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CONTAINING

RULES OF SYNTAX, AND MODELS

FOR

ANALYZING AND TRANSPOSING.

TOGETHER WITH

SELECTIONS OF PROSE AND POETRY

FROM WRITERS OF STANDARD AUTHORITY.

BY ALLEN H. WELD, A. M.,
AUTHOR OF LATIN LESSONS AND READER, AND AN ENGLISH GRAMMAL

FIFTIETH EDITION. ...

BUFFALO:
PUBLISHED BY PHINNEY & co.

1854.

Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1847, by ALLEN H. WELD, in the Clerk's office of the District Court of Maine.

SYNOPSIS OF GRAMMATICAL RELATIONS.

See Gram. $$ 35, 36, 37, 28, 34, or Parsing Book, pages 5, 6.
SUBJECT. | MODIFIERS OF THE SUBJECT. || PREDICATE. MODIFIERS OF THE PREDICATE.
The Sunter of a sentencel The MODIFIERS of the subject may !! The PREDICATE 'of a The MODIFIERS of the predicata
may be a noun or pronoun; a be a noun in apposition; an adjec sentence may be a verb; may be a noun in the objective case,
verb in the infinitive; a llause; | tive; a preposition with its object or the verb be with any i (if the verb is transitive): a verb in
or any word or letter of which (adjunct); a participle; a verb in the Il word or expression con- the infinitive"; an adverb; a preposi-
something can be afirmed. infinitive; a relative clause; and rare- |nected with it, to com- tion with its object (adjunct); a clauses 17
I ly an adverb. :

Il plete an assertion and rarely an adjective.
The Subject, whose meaning is modified by one or more words, The Predicate, whose meaning is modified by one or more words q
is called the MODIFIED (or logical) SUBJECT.

is called the MODIFIED (or logical) TREDICATE.

LIBRARY UNIVERSITY HARVARD

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SIMPLE SENTENCES..
MODIFIED SUBJECTS.

MODIFIED PREDICATES.
SUBJECT. | MODIFIERS OF THE SUBJECT. || PREDICATE MODIFIERS OF THE PRED.

held
Ferdinand,
the king,

a council at Cordova
He,
the marquis of Cadiz,

beheld

from a distance, the peril of

the king. To die, in peace,

is the privilege

of the good.
That you have wronged me by your denial,

is evident

from your own admission.
Evergreens
only, among the trees,

verdant, in the winter.
An,
called an article,

is derived

from a Saxon word.
The rose,
so fair and beautiful to-day, Il may wither and fade

to-morrow Those, who are obliging

may expect

to be accommodated.

look

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MODIFICATION OF WORDS NOUN OR PRONOUN. I VERB OR PARTICIPLE.

ADJECTIVE.

ADVERB.
A noun or pronoun may be modified A verb or participle may be mod | An adjective may be An adverb may be modified
1. By a nonn in apposition; as, George,l. ified

modified

m 1. By another adverb; as, Most the king.

11. By a noun in the objective case, i 1. By an adverb; as, Veryl assuredly.... 2. By an adjective; as, A call mast. if the verb is transitive; as, The rich.

2. By a preposition with its ob 3. By a preposition with its object (ad- sun gives light. . ||2. By a verb in the infini- ject (adjunct); as, Agreea junct); as, A life of toil.

2. By a verb in the infinitive; as, tive; as, Pleasant to bly to nature, most of all. 4. By a participle; as, The sun rising. He hopes to return.

behold.

N. a. By a verb in the infinitive; as, A time 3. By a preposition with its object: 13. By a preposition with its!

PREPOSITION... to die.

as, I walk in the grove. I object; as, True tonature. A preposition may be modified & By a relative clause; as, I, who speak 4. By a clause; as, I hope that you | 4. By another adjective; 1. By an adverb; as, Farbe with you.

Il as, Deep blue; Liver.. yond. 7. Rarely by an adverb; as, Not my feet (5. By an adjective; as, The wind || pool deep blue earthen 2. By a noun in the objective only.

blows fresh.

pitchers.

case; as, Over the hills..

are well.

COMPOUND SENTENCES.

ANALYSIS OF SENTENCES.

| CLASSIFICATION OF SEN A Compound Sentence is made up of two or more A Sentence may be analyzed by dividing it into

TEXCES.
simple sentences joined by connectives. CONNECTIVEs the parts of which it is composed, and explaining | 1. Declarative; as, I writo.
are, 1. Conjunctions ; 2. Conjunctive Adverbs; 3, i their relations.

2. Interrogative; as, Do you
Relative words. See Gram. $ 112, or Parsing Book,

write ?
pages 6, 7.

1. Divide the sentence into its two general parts, 1 3. Imperative; as, Buy the
| viz: the Subject or Modified Subject, the Predicate

truth.
NOUNS INDEPENDENT.
or Modified Predicate.

4. Subjunctive; as, lfitrains. Nouns which have no grammatical connection with 2. Explain the mutual relations, and point out the subject or predicate of a sentence, are said to be the office of every word which has any modifying much he resembles his independerit: as, O virtue! influence.

father!

PREFACE.

The selections which compose the body of the following work are so arranged as to constitute a gradual course of Exercises in Analyzing and Parsing.

The Rules of Syntax are taken from WELD'S ENGLISH GRAM MAk by permission of the Publishers, and to these rules, and also to the Grammar from which they are taken, references are occasionally made, to assist the learner in explaining idiomatic or difficult passages.

As the extracts are from some of the most accomplished and approved writers, the Ornaments of Style, Figures of Rhetoric, and Scanning, may be profitably attended to by advanced classes.

The book may be used by learners in almost any stage of attainment, after the elementary principles of Grammar are under stood. The work is designed to take the place of Pope's Essay, Thomson's Seasons, Young's Night Thoughts, and other entire poems, which are used as parsing books in Schools. A variety in the selections, it is believed, will be more profitable and interesting to the learner, than any single work can be, which exhibits no gradation in style, and the peculiarities of one writer only.

A. H. W.

RULES OF SYNTAX.

1. SYNTAX treats of sentences, and teaches the proper construction of words in forming them.

CLASSIFICATION OF SENTENCES. Sentences are of four kinds, declaratory, imperative, interrogative, and conditional.

A declaratory sentence is one in which any thing is simply affirmed or denied of a subject; as, Time flies; He will not understand.

An imperative sentence is one in which a command is expressed; as, Buy the truth, and sell it not.

An interrogative sentence is one in which a question is asked; as, Who hath believed our report ?

A conditional sentence is one in which something contingent or hypothetical is expressed; as, If it rains ; Though he slay me.

Sentences are either simple or compound. A simple sentence consists of but one proposition; a compound sentence consists of two or more simple sentences.

The simple propositions which make up a compound sentence, are called clauses or members.

The leading clause is one on which the other members depend.

A dependent clause is one which makes complete sense only in connection with another clause.

SIMPLE SENTENCES. A simple sentence contains only one subject or nominative, and one predicate.

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