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who was distinguished as an orator. A. Cascellius was a jurisconsultus. Mediocribus. Gr. 547. II. and I. Cf. A. & S. 269, R. 5. Columnae; i. e. the booksellers' shops. 375. Sardinian honey was bitter. Cf. Virg. E. VII. 41. Poppy-seeds roasted and mixed with honey were a Roman delicacy. - 377, 378. Sic-imum: so poetry, which was born and invented only to give pleasure to the soul, if it fail but a little of the highest point, inclines to the lowest.

379. Campestribus; i. e. of the Campus Martius. 381. Coronae; the ring of spectators.-382-384. Quidni? Ironical. He is a free man, and born free, and has a good property, and is a good man: why then should he not write? Census: rated: a participle. Summam; i. e. 400 sestertia (about $15,000), the prop. erty qualification for admission to the equestrian order. Gr. 380. A. & S. 234. II. — 385. Tu; emphatic. Invita Minera; i. e., Cicero says, adversante et repugnante natura. — 386. Olim = ever. See on C. II. 10. 17.- 387. Maeci; Sp. Maecius Tarpa, a celebrated critic. - 388, 389. Cf. E. II. 2. 114. Intus in scrinio. 391. Horace goes on to ascribe the noblest results to the cultivation of true poetry; the civilization of mankind (represented under the legend of Orpheus taming wild beasts), the building of cities, the origin of law and social order. Sacer- deorum. Cf. Virg. A. VI. 645.394. Amphion. See on Ov. M. VI. 178. — 399. Laws in very early times were written in verse, and those of Solon, according to Plutarch, were cut on wooden tables. —402. Tyrtaeus; a native of Attica, who took up his abode at Sparta during the second Messenian war, which began B. C. 685. His verses were chiefly exhortations to bravery addressed to the Spartans. —403. Sortes; oracular responses, which were in verse. — 404. Vitae - est; referring to the didactic poetry of Hesiod, Theognis, and others. -405-407. Pieriis. See on C. III. 4. 40. Ludusque, etc. refers to the origin of dramatic poetry in the rural Dionysia. This festival was at the end of the year, when the labors of the vintage were over. See E. II. I. 140 foll. Cf. Virg. G. II. 380 foll. Pudori. Gr. 390. I. A. & S. 227.408-411. It is questioned, Horace says, whether poetry comes by nature or by teaching. He thinks both must be combined. Rude incultum. — 412. Metam. See on C. I. 1. 4. -413. Puer is emphatic: he takes great pains when he is young. Cf. C. I. 9. 16. 414. Pythia cantat; sings in the Pythian games, at which there was a musical contest. -417. Occupet - scabies plague take the hindmost! The Scholiasts say this expression was used by boys in their races. 419. Praeco. See on S. I. 6. 86. As the crier calls buyers to an auction, so the rich poet attracts a crowd of venal flatterers. -422-425. Unctum - possit = who can serve up a good dinner handsomely. Spondere. See on S. II. 6. 23. Levi; i. e.

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whose credit is as poor as his purse is light. Atris. Cf. atra Cura, C. III. 1. 40. Beatus; wealthy. —426–433. If you have made a man a present, or are going to do so, don't invite him to hear your verses. He will be sure to applaud and weep, or laugh or dance with pretended pleasure. Flatterers are like the hired mourners at a funeral, who make more fuss than the friends. See on S. I. 6. 43Derisor = falsus laudator. — 435. Torquere mero to ply with wine; which brings out the truth as torture might. -436, 437. Si

- latentes; i. e. if you ever write poetry, do not be taken in by flatterers, who have a bad heart under a cunning face. -438. Quintilio. See C. I. 24. Introd. Sodes. See on S. I. 9. 41. —439–441. Negares; sc. si. Gr. 512. 1. The metaphors of the lathe and the anvil are common enough for the composition of verses. The lathe was used by the ancients in turning metals, as well as wood and ivory. — 444. Quin amares depends on the idea of hindering involved in operam insumebat (Dillenb.). Orelli explains the subj. by the oratio obliqua. -450. Aristarchus, whose name was proverbial as a critic, was born in Samothracia about B. C. 230. He passed the greater part of his life at Alexandria, and was the tutor of Ptolemaeus Epiphanes. 453. Morbus regius, otherwise called arquatus morbus, aurugo, and by the Greeks Tepos, is the jaundice. Celsus says it is so called because the remedies resorted to were chiefly amusements and indulgences to keep up the spirits, such as none but the rich could afford. Horace appears to have thought it infectious. - 454. Fanaticus error; i. e. frenzy like that of the priests of Bellona. The influence of the moon (iracunda Diana) in producing insanity is one of the earliest fallacies in medicine. The Greeks called these lunatici σeλŋvakoi. — 455, 456. The wise avoid him, as if he were infectious; fools run after him, like boys after a crazy man in the streets.460. Non sit. Gr. 488. 3. A. & S. 260, R. 6 (b). ——— 462. Qui how. Prudens = =on purpose. —463-466. Empedocles was a philosopher of Agrigentum, who flourished about 450 B. C. This story of his death is rejected by the critics as a mere fable. 467. Occidenti. Gr. 391. 3. A. & S. 222, R. 7. This is the only spondaic hexameter in Horace. -469. He keeps up the allusion to Empedocles, saying that the frenzied poet is as resolved to rush to his fate (that is, into verse) as the philosopher was, and if you save him he will not drop his pretension to inspiration. -470-472. The crime for which he has been made thus mad does not appear; whether it be for defiling his father's grave, or setting foot upon polluted ground. Bidental was a spot struck by lightning, so called from the sacrifice offered upon it for expiation. Moverit violaverit. Some take it to mean the removal of the mark placed on the spot.

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