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planted wide). Gr. 429. A. & S. 250. 1. Cf. segnes terrae, v. 37 ; segnis carduus, I. 151.—276. Tumulis. Gr. 414 and 3. A. & S. 247 and 2. Solum; sc. metabere. Supinos = gently sloping; so as to present a broad surface. - 277. Indulge ordinibus; i. e. give them room, set them wide. Nec quadret. The order of this passage, which has perplexed the commentators so much, is probably nec secius (quam si densa seras) omnis secto limite via arboribus positis in unguem quadret = yet still (as much as when you plant close) let each avenue with drawn line, as you set your trees, exactly tally; i. e. yet still so set your trees that the line of each avenue that you draw may exactly tally with the rest. Secto via limite then will via secta. Cf. I. 238, via secta per ambas, where Virgil calls the ecliptic via, while Ovid, M. II. 130, speaking more precisely, calls it limes. Nothing more than regularity is prescribed in these two lines so understood; the simile of the legion, which follows, shows that the quincuncial order is intended. Via and limes are used in the same context again, A. II. 697, apparently without any intended contrast. In unguem goes with quadret. Limite. Gr. 428. A. & S. 211, R. 6. Arboribus. Gr. 431. A. & S. 257. See on v. 89. - 279. Bello may be taken as dat. or abl. Longa is proleptic, since it is only by deploying that the legion becomes long. — 280. Agmen is the column in order of march, which deploys into acies, or line of battle. -281. Acies; sc. sunt. - 282. Necdum - proelia; i. e. while the regularity of their order is still undisturbed. Miscent; sc. milites.283. Dubius in suspense. Mediis... in armis = between the two armies. —284. The apodosis of the simile begins with this line. Supply sic. Paribus numeris... viarum = into avenues of equal spaces; or, into equal and regular avenues. Gr. 414 and 3. A. & S. 247 and 2. Viarum may limit omnia, in which case omnia viarum — omnes viae. —287. Neque — rami; because otherwise the boughs will have no space wherein to spread.
289. Ausim. Gr. 239. 4; 485. A. & S. 162.9; 260. II. Sulco scrobi.—290. Altior. Gr. 443. A. & S. 205, R. 15 (a). Terrae for in terra. Arbos; i. e. on which to train the vines. So arbore, v. 300. 294. Nepotes successive generations. - 295. Multa virum . . . secula, a mere variation of the preceding. Volvens = rolling, going through. Durando... vincit outlasts, outlives. Gr. 429. A. & S. 250. 1. — 296. Tum, in this and other passages, appears to indicate a point in a narration or description, not necessarily a point of time, and generally the last point, so as to be nearly denique. Cf. A. I. 164, IV. 250, VI. 577. — 297. Ipsa; as opposed to ramos et brachia. Ipse is sometimes employed to distinguish the whole from a part, or the better part from the remainder. - 301. Tantus-terrae; i. e. so great that when they are far from
it they are less vigorous.
303. The wild olive was an unctuous tree, Pastoribus. Gr. 414 and 2. A. & S. Gr. 379. 5. A. & S. 225. IV. and R. 2. 308. Nemus; i. e. the arbustum. Ruit: throws up. 310. A vertice desuper, ab alto. -311. Glomerat
Ferens 312. Hoc ubi; sc. accidit. Nonvalent = they (i. e. vites) have no strength from the stock; i. e. their stock no more shows life. Caesaeque = nor when cut ; i. e. when the burnt stock has been cut to make it grow again. Que is disjunctive. See on v. 87. 313. Ima... terra = from the deep earth (at their roots). Similes = like (to what they were before), as before. · 314. Infelix= infecundus. Superat = solus superest. Foliis. Gr. 428. A. & S. 211, R. 6.
315. Nec - persuadeat = nec quisquam tam prudens habeatur ut tibi persuadeat. Movere; i. e. in order to make scrobes. — 317. Semine. See on vv. 268, 302. - 318. Concretam frozen. Affigere; sc. se. — - 319. Satio; sc. est. Rubenti; i. e. with flowers.- 320. Candida avis; i. e. the stork, a bird of passage, said to feed on serpents.- 321. Frigora. The force of the plu. may be expressed by saying "the cold days." Rapidus. See on I. 92. — 322. Hiemem; i. e. those constellations which the sun enters in winter. Praeterit. Gr. 704. I. 1. A. & S. 323. 1 (b) (1). Aestas = the heat of summer. - - 323. Adeo. See on E. IV. 11. Nemorum... silvis; cultivated trees, vineyards... natural trees, woods; though Con. thinks both mean the trees in the arbustum. -324327. The language of this passage is metaphorical and borrowed from physical generation. — 325. Pater Aether... conjugis (i. e. Terrae). See on E. VII. 60. Laetae = fruitful. 327. Magnus
magno. Virgil is fond of such combinations. Cf. I. 190.328. This relates to the loves of the birds. 329. Repetunt 330. Almus. See on G. I. 7. Zephyri. See on I. 44. - 331. Sinus is metaphorical, and substituted for glebam. Superat abounds. Omnibus. Gr. 384. A. & S. 223. — 332. Soles; i. e. the suns of each day. Novi; because they are the beginning of the warm season. — - 336. Crescentis =nascentis. This and the following lines mean that the world was born in spring. Origine. Gr. 426. A. & S. 253.-337. Alium... tenorem a different character. 338. Crediderim. Gr. 485. A. & S. 260, II. and R. 4.
Ver... agebat was keeping spring-time; like agere festum.
339. Parcebant flatibus; i. e. forbore to put them forth. — 341. Caput - arvis. An allusion to the myth that the first men sprang from the earth. - 343. Res... tenerae are the young plants, buds, etc. Hunc. laborem this hardship; i. e., that plants now experience from the extremes of heat and cold. See on I. 150. — 344.
Tanta quies is explained by hunc laborem. Caloremque. Gr. 663. III. 1. 4). A. & S. 304. 3 (4). - 345. Inter here not only follows its case, which is not unusual in poetry, but stands in a different line from it. Cf. A. III. 685. Exciperet. This verb in its most general sense seems to imply receiving from or after some one or something else. Here the milder skies receive the earth after the severer weather. 346. Quod superest = as to what remains, for the rest; i. e. to resume and pursue the subject to the end; a Lucretian transition, which occurs several times in Virgil. Premes thou shalt plant. Virgulta = cuttings, slips; i. e. either of the vine or of the trees in the arbustum. - 347. Memor occule memento occulere· -348. It would seem necessary to suppose a connecting particle here, for the poet surely cannot mean that the stones and shells are to be a substitute for the manure and soil. Squalentes rough. Rough shells would leave interstices for the water. -349. Tenuis. See on I. 92. 350. Halitus; from the evaporation of the water. Animos tollent will take courage; i. e. will thrive. Sata; the same as virgulta, v. 346. Jamque and before now. Reperti; sc. sunt. - 351. Super-desuper. The stone or the potsherd would prevent the earth from being washed away, a necessary precaution when the vines are on a slope; and it also would prevent the ground round the roots from being parched and made hard. Atque is disjunctive. 352. Urguerent. Gr. 501. I. A. & S. 264. I. Hoc... hoc; a repetition, not a distinction. Ad=with a view to, against.—353. Hiulca; a proleptic use of the adjective. Canis; i. e. Sirius. 354. Diducere to break and loosen; lit. to separate.-355. Capita radices. Duros massive; i. e. the work is thoroughly done. Bidentes. The bidens was a very heavy, two-pronged hoe, used more like a pickaxe than a hoe, whence jactare. The terms employed in this passage, saepius, duros, jactare, presso, exercere, luctantes, all point to hard, thorough, unremitting work. - 357. Flectere; i. e. to plough across as well as up and down the lines of vines. 358. Materials for training the vines. Lēves; not leves. Hastilia; because resembling the handle of a spear.-360. Viribus. Gr. 414 and 4. A. & S. 247 and 3. Eniti to climb. - 361. Tabulata (= stories) were the successive branches of the elm to which the vines were trained, the intermediate boughs being removed. 362. Frondibus. Gr. 414 and 3. A. & S. 247 and 2.—363. Teneris; sc. vitibus. Gr. 385. A. & S. 223, R. 2. There are three periods: 1. When you must leave the young vine entirely alone; 2. When you may pluck off the leaves but not use the knife; 3. When you may use the knife-364. Laxis... habenis; a metaphor taken from the driving of horses. Per purum = per aërem. Cf. in vacuum, v. 287.-365. Ipsa; sc. vitis, as distinguished from the
leaves. 366. Interque legendae; by tmesis for interlegendaeque. - 369. Tum denique = tum demum. Dura-imperia = maintain a stern government; a metaphor drawn from military discipline. Cf. imperat arvis, I. 99.
371. Tenendum (sc. est) = of trials. See on I. 150. Cui. Gr. 386. A. & S. 224. The comparison comes in v. 376. que potentem. Cf. I. 92.
must be shut out. - 372. Laborum Gr. 399 and 2. 2). A. & S. 213. — 373. Super = besides; not more than." Indignas severe, cruel. Solem- 374. Uri = buffaloes. Capreae sequaces the persecuting roes. 375. Pascuntur. Gr. 704. I. I. A. & S. 323. 1 (1). — 376. Concreta congealed, stiff. — 377. Gravis oppressive; with incumbens. Scopulis; referring to the vineyards on the terraced rocks. So in v. 522. — 378. Illi. Gr. 385. A. & S. 223, R. 2. It may be taken as nom. with greges. Venenum dentis. See on v. 196. — 379. Stirpe. Gr. 110. 4. A. & S. 64. 3. – 380–396. A digression on the Dionysia, or festivals of Bacchus, in Greece and in Italy. -381. Caeditur... ineunt. Gr. 467. III. A. & S. 145. I. 3. Veteres ludi = ancient plays; i. e. the first rude attempts at the drama. Proscenia = the stage. - 382. Ingeniis for genius; i. e. for men of genius. 383. Thesidae; the Athenians: so called from their ancient king Theseus. Gr. 316 and 2. A. & S. 100. 1 and (a) (2). Inter pocula laeti; i. e. in their drunken jollity. — 384. Unctos — utres; referring to the game of dancing on the inflated oiled skin of the he-goat which had been sacrificed. The game afforded great amusement to the spectators.. He who succeeded was victor, and received the skin as a reward. 385. Ausonii; a general name for Italians, and here employed of the people of Latium, but the Ausones were properly an ancient tribe, occupying the southern part of the Italian peninsula. — 387. Ora= masks. Corticibus; sc. ex. See on I. 262.388. Per carmina laeta may be in the course of, as they sing, glad hymns, or = by glad hymns. 389. Oscilla. Oscillum, a diminutive through øsculum from os, meaning a little face, was the term applied to faces or heads of Bacchus, which were suspended in the vineyards to be turned in every direction by the wind. Whichsoever way they looked they were supposed to make the vines in that quarter fruitful. From this noun came the verb oscillo, meaning to swing, and hence our word oscillate. Mollia = mild, propitious; of the mild and propitious expression of the god's face, like caput honestum. Most take it=mobilia, easily swayed by the wind, waving. 391. Complentur; sc. ubere. -393. Suum... honorem: = suas laudes; i. e. ipsi debitas laudes. 394. Patriis; i. e. handed down from our forefathers. Lances; probably for the exta, as in v. 194. — 395. Sacer = devoted. — 397. Alter refers back to v. 371. —398. Cui est which
is never satisfied by exhaustion; i. e. it is endless. Gr. 387. A. & S. 226. The participle is used substantively. Namque nearly = nempe. -399. Solum scindendum probably refers to ploughing; though it may be understood of the bidens. See on Hor. C. I. I. II. Versis reversed.401. Fronde. Gr. 425. A. & S. 251. Nemus, like silvis, v. 404, and perhaps umbra, v. 410, seems to be used of the supporting trees in the arbustum, as in v. 308. Actus in orbem moving in a circle. Actus may, however, = past (labor), and in orbem be connected with redit. — 402. Atque. The copulative is sometimes used instead of a conjunction denoting a more special connection. The relation intended is usually that of time, et or atque standing in the place of quum; here it is that of accordance, "even as." Cf. the use of atque in comparisons, in simul atque, etc. -403. Jam olim nearly=jam tum, v. 405. Olim is here connected with quum in the same way as with ubi, A. V. 125.-404. Honorem; i. e. the leaves. -405. Jam tum = even then. Cf. A. I. 18. — 406. Curvo dente. Saturn was regularly represented with a pruning-knife in his hand. Dens is used of any curved implement. Relictam; i. e. fructu et frondibus nudatam. Cf. vv. 403, 404.—407. Persequitur. Cf. insectabere, I. 155, and insequitur, I. 105. Fingit = moulds, forms. Cf. A. VI. 8o. -408. Primus; i. e. be the first to do it. Devecta. Gr. 579. A. & S. 274. 3 (6). See on v. 207. —409. Sarmenta; the prunings of the vine. Vallos; the vine-poles. They were taken up and put under cover at the end of the vintage. — 410. Melito; of vines, like seges, serere, semina. Bis; i. e. in spring and autumn. The leaves have to be stripped from the vines twice in the year. - 411. Segetem; for vineam. Herbae; in a wide sense. -412. Uterque labor; i. e. of pruning and weeding. -413-415. Rusci... arundo ... salicti. Butcher's-broom, reeds, and willows are used for tying up the vine. Salicti. See on E. I. 55.-416. Reponunt = poni sinunt.-417. Effectos completed. Extremus; i. e. having come to the end of his task. -418. Pulvisque movendus. This appears to have been a distinct process, founded on the belief that dust was beneficial to vines. 419. Juppiter the weather, storms. Metuendus uvis may mean either an object of terror to the grapes, or an object of terror (to the vine-dresser) for the grapes. - 420. Non ulla is an exaggeration. They do not need the same constant attention as the vine.-421. Rastros. See on I. 94. - 422. Haeserunt arvis; i. e. when they have been once transplanted from the seminarium. Aurasque tulerunt; i. e. when they are strong enough to weather the breezes. —423. Ipsa = sua sponte. Satis; put for olives, as for vines, v. 350. Dente; for bidente, not for vomere, as some make it. —424. Cum vomerei. e. as sure as the ploughshare is put into the ground. Cum here ex