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Illinois, 3; in the Western States, 11. In whites; but measures have since been in England, the density of the population is progress for removing those within the about 230 persons to the square mile; in limits of the states to a region on the France, 160 ; in Germany, it varies from western borders of Arkansas territory; 100 to 200.* The number of Indians and we have no certain data as to the within the U. States was estimated, in actual number now remaining within the 1830, at about 313,000, of which upwards settled parts of the U. States. Many of of 215,000 were to the west of the limits those who remain have become so above described as inhabited by the much intermingled with blacks, that they

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* The following curious speculations concern the same rate. The Mexican Indians, and probing the future progress of the population of the ably the Peruvians, have also been increasing, American continent are deserving of attention. but slowly, while nearly all the independent They are taken from the Encyclopædia Britannica, tribes have been mouldering away. The black now publishing in Edinburgh, article America. population does not maintain its numbers in the “ Humboldt gives the following estimate of the West Indies : it is rather increasing in Brazil, entire population of America in 1823 ;

and in the U. States it grows rapidly. Setting Proportion.

aside the West Indies, where the negroes do not Whites, .......13,471,000 38 per cent. increase, and attending to the continent merely, Indians, 8.610,000 25

let us take the number of each class as it stands

at present, and see what the result will be in a Negroes,

19 free, 1,433,000

course of years, assuming the rate of increase to Mixed races,...... 6,428,000 18

be three per cent. for the whites, one and a half

per cent. for the negroes, and one per cent. for 34,942,000

the civilized Indians. If the whole population is If we assume the annual ratio of increase to be two

40,000,000 at present, the continental whites will

be about 16,000,000, the Indians about 9,500,000, per cent. per annum upon the whole, the entire population in 1830 will be about 40,000,000, dis

the negroes 5,000,000, and the mixed race tributed as follows :

7,000,000. In Spanish America, it may be as

sumed that the mixed race, consisting almost enBrazil, 5,000,000 British Amer

tirely of mestizoes, will merge into the white, and Colombia, 2,860,000

1,870,000 increase nearly in the same ratio. We shall La Plata, 550,000 Hayti, 935,000 therefore add five sevenths of the former to the Peru, 1,710,000 Spanish islands, 800,000 latter, which will raise the whites to 21,000,000. Bolivia, 1,200,000 French AmeriChile, 1,200,000 224,000 Number of whites in 1830,

21,000,000 Paraguay, 250,000 Danish America, 40,000

1855,

42,000,000 Banda Oriental, 100,000 Dutch America, 114,000

1880,

84,000,000 Guztimala, 2,000,000 Independent

1905, .168,000,000 Mexico, 8,000,000 Indians, 1,400,000

1930, .336,000,000 U.States, 12,000,000

As the difficulty of providing for the growing The black population of America forms three annual increment of inhabitants must increase groups, the centres of which are in the southern with the magnitude of the population, let us asparts of the U. States, in the West India islands, sume that, at the end of a century, the rate of inand in the eastern parts of Brazil :

crease falls to two per cent. The period of

doubling will then be thirty-six years. U. States,

.2,000,000 West Indies,.

2.400,000
Number of whites in 1966, 672,000,000

2002, 1,344,000,000 2,800,000

2030, . 2,380,000,000 7,200,000

Thus, in two centuries, the whites now in AmeriThe number of blacks in all other parts of Ameri ca would multiply to a mass of people three ca probably does not amount to 100,000.-One times as great as are at present on the whole surof the most interesting questions connected with face of the globe. The new continent, though America, relates to the increase and probable less than hali the size of the old, contains at least amount, at a future period, of its inhabitants. It an equal quantity of useful soil, and much more was the astonishing progress of the U. States that than an equal amount of productive power. Of first clearly unfolded the principles on which the the 31,000,000 of square miles which compose multiplication of human beings depends. We the three eastern continents, we cannot find that know with certainty that a prosperous community; the productive soil constitutes so much as one possessing abundance of 'unoccupied land, will third, and of that third a part is poor. Now, in double its numbers in 25 (23) years, without any estimating the useful soil of America, we reject, aid from emigration ; and as the scale ascends in 1. all the region northward of the latitude of 53o. a geometrical ratio, a short time necessarily pro- amounting to 2,600,000 square miles; 2. a belt duces a wonderful change. It is to be observed, of barren land about 300 miles broad by 1000 in however, that the whites, possessing the advan- length, or 300,000 square miles, lying on the east tages of superior industry, order, and forethought, side of the Rocky mountains; 3. a belt of arid land, naturally increase faster than the other classes. of similar exteni, situated on the east side of the In the U. States, this part of the population in- Andes, between 24° and 40' of south latitude ; creases at the rate of three per ceni. (5}] per an 4. the desert shore of Peru, equal to 100,000 num; and when the Spanish American republics square miles; 5. an extent of 100,000 square have settled down into a tranquil state, there is no miles for the arid country of California and doubt that their white inhabitants will multiply at Sonora; and 6. an extent of 500,000 square

Brazil,....

.

may be more properly designated as col- Nantucket, . . 7,202 Newport, . . . 8,010 ored persons than as Indians. (See In- Springfield, 6,784 Scituate, 6,853 dians, American ; Indian Languages of Lowell,(1832) 10,000 Warwick, • . 5,529 America ; and Tsulakees.)

Newburyport, 6,388
Lynn, .

6,138

Connecticut. Towns with a Population of more than Cambridge, 6,071 New Haven, 10,678 5000.

6,045 Hartford, .

9,789 Maine. Massachusetts.

Roxbury,. . . 5,249 Middletown, . 6,892 Portland . . 12,601 Boston, 61,392 Marblehead, . 5,150 Norwich,. 5,169 New Hampshire. Charlestown, 8,787 Salem, 13,886 Middleboro', . 5,008

New York. Portsmouth, . 8,082 New Bedford, 7,592

Rhode Island.

New York, 203,007 Dover, .... 5,449 Gloucester,. . 7,513 Providence, 16,882 Brooklyn, 15,396

Taunton,

miles for the summits of the Andes and the sources of America were fully developed, it would southern extremity of Patagonia. These make afford sustenance to 3,600,000,000 of inhabitants, an aggregate of 3,900,000 square miles, which, a number five times as great as the entire mass of deducted from 13,900,000, the whole surface of human beings existing at present upon the globe. the American continent, leaves 10,000,000 square And, what is more surprising, there is every probmiles as the quantity of useful soil

. Now, what ability that this prodigious population will be in relation does the fruitfulness of the ground bear to existence within three, or, at most, four centuries. the latitude of the place ? The productive pow. The imagination is lost in contemplating a state ers of the soil depend on two circumstances, of things which will make so great and rapid a heat and moisture ; and these increase as we ap- change in the condition of the world. We almost proach the equator. First, the warm regions of fancy that it is a dream; and yet the result is the globe yield larger returns of those plants based on principles quite as certain as those which they have in common with the temperate which govern the conduct of men in their ordinary zones; and, next, they have peculiar plants, which pursuits. There are many elements of disorder afford a much greater proportion of nourishment now operating in Spanish America, but these are from the same extent of surface. Thus maize, merely the dregs left by the old Spanish despotwhich produces 40 or 50 for 1 in France, pro- ism; and the Anglo-American republic is a pole. duces 150 for 1, on an average, in Mexico; and star to guide the people in their course towards Humboldt computes that an arpent (five sixths freedom and prosperity. Nearly all social imof an acre), which will scarcely support two provements spring from the reciprocal influence men when sown with wheat, will support fifty of condensed numbers and diffused intelligence. when planted with bananas. From a considera- What, then, will be the state of society in America tion of these and other facts, we infer that the two centuries hence, when a thousand or two nutritive powers of the soil will be pretty correct thousand millions of civilized men are crowded ly indicated by combining the ratios of the heat into a space comparatively so narrow, and when and moisture, expressing the former of these in this immense mass of human beings speak only degrees of the centigrade scale.

two languages ! We take for granted that the Latitude. Annual Rain. Mean An

Product. Ratio.

Portuguese will merge into the Spanish ; and it is Inches. nual Heat.

clear to us that the Russian will never obtain a 6016

112

footing in the new world. Such a state of things 14

15 may be said to undo the curse of Babel, and re0 96

2688 100 store the great inass of mankind to their pristine Thus the same extent of ground which supports by the communities of Europe and Asia will be as

facility of intercourse ; for the languages spoken fifteen at the latitude of 45°, and 100 at the equa- unimportant then, in the general scale of the globe. But the food preferred will not always be

as the dialects of Hungary, Finland and Bobethat which the land yields in greatest abundance; mia are in Europe at this day. History shows and the power of the human frame to sustain

that wealth, power, science, literature, all follow labor is greatly diminished in hot climates. On

in the train of numbers, general intelligence and these grounds, we shall consider the capacity of

freedom. The same causes which transferred the land to support population as proportional to

the sceptre of civilization from the banks of the Euthe third power of the cosine for the latitude. It phrates and the Nile to Western Europe, must, in will therefore stand thus :

the course of no long period,carry it from the latter Latitude, .......

to the plains of the Mississippi and the Amazon. ..... 0° 15° 30°

45° 600 Society, after all, is in its infancy; the habitable Productiveness,...100

65 35

12 world, when its productive powers are regarded, Assuming that the number of persons whom a may be said hitherto to have been an untenanted square mile can sustain withoui pressure is 150 waste. If any one suspects us of drawing on our at the latitude of 50°, we have 26 as the sum fancy, we would request him to examine thorwhich expresses the productiveness of this paral- oughly the condition and past progress of the lel. Then, taking, for the sake of simplicity, 35 North American republic. Let him look at its as the index of the productiveness of the useful amazing strides in wealth, intelligence and social soil beyond 30° in America, and 85 as that of the improvements ; at its indestructible liberty; and, country within the parallel of 30° on each side of above all, at the prodigious growth of iis popa. the equator, we have about 4,100,000 square miles, lation ; and let him answer the question to him each capable of supporting 200 persons, and self, what power can stop the tide of civilization 5,700,000 square miles, each capable of support which is pouring from this single source over an ing 190

persons. It follows that, if the natural re- unoccupied world."

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Albany, 24,238 Delaware.

Brighton, Mass.,

972 Troy, .. 11,405

Brunswick, Me.,

3,747 Wilmington, . 6,628 Rochester, *. . 9,269

Burlington, Vt.,

3,526 Buffalo,

8,653
Maryland.
Carlisle, Penn.,

2,523 Utica, 8,323

Castine, Me.,

1,155 Fishkill, 8,292

Baltimore, . 80,625 Chillicothe, Ohio, 2,846 Johostown, . 7,700

Cleveland, Ohio,

1,076 Gates, 7,484 District of Columbia. Columbia, S. C.,

3,310 Manlius, 7,375 Washington, 18,827 Columbus, Ohio,

2,437 Poughkeepsie, 7,222 Georgetown, 8,441 Concord, N. H.,

3,727 Salina, 6,929 Alexandria, . 8,263 Crown Point, N. Y., 2,041 Brighton, 6,519

Detroit, Michigan, 2,222 Newburgh, . 6,424 Virginia.

Dover, Del.,

3,416 Hempstead, · 6,215 Richmond,. 16,060 Fayetteville, N. C., 2,868 Seneca, . 6,161 Norfolk, . . 9,816 Frankfort, Ky.,

1,680 Bethlehem,. . 6,092 Petersburg, 8,322 Frederick, Md.,

4,427 Brookhaven, . 6,095 Wheeling, 5,221 Fredericksburg, Va., 3,307 Sempronius, . 5,705

Germantown, Penn., 4,642 Onondaga, . . 5,668 South Carolina.

Guilford, Conn., . 2,344 Huntington, . 5,582 Charleston, 30,289

Hagerstown, Md., 3,371 Hudson, 5,395

Hanover, N. H., : 2,361 Ellisburgh,. . 5,292

Georgia.

Indianapolis, Ind., 1,200 Ithaca, 5,270 Savannah,

Lebanon, New, N. Y., 2,695 Hector,

7,303 5,212

Lexington, Mass., 1,541 Dryden,

6,696
5,206
Augusta, .

Litchtield, Conn., . 4,458 Oyster Bay, · 5,193

Louisiana. Canandaigua, 5,162

There are in the U. States 205 towns Schoharie, . . 5,146

New Orleans, 46,310 with a population of upwards of 3000 New Paltz, . . 5,105

and less than 5000 inhabitants, 64 with

Tennessee. Lenox, 5,039

upwards of 5,000 and less than 10,000, Warwick, 5,013 Nashville, 5,566 and 20 with upwards of 10,000.

New Jersey. Kentucky. 3. Commerce, Manufactures, AgriculNewark, na: 10,953 Louisville, . 10,352 ture, and Mechanic Arts.--We have al

Lexington, . . 6,104 ready treated, at considerable length, of wick, . . 7,831

the commerce and agriculture of the U. Paterson, . 7,731

Ohio.

States, in the articles Commerce of the Pennsylvania. Cincinnati (1831),

World, Agriculture, and Horticulture, to

which we refer the reader for further inPhiladelphia, 167,811

28,014 formation on these subjects. The followPittsburg, 17,000

ing tables will serve to show, in some Lancaster, . 7,704

Missouri.

degree, the progress of the commerce of Reading, ... 5,859| St. Louis, . . 5,852 the country, and the nature of the articles

exported and imported. There are a number of towns described in the early volumes of this work, which

Commerce of the Colonies. were printed before the census of 1830

Exports to Imports from was taken. We take this opportunity to give their population according to that 1701,

£309,136 £343,828 census, with that of a few in later

1710,

249,816 293,662 volumes.

1720,

468,190 319,705 1730,

662,586 536,862 Andover, Mass.,

4,540
1740,

718,418 813,384 Annapolis, Md.,

2,623
1750,

804,770 1,313,076 Athens, Ohio,

729
1760,

761,101 2,611,766 Augusta, Me.,

3,980
1770,

1,015,538 3,725,575 Ballston Spa, N. Y., 2,113 1773,

1,369,232 1,979,416 Bennington, Vt.,

3,419 * The village of Rochester is situated in the It should be remarked, in regard to this townships of Gates and Brighton.

table, that there was a very active trade

.

G. Britain.

G. Britain.

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THE SEA.

Total Value of

U

Year. duce or Manufacture of

ufacture of
the U.States. Countries re-

from the

States,

THE FOREST.

kept up with other countries by the colo- Summary Statement of the Value of the
nies, though prohibited by the navigation Exports of the Growth, Produce and
laws of Great Britain.

Manufacture of the U.' States, during

the Year commencing on the 1st of Oc-
Estimated Value of the Domestic and For tober, 1830, and ending on the 30th of
eign Produce exported from the U. September, 1831.

States to Foreign countries, during
each Year, from 1790 to 1830; each Year

Fisheries-
ending on the 30th September.

Dried fish, or cod fisheries, • $625,393
Articles, the

Pickled fish, or river fisheries,
Articles, the Growth, Pro-

-herring, shad, salmon,
Growth, Pro-duce or Man-
the Exports mackerel,

304,441
Foreign

Whale and other fish oil, 554,440
Spermaceti oil,

53,526
exported.
Whalebone,

133,842
Dollars. Dollars. Dollars.
1790

20,205,156
Spermaceti candles,

217,830
1791

19,012,041
1792

20,753,098
1793
26,109,572 Skins and furs,.

. 750,938
1794
33,026,233 Ginseng,

115,928
1795

47,989,472
1796 40,764,097 26,300,000 67,064,079 Product of Wood-
1797 29,850,206 27,000,000 56,850,206 Staves, shingles, boards, and
1798 28,527,097 33,000,000 61,527,097

hewn timber,

1,467,065
1799 33,142,522 45,523,000 78,665,522

Other lumber,

214,105
1800|31,840,903 49,130,877 70,971,780

Masts and spars,

7,806
1801 47,473,204 46,642,721 94,115,925 Oak bark and other dye-stuffs, 99,116
1802 36,708,189 35,774,971 72,483,160 All manufactures of wood, .. 275,219
1803 42,205,961 13,594,072 55,800,033 Naval stores, tar, pitch, rosin,
1804 41,467,477 36,231,597 77,699,074 and turpentine, .

397,687
1805 42,387,002 53,179,019 95,566,021 Ashes, pot and pearl,

935,613
1806 41,253,727 60,283,236 101,536,963
1807 48,699,592 59,643,558 108,843,150
1808 9,433,546 12,997,414 22,430,960 Product of Animals-
1809 31,405,702 20,797,531 52,203,233 Beef, tallow, hides, and horn-
1810 42,366,675 24,391,295 66,757,970 ed cattle, .

829,982
1811 45,294,043 16,022,790 61,316,333 Butter and cheese,

264,796
1812 30,032,109 8,495,127 38,527,236 Pork (pickled), bacon, lard,
181325,008,152 2,847,845 27,855,997

live hogs,

1,501,654
1814 6,782,272 145,169 6,927,441 Horses and mules,

218,015
1815 45,974,403 6,583,350 52,557,753 Sheep,

14,499
181664,781,896 17,138,556 81,920,452
1817 68,313,500 19,358,069 82,671,569 Vegetable Food-
181873,854,437 19,426,696 93,281,133 Wheat,

523,270
1819 50,976,838 19,165,683 70,142,521 Flour,

9,938,458
1820 51,683,640 18,008,029 69,691,669

396,617
1821 43,671,894 21,302,488 64,974, 328 Indian meal,

595,434
1822 49,874,079 22,286,202 72,160 281

Rye meal, ..

71,881
1823 47,155,408 27,543,622 74,699 030

Rye, oats, and other small
1824 50,649,500 25,337,157 75,986 657

grain and pulse,

132,717
1825 66,944,745 32,590,643 99,535,388

Biscuit, or ship bread, 250,533
1826 53,055,710 24,539 612 77 595,322

Potatoes,

41,147
1827 58,921,691 23,403,136 82,324 827

Apples,

31,148
1828 50,921,669 21,595,017 72,516786

Rice,

2,016,267
1829 55,700,193 16,658,478 72,358 671
1830 59,462,029 14,387,479 73,849,508 Tobacco,

4,892,388
Cotton,

25,289,492
The following statement for the year Flaxseed,

216,376
1831 shows the nature of the domestic Hops, .

26,664
exports:

10,105

AGRICULTURE.

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Indian corn,

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Brown sugar,

of tin,

948

292,475 Molasses,
7,068 Trunks,
6,109 Salt, · ·

MANUFACTURES.
Vinegar,

$7,178
Earthen and stone ware,

7,378
Soap, and tallow candles, $643,252

Fire engines and apparatus, 5,630
Leather, boots and shoes, 290,937

Manufactures of glass, . 102,736
Household furniture,
229,231

3,909
Coaches and other carriages, 49,490

of pewter and lead, 6,422
Hats,

353,013

of marble and stone, 3,588
Saddlery,

39,440

of gold and silver,
Wax,

114,017

and gold leaf, 3,464
Spirits from grain, beer, ale,

Gold and silver coin,

2,058,474
and porter, :

141,794 Artificial flowers and jewelry,. . 11,439
Snuff and tobacco,
Lead,

5,326
Linseed oil and spirits turpentine, 54,092 Brick and lime,

4,412
Cordage,

26,848
Iron, pig, bar, and nails,

62,376
castings,

21,827

ARTICLES NOT ENUMERATED.
all manufactures of, 149,438
Spirits from molasses,

34,569
Manufactured,

394,681
Sugar, refined,

215,794
Other articles,

715,311
Chocolate,

1,965
Gunpowder,

102,033
Copper and brass,
55,755 Products of the sea,

1,889,472
Medicinal drugs,

104,760

forest,

4,263,477

agriculture, 47,261,433
Cotton Goods-

Manufactures,

6,752,683
Printed or colored, .

96,931 Articles not enumerated, . 1,109,992
White,

947,932

Total, ... 61,277,057
Nankeens,

2,397

Deduct gold and silver coin,. 2,058,474
Twist, yarn, and thread, 17,221
All other manufactures of,... 61,832 Total produce and manu-

facture of the U. States, . . $59,218,583
Flax and Hemp—
Cloth and thread, .

The exports of foreign produce for the
Bags, and all manufactures of, 2,599

same period amounted to $20,033,526.

.

RECAPITULATION,

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Wearing apparel,
Combs and buttons,
Brushes,
Billiard tables and apparatus,
Umbrellas and parasols,
Leather and morocco skins, not

sold per lb.
Printing presses and type,
Musical instruments,
Books and maps,
Paper and other stationery,
Paints and varnish,

59,749 Value of Merchandise imported into the
120,217 Ú. States from 1821 to 1830.
3,947
1821,

$62,585,724
2,343
1823,

77,579,267
29,580
1825,

96,340,075

79,484,068
58,146
1829,

74,492,527
8,713
1830,

70,876,920
10,906
35,609 In 1831, the value of imports was
55,121 $103,191,124 ; of exports, above
22,022 given, $81,310,583.

1827,

as

1

American and Foreign Tonnage employed in the Coasting, Foreign and Fishing

Trade, from 1790 to 1825.
American Vessels.

Foreign Vessels.
Foreign Trade. Coasting Trade. Fisheries.

Total.
1790 354,767 103,775 28,348 486,890 106,654
1795 580,277 171,918 34,102 786,297

56,832
1800

682,871 228,496 26,439 937,806 121,403
1805 922,298 284,863 59,445 1,266,606

87,842
1810 908,713 324,037 31,491 1,264,241 80,316
1815 700,500 375,207 33,223 1,108,930 217,413
1820 801,253 660,370 69,423 1,531,406 78,859
1825 814,854 722,916 81,443 1,619,213 89,481

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