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and forty thousand crownes, and yeelds three thousand crownes a yeare. The Chember Apostolicall gives over sitting at the same time the Ruota doth; and at the holding of the last Chamber his Holinesse makes a great banquet in the Palace Apostolicall, for all that are bea longing to the Chamber : and another that is made the first of August by the Cardinall Chamberlaine. Upon Saint Peters Eve all the tributes of the Feudataries of the Holy Church are paid into the Chamber, whereof the ready mo. ney remaines in the custody of the Reverend Chamber, but some plate, as cupps, and such like, are the Treasurer Generalls Fees, and the wax is divided amongst the Clerkes of the Chamber. Every one of the Officers aforesaid, which belong to the Chamber, hath bis jurisdiction distinct and severall.”*

* See a book entitled, “ The Court of Rome, &c. printed in the year 1654.”—It is bardly necessary to inform the reader, that the persecuted and humiliated condition of the Pope now renders the use of several ceremonies, expensive and splendid in their nature, almost impossible to be attended to. The description which is here attempted has a principal reference to the state of Catholicism in more prosperous times than the present. The state of religion in the city of Rome somewhat resembles that of the Jewish services, at this time, in Christendom. Doubtless, sanguine believers in both Churches look apxiously for a restoration of their ancient dignity and glory. If my memory do not fail me, the Rev. J. Berington, one of the most liberal and enlightened priests in England, has. somewhere expressed a hope and expectation of this nature. I believe this idea will be found in that gentleman's Lives of Abelard and Bloisa.

SECTION VI.

Of Persecution, and the Violation of Faith with

Heretics.

· THE present writer has no interest in denying that the Court of Rome has been in many instances a sanguinary and cruel Court; that thousands have been immolated on the altars of superstition and bigotry by the bloody acts and mandates of many Catholic princes, or rather, we should say, of many princes and popes, who have professed and abused the Catholic faith. But even on this subject much more has been said and written than is true; and sufficient care has not been taken to discriminate between the punishment of real or supposed rebels, and the martyrdom of innocent persons "! for righteousness' sake."'*

What Baxter said on another occasion may, with great propriety, be repeated on the subject of persecution, by Roman Catholics of the present day :-“ Either it is true or false; if false, shame to the reporters; if true, what doth it

* A candid and just investigation of the real causes of Persecution, distinguishing the political from the purely relia, gious instances of it, would form an interesting and useful volume.

concern us here, or any that are innocent, any further than to abhor it and lament it?"* It would be also unbecoming the dignity and candour of truth to deny, that Protestants have themselves been guilty of persecution ; and that not only of Roman Catholics, but also of one another. A perfectly fair and correct History of Persecution has never yet been given, though attempts have been made by one or two respectable authors. f Pagans have persecuted Jews

* See the Paper entitled, " What History is credible and what not,” prefixed to Baxter's History of Councils, p. 8. The same author also judiciously exclaims : “ Alas! how little are most histories to be believed, when they prove not what they say: there are about sixty that say there was a Pope Joan, and near as many [there are now many more) that say no such thing." Ibid.

+ The reader will not need to be reminded of Dr. Chandler's "History of Persecution, as it has been practised by Heathens, Christian Emperors, under the Popery, and among Protestants ;” it is, in many respects, a valuable work. I find an Abridgment is advertised, by the Rev. Charles Atmore, an intelligent and industrious preacher in the Wesleyan connexion of Methodists. There is also “ A short History of Persecution," by A. Robinson, written with considerable shrewdness and point. The Martyrologies are not to be depended on. · The histories of the Ivquisition are dictated with an honourable, yet not always with a just, indignation against the Court, and too often even against the Church, of Rome. Lewis de Enarolles' Memoirs of the Persecutions of the Protestants in France, and Lockman's History of Popish Persecution develope some bloody scenes; but they are extremely partial, and often very inaccurate. The Acts and

Monuments

and Christians; Jews have persecuted Chris tians and Pagans; and Christians have persecuted Pagans and Jews. Catholics have persecuted Episcopalian Protestants, and Episcopalian Protestants have persecuted Catholics; Dissenters from both have persecuted both, and both bave persecuted Dissenters, who have laboured pretty successfully in persecuting one another. * . . . . . .

Monuments of Fox, in many cases, merits a much stronger censure than that it is incorrect. Anthony Wood and other Protestant writers have concurred in reprobating the partialities and errors of Fox, though his huge volume is still chained, along with the Bible to the desks in many of our old churches; and also, which I feel scandalized in having occasion to add, is allowed to lie on the tables of nany Dissenting Vestries, for the edification of the faithful!

* In addition to the books referred to in the preceding note, the reader will find these melancholy facts confirmed in Neale's History of the Puritans, of which the best edition is the venerable Dr. Toulmin's; in Palmer's Non-conformist's Memorial, Wilson's History and Antiquities of Dissenting Churches, a liberal and useful publication ; in Bogue and Bennet's History of Dissenters, an illiberal work, but containing, nevertheless, much, valuable information; in Penn's Life of George Fox, and in Besse's Sufferings of the Quakers. Doctor Milner's History of Winchester, and the same autlior's letters to a Prebendary, may also be consulted on this subject. A sensible and intelligent writer in the Monthly Repository;t has begun a series of Letters, of which

four

+ I will here take the liberty of recommending this periodical pub. lication to the notice of my Roman Catholic readers, as a liberal and respectable vehicle, through which they may freely, (if the Various have been the kinds of persecution which erring Christians have exercised against each other, almost ever since the reign of Con stantine the Great, when the kingdoms of this world first began to meddle with the doctrines of religion and the government of the Church. Some have defined persecution to be threefold : “1. Mental, when the spirit of a man rises up and opposes another. 2. Verbal, when we give hard Words, and deal in uncharitable censures. 3. Actual, or open by the hand,” or, perhaps, more properly Manual, “ such as the dragging of innocent persons before the tribunal of justice."* There is another species of persecution not often spoken against: it is a sort of constructive persecution ; such as is exercised against Roman Catholics in some Protestant countries. There is, too, a certain furious and savage way of writing and speaking even against persecution itself, which often savours pretty strongly of the spirit

professions

four have already appeared, 'containing a “ Sketch of English Protestant Persecution.I say nothing here of the numerous Church Histories, which are little more than illustrations of bigotry, exhibiting the lamentable effects of Church and State Alliances, the mother and offspring, the root and the branch of Persecution.

* See Buck’s Theological Dictionary, Art. PERSECUTION.

professions of the Editor may be relied upon, and he has never yet deceived his readers) advocate their cause before a Protestant public; the pages of this work being open to all sects and parties without exception.

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