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A. & S. 73, R. - 31. Arcebat. Gr. 468. A. & S. 145. II. Multos... annos; i. e. seven. - 32. Acti fatis; inasmuch as their destiny forbids them to rest. Cf. fato profugus, v. 2. The meaning is not that the Trojans were harassed, driven hither and thither, by the Fates, but simply that they were impelled onward, or toward Latium, by the Fates; while at the same time they were driven backward, or from Latium, by Juno. The result was multos · circum. 33. Molis. Gr. 401. A. & S. 211, R. 8 (3). Condere. Gr. 549. A. & S. 269. See Introduction to this
- 34. Virgil plunges at once in medias res. Book. The departure from Sicily, which occurred in the seventh year of Aeneas's wanderings, closes his narrative, III. 715. In altum for the deep. 35. Dabant; sc. ventis. Laeti belongs to both verbs, but in construction is to be taken with dabant. Salis; for maris. Cf. v. 173; III. 385; V. 848, 866; VI. 697. — Aere; i. e. aerata navi. See on Hor. C. II. 16. 21. Ruebant = were driving (before them). See on G. I. 105. – 36. Sub pectore = deep in her breast. - 37. Haec secum (sc. loquitur) = thus soliloquizes. Me... desistere. Gr. 553. III. 1. 2 and 3. A. & S. 270, R. 2 (a). Victam = baffled. - 38. Teucrorum. See on Trojae, v. 1. Avertere= to turn back: not merely to turn away. Regem; Aeneas. — 39. Quippe always gives a reason, sometimes with irony, and here with indignation. Pallas; the Greek name of Minerva. See on G. I. 18. Most of the critics make ne= nonne, implying an affirmative answer; but Con. says: The use of ne, which implies a negative answer, expresses incredulity that Pallas should have done what Juno -40. Argivum; for Graecorum, as often. Ipsos; i. e. Argivos, the crews, as distinguished from the ships. 41. Unius is emphatic of one only, Pallas being friendly to the rest of the Greeks; whereas Juno hated the whole Trojan race. Noxam; referring to the violent dragging of Cassandra from the temple of Minerva, where she had taken refuge after the capture of Troy. Cf. II. 403 foll.; VI. 840. Et-Oilei is epexegetical of Unius ab noxam. Furias expresses the infatuation which impels to crime. Ajacis; Ajax, king of the Locrians, called Oilei, son of Oileus, to distinguish him from Ajax, king of Salamis, son of Telamon. He went to the Trojan war with forty ships, and on his return voyage, when near the Capharean rocks on the coast of Euboea, the calamity which is here described is said to have occurred. Oilei. Gr. 397. I (1). A. & S. 211, R. 7 (1). — 44. Flammas; i. e. of the thunderbolt that had pierced his breast. — 45. Turbine with the whirling wind, or whirling force, of the thunderbolt. Scopulo - acuto and impaled (him) upon a sharp-pointed rock. This is the usual interpretation. But Henry maintains, that infigere never means to fix on, but always to fix in or to fix with, i. e. pierce with, that scopulo is an abl., and that the sense is, pierced with a sharp
pointed rock; i. e. hurled at him. The construction infigere aliquem alicui, to impale a person upon a thing, is at least unusual, if not unexampled. 46. Regina. Gr. 362. A. & S. 210 and (a). —47. Soror. Jupiter and Juno were children of Saturnus. Annos. Gr. 378. A. & S. 236. —48. Bella; a continuous struggle, in contrast with the single blow of Pallas. Gero. Gr. 467. 2. A. & S. 145. I. 2. Quisquam. Gr. 457. A. & S. 207, R. 31 (a). Quisquam suggests a negative answer; and the indic. presents, coupled as they are by et with bella gero, express wonder and astonishment that under the circumstances homage is actually paid to her: I am proving my imbecility, and yet I have worshippers! -49. Praeterea then will express, not so much sequence in time as a logical relation, after this. 51. Loca. Gr. 363. A. & S. 204. Austris. Gr. 419. III. A. & S. 250. 2 (1). — 52. Aeoliam; one of the Lipari islands, which were north of Sicily; probably Lipara. Gr. 379. 4. A. & S. 237, R. 5 (c). See on Ov. M. I. 262. 54. Premit = rules,
Murmure. Gr. 414
52. Aeolus. coerces. 55. Indignantes = impatient. and 3. A. & S. 247 and 2. Montis; with murmure. Cf. v. 245. -56. Claustra : fastenings, barriers. Arce in his citadel; neither the summit of the mountain containing the prison of the winds, nor an elevated throne in the prison, but, according to the most common use of the word, stronghold, castle, citadel, i. e. in the immediate vicinity of the mountain and prison; the natural dwelling of a despotic governor. -57. Sceptra tenens; i. e. invested with regal power, not necessarily holding a literal sceptre, though that may be the meaning. For the plural see on irae, v. II. Animos their unruly spirits. 58. Ni faciat . . . ferant. . . verrant. Cf. II. 599; VI. 293. Gr. 504 and 1. A. & S. 261. 2 and R. 3. Maria profundum. Cf. E. IV. 51.-59. Quippe = for. In prose it would precede ni faciat, and should be translated as if it stood in that position. - 60. Speluncis. Gr. 422. A. & S. 254, R. 3. Abdidit = put (them) away; i. e. apart, by themselves; not hid, concealed. 61. Molem et montes; hendiadys for molem montium. Gr. 704. II. 2. A. & S. 323. 2 (3). Insuper = above; not, besides. -62. Foedere lege. 63. Premere... habenas = to tighten the reins. Cf. A. XI. 600, pressis habenis. The object of premere may be ventos understood. Laxas... dare: to slacken (them). Jussus = when ordered; i. e. a Jove. Join with premere as well as with dare.-66. Mulcere... tollere. Gr. 371. 5. A. & S. 229, R. 5. Vento; with mulcere as well as with tollere. -67. Tyrrhenum.. aequor, that part of the Mediterranean sea, situated between Italy and the islands of Sicily, Sardinia, and Corsica. Gr. 371. 3. A. & S. 232 (2). — 68. Ilium. See on Trojae, v. 1. Gr. 705, II. A. & S. 324. 2. Victos; because they had not been able to protect Troy.
-69. Incute vim ventis: = throw fury into the winds. Henry, following Servius, prefers to consider ventis the instrum. abl. ; attack them (i. e. the Trojans) with the winds. Submersas obrue = submerge et obrue. Gr. 579. A. & S. 274. 3 (b). —70. Diversos = in different directions; the crews. - 71. Corpore. Gr. 428. A. & S. 211, R. 6. — 72. Quarum. Gr. 396. III. 2 and 3) (2). A. & S. 212, R. 2. Quae forma pulcherrima; a circumlocution for pulcherrimam. Forma. Gr. 429. A. & S. 250. I. Deiopea; in the case of quae by attraction, instead of the regular acc., which is found in some MSS., but is considered an inferior reading. Gr. 445. 9: 665. A. & S. 206 (6) (b); 301, N. — 73. Connubio. Gr. 669. II. and 3. A. & S. 306. I and (3). Propriamque dicabo and will make her thine forever. See on E. VII. 31. Juno speaks not only as the mistress of the nymph, but as the goddess of marriage. It is in the same character that she offers to dispose of the hand of Dido, IV. 126, where this line is repeated.—75. Pulchra... prole. Gr. 428. A. & S. 211, R. 6. But some prefer to take it with faciat as an abl. of means, and others, as an abl. abs. —76. He throws the responsibility on her thine is the task to examine well what thou askest. Optes. Gr. 525. A. & S. 265.-77. Labor. So Juno, IV. 115. Fas est is exculpatory; I am doing my duty in executing thy commands.- 78. Tu. Observe the very strong emphasis indicated by the expression and repetition of the pronoun. Regni; with hoc. Gr.
396. III. A. & S. 212, R. 2. Sceptra. See on v. 57. Jovem; i. e. Jupiter's favor, or patronage. -79. Concilias... das... facis; in the present to express the tenure on which he continues to hold his station. Epulis. Gr. 386. A. & S. 224. Accumbere. See on mulcere, v. 66. 80. Nimborum. Gr. 399 and 2. 2) (3).
A. & S. 213 and R. 1 (3). 81. Cavum — latus = he pushed the hollow mountain on the side with his spear turned towards it; thus opening the claustra, which are to be conceived of as folding-doors opening inwards. Cf. VII. 620: Tum regina deum coelo delapsa mo rantes Impulit ipsa manu portas. Conversa; not inverted, but simply turned towards the mountain. Cf. in me-conversos, Cicero in Cat. IV. I. In latus; not sidewise, nor over on its side, nor into its side, making a breach, but on or against its side. Of all the com. mentators, Henry alone, whose interpretation Con. adopts, and which we have here given, seems to have fully comprehended the sense of this passage. -82. Velut - facto= as if a troop were formed, as it were with one accord. -84. Incubuere they have fallen forcibly upon. For the perf. see on fugere, G. I. 330. So intonuert, v. 90. Mari. Gr. 386. A. & S. 224. Totum; sc. mare. -85. expressed in agmine facto.
Una; emphatic and repeating the idea
Ruunt upheave. See on G. I. 105. Procellis. Gr. 419. III,
A. & S. 250. 2 (1).—90. Poli = the heavens; i. e. it thunders from pole to pole. — 92. Aeneae. Gr. 384; 398. 5. A. & S. 223; 211, R. 5(1). Solvuntur : are unnerved, rendered powerless. Frigore =by chilling fear. -93. Duplices=ambas.—95. Quis. Gr. 187. 1. A. &. S. 136, R. 2. Ante ora patrum probably means, dying with the friends for whom they are fighting to cheer them on. — - 96. Oppetere to meet death (sc. mortem). — 97. Tydide = son of Tydeus; i. e. Diomedes, king of Argos. In the army of the Greeks before Troy, he was, next to Achilles, the bravest among the heroes, and engaged in single combat with Hector, Aeneas, and other distinguished Trojans. Gr. 316 and 2. A. & S. 100. 1 and (a) (2). Mene... non potuisse = that I could not. Gr. 553. III. 1. 2 and 3. A. & S. 270, R. 2 (a). Occumbere; sc. morti.—98. Tua... dextra. Aeneas would have been killed by Diomedes, if Venus had not rescued him. -99. Saevus = fortis. Aeacidae. See on E. IV. 36. Hector; the eldest son of Priam and Hecuba, the husband of Andromache, and the chief hero of the Trojans in their war with the Greeks. -100. Sarpedon; son of Jupiter and Laodameia, a Lycian prince, and in the Trojan war an ally of the Trojans. He distinguished himself by his valor, and was slain by Patroclus. Simois; a river of Troas, rising in Mt. Ida, and, united with the Scamander, flowing through the plains of Troy into the Hellespont. Correpta ... volvit = corripit et volvit. Sub undis. Join with correpta. 101. Virum. Gr. 45. 5. 4). A. & S. 53. -102. Jactanti = to him ejaculating; a variety of the ethical dat., to be taken with ferit. Gr. 389. A. & S. 228, N. Stridens Aquilone howling with the north wind. 103. Adversa = full in front. 104. Tum prora avertit; a consequence of the franguntur remi. Avertit; intrans. like avertens, v. 402. - 105. Cumulo = in a mass, with its mass. Gr. 414 and 3. A. & S. 247 and 2. Cf. II. 498. Praeruptus precipitous. 106. Hi; referring to different ships, not to men in different parts of the same. — 107. Furit ... arenis raves with the sands; i. e. pulls them violently about with it. Cf. III. 557. Gr. 414 and 3. A. & S. 247 and 2.—108. Tres; sc. naves. Notus; put for the wind in general. So Eurus, v. 110, and Auster, v. 536. Abreptas .. torquet = abripit et torquet. Latentia; i. e. in a storm; for in a calm they are visible: dorsum immane mari summo. Cf. V. 125. — 109. Saxa. These are generally supposed to be the Aegimuri insulae at the mouth of the bay of Carthage, about thirty miles from the city. They were called Arae because Carthaginian priests used to offer sacrifices there to avert shipwrecks on the rocks. The order is saxa quae mediis in fluctibus (exstantia) Itali vocant Aras. -110. Dorsum reef. Gr. 363. A. & S. 204. Mari. Gr. 422. I. A. & S. 254, R. 3.—111. Brevia et Syrtes
= brevia Syrtium. See on v. 61. These were probably the well known Syrtis Major and Syrtis Minor, on the coast of Africa, southeast of Carthage, IV. 41; though most of the commentators (for what reasons they do not see fit to tell us) refer them to other shoals. Miserabile. Gr. 438. 3. A. & S. 205, R. 8. Visu. Gr. 570 and 1. A. & S. 276. III. — 113. Oronten; a name invented by Virgil. C£ VI. 334. Gr. 93. 3. A. & S. 80. IV. — 114. Ipsius; i. e. Aeneas. A vertice. See on G. II. 310. Pontus = fluctus; as we speak of 'shipping a heavy sea."—115. In puppim; like in latus, v. 82. Gr. 85. III. 3. A. & S. 79. 3. Excutitur is knocked off. Magister = gubernator. Compare VI. 353 with 337. — 117. Agens : forcing, impelling. — 118. Rari nantes; with reference to vasto. -119. Tabulae planks, boards; i. e. of such fragile parts as the benches of the rowers, pilot-house, aplustre, etc. ; for we must not suppose the vessel to have gone to pieces. Per undas all over the water emphatic, and in direct contrast with rari in gurgite vasto. 120. The names of Ilioneus and Abas are from Homer, but the persons are different, both being killed in Hom. Achatae; Aeneas's most faithful friend and companion. — 121. Aletes; a fictitious name, like Orontes and many others found in the Aeneid. — 122. Vicit. The ship of Orontes alone was wholly lost. Hiems tempestas. Cf. v. 125. Compagibus. Gr. 431. A. & S. 257, R. 7 (a). 123. Imbrem aquam. Rimis. Gr. 414 and 3. A. & S. 247 and 2. - 124. Magno murmure. Cf. IV. 160. Misceri... emissam. Notice the change of tense from incomplete to completed action. 125. Imis... vadis, the same as a sedibus imis, v. 84. Gr. 422. 2. A. & S. 255, R. 3 (6). — 126. Stagna refusa the waters had been poured back, worked up; i. e. from the bottom. Graviter commotus = much disturbed; a state of feeling not inconsistent with the placidum caput of the next verse. Alto prospiciens-looking out over the sea; i. e. in order to discover the cause of the disturbance in his realm. Alto is not the point from which the view is taken, nor the object viewed, but the field of view, the tract of space over which Neptune looked. Gr. 379. 5. A. & S. 225. IV. R. 2. 127. Summa. Gr. 441. 6. A. & S. 205, R. 17. Placidum; as becoming the dignity of the sea-god, and as contributing to the restoration of order and tranquillity.—129. Coelique ruina = by the downfall of the sky. See on G. I. 324.-130. Fratrem; Neptune. Gr. 371. 3. A. & S. 223, R. 2 (1) (a). — 131. Eurum... Zephyrum; here used to represent all the winds. Dehinc. Gr. 669. II. A. & S. 306. 1 and (2). — 132. Generis... fiducia vestri = confidence in your race; i. e. in your semi-divine origin, as the sons of the Titan Astraeus and Aurora.-133. Jam has it come to this, that. Coelum terramque... miscere, a proverbial expression for uni