally the act of throwing an apple had absolutely no symbolic significance. He believes that it was simply a means of drawing attention and that fruit was preferable to a flower because it was heavier and hence could be thrown farther. He says quite rightly that the kind of fruit used in any particular case would depend on the flora of the country. His assumption that fruit was associated with love because it was thrown is a purely gratuitous one. The problem is not merely one of ballistics. The act of eating has far more significance in this connection.

Among the Greeks apples that had been bitten were sent as tokens of love." A suggestion of the original purpose of the biting may be derived from analogies. "Annamite stories tell how a virgin conceived . . . by eating the rind of a watermelon, the rest of which had been eaten by a prince.' The Persian bridegroom ate a unλov or the marrow 13 of a camel before entering the marriage-chamber.14 In Mohammedan lore the man eats the fruit (or seeds), being inordinately


8 "The throwing of rice after a couple increases the probability of their having children."-Daniel L. and Lucy B. Thomas, Kentucky Superstitions, no. 688.

Hartland, Primitive Paternity, 1, p. 109: cf. Wood, The Wedding Day in All Ages and Countries, 1, pp. 19, 43, 203, 219; 11, pp. 49, 169, 184, 199, 224. 10 H. Gaidoz, "La Réquisition d'Amour et le Symbolisme de la Pomme," École pratique des hautes études, Annuaire 1902, pp. 5-33.

11 Lucian, Dial. Meretr. 12, 1; Toxaris, 13.

12 Frazer, Pausanias, vol. iv, p. 139.

13 The marrow was one of the seats of love.

The flame of love eats at the

marrow of Dido (Verg. Aen. iv, 66; 1, 660). In another instance, Aen. iv, 101, Dido arouses fury in her bones because of her love. The pith of a plant corresponds to the marrow of an animal. A person who carries with him the pith of branches of tithymallus is rendered more amorous thereby.-Pliny, H. N. XXVI, 99.

14 Strabo, xv, 3, 17.

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