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he yields Lavinia, and begs Aeneas to pity old Daunus 196 (though he himself had known no pity for old Evander).197 Such is his wretched state that Aeneas himself is moved to pity, and almost yields 198-would have yielded had it not been for that "infelix balteus" 199 that at the crucial moment strikes his eye and stirs up his wrath.200 Thus Turnus's end, of course, is wholly due to his own fault-and all the more tragic for that. Now our pity, that has been increasing with his increasing woes, is complete, for now he is completely the "under-dog."

196 934: Dauni miserere senectae.

197 See n. 74. Nor, for the matter of that, has he shown pity even for Daunus himself; recall his indifference to Latinus's appeal on that subject (p. 195 and n. 76).

198 940-941: iam iamque magis cunctantem flectere sermo/ coeperat.

199 941-942. Cf. p. 191.

200 945-951.

XIV. A Lease of Crown Land on Papyrus





The manuscript consists of eleven fragments which join each other approximately, except that the two fragments at the extreme right are connected with the left hand portion in lines 15-17 only, by the smallest fragment of all (5 x 22 cm.). When assembled, the document measures 172 x 34 cm. Nothing has been lost at the ends of the lines of text, and the lack of about ten letters at the beginning of each line is made evident by the restoration, in the first line, of the name of the addressee, Aurelius Heracleides.

The approximate date is known from an unpublished receipt in the same collection of papyri, in which the same persons are concerned as lessor and lessees, and which is dated in the second year of Valerianus and Gallienus.


1 [Αὐρηλίω Ἡρα]κλείδη κοσμητεύσαντι τῆς λαμπροτάτης πόλεως τῶν ̓Αλεξανδρέων καὶ ὡς χρηματίζει.

2 [παρ' Αυρηλίω]ν Πάτρωνος Ήρωνος μη(?) Φάσιο[s](?) ἀπ[ὸ] κώμης [ε]αδελφίας καὶ ̓Ασόϊτ[ο]ς καὶ ̓Ατάμμωνος ἀμφοτέρων

Παυσίρεως μητρὸ]ς θαΐσατος ἀπὸ κώμης

3 [..........τ]ῶν τριῶν βουλόμεθα μισθώσασθαι παρά σου ἐξ ἀλληλεγγύης ἐπὶ [κο]ινωνία κατὰ τὸ ἡμι[σ]ὺ μέρος τοῦ λοιποῦ [ἡμισοῦς] μέρους ὄντος σοῦ τοῦ Ἡρακλεί

4 [δου.... τὰς] [π]αρχούσας σ[οι] περὶ κώμην [Τ]άνιν σι[τι]κὰς βασιλι[κ]ῆς γῆς ἀπὸ ἀναπαύματος καὶ καλάμης ἐξ [ΐ]σου ἐν τόπω Φθ. [. . λεγομένο] ἀρούρας πάσας

5 [.........ἐπ]ὶ τῶ ἡμ[ᾶ]ς πάσας γεωργῆσαι τὰς ἀπὸ σπόρου

1 Garrett Deposit Collection, No. 7541, c. 254 a.d.


[ἀ]φωρισμένης τῆς ἀ[σπόρο]υ γῆς ἐπὶ χρόνον [ἔτη] πέντε ἀπὸ σπ[ορᾶς τοῦ εἰ]σιόντο[s] (ἔτους)


6 [...... .]ων μέρων πρὸς ἀναμέ[τ]ρησιν σχ[οι]νίου ὑπ[ὲρ] ἑκαστῆς ἀρούρης κατ' [ἔ]τος ἑκαστὸν ἀσπερμὶ πυροῦ ἀρταβῶν τριῷ[ν ἡμι]σοῦς τετάρτου

7 [... . . . .

ἐπὰν δὲ

.]μου γῆν γεωργήσο[μ]εν δώσομ[έ]ν σοι ὑπὲρ [ἐκ]φορίου ἑκαστῆς ἀρο[ύρ]ης κατ ̓ ἔτο[s] ἑκαστὸν πυροῦ ἀρταβὰς δύο ἡμι[σύ ἐ]ὰν δὲ μὴ γεωργήθη

8 [.......

.]σόμεθα τ[....] τῶ ἐκφο[ρίω..] αλλησ.[....]αμ(?)[. . . .] [. . ]α[.] σοῦ [τοῦ] Ἡρακλείδ[ο]υ χορηγοῦντος εἰς [..]. . . . [. . ]σον ἡμῖν η[. . . . . . ]ᾳ τὰ σπέ[ρ]ματα βαστα

9 [....
ημ[ . . ]είας

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ὑ]πὸ σοῦ ἅμα(?) τ[... ]τοῦ ἐκφορ[ίο]υ ἀποδο[ . . ]ιν εν

ἡ[μ]ῶν δὲ τῷ[ν μ]ισθουμένων [ἐπιτελούν]των (?)

τὰ [. .... .]. . κα τα .[. . . . .]α πάντα

10 [. . . . . . . ἀναβολῆς διωρ[ύ]γων ἀναβολῆς διωρ[ύ]γων τε καὶ ὑ[δ]ραγωγῶν [κ]αὶ τὰ ἄλλα [ὅσα] καθήκι μέχρι συν[κ]ομιδῆς και αὐτῆς τῆς [συνκομιδῆ]ς ἀλλὰ κ[αὶ . . . . . ]ν κατ ̓ ἔ[τ]ος ἑκαστ[ὸ]ν

11 [...



.].ενον ὑπὸ .....ν χόρτον ἡμ[ᾶς τοὺς μισθώτας

κόψ[αι κ]αὶ (?) δῆσαι ἀ[λ]λὰ καὶ σοὶ . [. .]νιαυτω.[. . . κόψομεν [καὶ δήσο]μεν (?) ἄνε[υ μ]ισθοῦ μερασ (?)

12 [....

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?] σοῦ τοῦ Ἡρακλείδου παρέχοντ[ο]ς εἰς τὴν κοινὴν ἡμῶν γεωργίαν βοϊκὰ καὶ ἐργάτην[. ..... Τα άλλα ενα [.......] τετράποδα καὶ τροφάς

13 [..

.] καὶ [ἡ]μεῖ[ς......]ν ἐν δέον[τι και]ρ[ω].[..]. [.....]. .[....].[.]ος ἐκ[....]ν ἀποδώσο[μεν] ἐκ τοῦ κοινοῦ τοῦ .[. . . . . . . . .]μένου .[. .] ἐφ ̓ ἅλ[ω] μέτρω δρόμω

14 [τετραχοινίκ]ω τὸ δὲ γ(?)..[...]. περιλι[...].[.]?ησ[. [.].ν(?) [...]φο [....] διαιρησώμ[ε]θα ἐξ [ι]σου μέρους τῶν δ[η]μοσίων πάντων ὄν]των π[ρὸς] σὲ τὸν Ἡρακλείδην)

15 [....... μετὰ] τὸν χρόν[ο]ν παραδ[ώ]σομεν τὰς ἀ]ρούρας τὰς ἀπὸ καλ[ά]μης καὶ ἀναπαύματ[ο]ς ὡς καὶ [ἡ]μεῖς παρελάβαμ[ε], καὶ καθ[α]ρὰς ἀπὸ [θ]ρύου καλάμου

16 [.....

.]ν ὑπὸ σοῦ ἄλλος γεωργὸς καὶ συνεργάσητ[α]ι ἐν τοῖς προκιμέν[οι]ς ἐδάφεσι ἐπὶ τῶ βαστάξιν σὲ τὸν Ἡρακλ[εί]δην ἀπὸ τοῦ ἐπιβάλλοντος


17 [...... ἡμισο]ὓς μέρους τὸ ἐπι λλον α[ὐ]τῶ τέταρτ[ο]ν μέρος τοῦ ἡμισοῦς μέρους ὅ ἐστιν ὄγδοον μέρος διὰ τὸ ἐπὶ τούτοις ἡμῖν συντεθεῖσθαι ἐὰν φαίνηται

18 [μισθώσασθ]αι Αυρήλιος) Ηρακλείδης [κ]οσμητ (εύσας) ̓Αλεξανδρείας μεμίσθωκα ἐπὶ πᾶσι τοῖς προκιμένοις ὡς προκῖται



[..].[...].[. . . .].[. . .]. .[. . . .].[. . . .].[

To Aurelius Heracleides, ex-cosmete of the glorious city of the Alexandrians and as he is otherwise styled, from the three Aurelii, Patron son of Heron by Phasis (?), of the village Theadelphia, and Asois and Atammon, both sons of Pausiris by Thaisas, of the village.

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We wish to rent from you on mutual surety in partnership, on the basis of the half portion, the other half portion being yours, Heracleides', the arourae of grain land in your possession, near the village Tanis, being crown land, fresh from fallow crops and stubble crops in equal portion, in what is called Phtheus' (?) place, the whole acreage, whatever it may be(?); on condition that we farm all the seed land, the unseeded land being excepted, for a term of five years from seed time of the coming (first?) year; the rent being for the seeded(?) portions, according to survey, for each aroura annually, without reckoning allowance for seed, three and three fourths artabae of wheat. And when we farm the waste(?) land we shall pay for the rent of each aroura annually two and one half artabae of wheat. And when it is not farmed we shall (or shall not?) be liable(?) for the same rent. .

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You, Heracleides, furnishing toward our . . ., the seed, which is to be taken by you (?) at the same time as the payment of the rent (on the basis of halves(?)).

We the lessees performing all the farm labors and the banking up of the canals and water conduits and all the other customary labors, and (it is also agreed) that we shall cut and bind the fodder annually (sown?) . . . and also, for you, we shall annually cut (and bind?) . . . without pay. . . .

You, Heracleides, supplying, for our joint farming, cattle and a windlass (? for drawing water) and the other animals (included in the estate ?) and their maintenance(?). . .

And at the proper time (in the month Payni, annually?) we will pay the rent from the common store, (the wheat being brought together(?) at the village(?)) threshing-floor in the dromos four-choenix measure. And .. we shall divide equally, all public tax-impositions being charges upon you, Heracleides.

And after the term of lease we shall give over the arourae fresh from fallow crops and stubble crops, just as we received them, and clean of brush and reeds.

Another farmer (may be engaged in addition to us?) and shall work with us in the lands described above, on condition that you shall take, from the half portion allotted (to us?), the portion falling to him, (that is) the fourth part of the half part, which is the eighth part, inasmuch as you have agreed with us on these terms-if you decide to let.

I, Aurelius Heracleides, ex-cosmete of Alexandria, have leased, in accordance with all the conditions herein described, as is set forth.

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Heracleides, the lessor, is described as ex-cosmete of Alexandria; Alexandrians appear not infrequently as landholders in the Fayûm (cf. for example Fay. 87, and introd.). As an ex-cosmete, he was doubtless a wealthy man and may well have been owner of a large estate in this vicinity, the workings of which it would be interesting to compare with those of the estate of Apollonius in the Ptolemaic period (cf. Rostowzew, Large estate). There is the further interesting possibility that he may have been the same Heracleides who, a few years later, under Gallienus (260-268), was strategus of the Arsinoite nome (cf. B. G. U. 244. Oertel, Liturgie, p. 296, remarks on the significant number of strategi of nomes who came from Alexandria and were rich landholders. On the importance of this

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