« PreviousContinue »
KING HENRY VI. (PART II.)
"Margery Jourdain."—Act I. Sc. 2.
It appears from Rymer, that in the tenth year of Henry VI. Margery Jourdemayn, John Virley, clerk, and friar John Ashwell, were, on the 9th of May, 1433, brought from Windsor by the constable of the castle, to which they had been committed for sorcery, before the council at Westminster, and afterwards, by an order of council, delivered into the custody of the lord chancellor. The same day it was ordered by the lords of council, that whenever the said Virley and Ashwell should find security for their good behaviour, they should be set at liberty; and in like manner, that Jourdemayn should be discharged, on her husband's finding security. This woman was afterwards burned in Smithfield. DOUCE.
"A sand bag."-Act II. Sc. 3.
As, according to the old laws of duel, knights were to fight with the lance and sword, so those of an inferior rank fought with an ebon staff or battoon, to the farther end of which was fixed a bag crammed hard with sand.-WARBURTON.
THE BLACK DOG OF NEWGATE, 1612. "This knave's tongue begins to double."-Act II. Sc.3. Holinshed's account of this combat between the armourer and his man is curious: "In the same
yeare also, a certeine armourer was appeached of treason by a servant of his owne. For proofe whereof a daie was giuen them to fight in Smithfield, insomuch that in conflict the said armourer was overcome and slaine; but yet by misgouerning of himself. For on the morrow when he should have come to the field fresh and fasting, his neighbours came to him, and gaue him wine and strong drinke in such excessive sort, that he was therewith distempered, and reeled as he went; and so was slaine without guilte. As for the false servant, he liued not long." The original exchequer record of expenses attending the combat has been preserved, from whence it appears, that the armourer was not killed by his opponent, but conquered, and immediately afterwards banged. The following is the last article in the account, and was struck off by the barons of the exchequer, because it contained charges unauthorised by the sheriffs:
In Hall's Chronicle, Beaufort's last moments 2 thus described: "During these doyngs, Heary Beauford, Byshop of Winchester, and called the riche cardynall, departed out of this worlde. This man was haut in stomach and bygh in content, ryche above measure of all men and to fewe liberal: disdaynful to his kynne, and dreadful to his leven. His covetous insaciable and hope of long life made him bothe to forgete God, his prynce, and himselit. in his latter dayes; for Doctor John Baker his pr A cup of charneco."-Act II. Sc. 3. vie counsailer and his chapellan, wrote, that iving "Some drinking the neat wine of Orleance, some on his death-bed he said these words: Wi the Gascony, some the Bordeaux. There wanted should I dye, having so muche ryches? If the neither sherry, sack, nor charneco, maligo, nor whole realme would save my lyfe, I am abell either amber-coloured candy, nor liquorish ipocras, by policie to get it, or by ryches to buy it. Fre. brown beloved bastard, fat Alicant, or any quick-will not death be hired, nor will monye do nothing? spirited liquor." When my nephew of Bedforde died, I thought my selfe half up the whele, but when I saw mine sher nephew of Gloucester disceased, then I thought myselfe able to be equal with kinges, and so thought to increase my treasure, in hope to have wor But I see now the worlde faveth trypple croune. me, and so I am deceyved; praying you all to pray for me."-MALONE.
some convicted dead men, and also without de death of some lyvinge thinge it cannot be drasser of the earthe to man's use. Therefore they dit të some dogge or other lyvinge beaste nnto the rate thereof with a corde, and digged the earthe in eanpasse round about, and in the meane tyme stopped their own eares for feare of the terreble shriek and cry of this mandrack. In whych cry it dethe m only dye itselfe, but the feare thereof kylieth dogge or beast whych pullyth it out of the earth.”
If thou best death, I'll give thee England's treesure."-Act III. Sc. 3.
"The sea-shore near Dover."—Act IV. Sc. I. "But fortune would not that this flagitious person (the duke of Suffolk,) should so escape; for when he shipped into Suffolk, entendynge to be transported into France, he was encountered with a shippe of warre appertaining to the dake of Excester, the constable of the Towre of London, called the Nicholas of the Towre. The captais of the same bark, with small fight, entered into the duke's
shyppe, and perceyving his person present, brought
him to Dover rode, and there, on the obe syde of a cocke-bote, caused his head to be strykea of and left his body, with the head, upon the sandes of Dover; which corse was there found by a chapelayne of his, and conveyed to Wyngfielde college in Suffolke, and there buried."-HALL'S CHRONICLE
“This monument of the victory will I bear.” Act IV. Sc. 5. "Jack Cade, upon his victory against the Staifords, apparelled himself in Sir Humphrey's brigandine, set full of gilt nails, and so in some glory returned again towards London."-HOLINSHED.
"The pissing-conduit run nothing but claret.” Act IV. Sc.6. This pissing-conduit was the standarde in Cheape, which, as Stowe relates, "John Wels, grocer. maior, 1430, caused to be made with a small cesterne for fresh water, having one cock continually
The sum total of expence incurred on this occa- running.”—RITSON. sion was £10. 18s. 9d.-STEEVENS. "Would curses kill, as doth the mandrake's groan." Act III. Sc. 2. Bulleine, in his Bulwarke of Defence against Sicknesse, speaking of mandragora, says," They doe affyrme that this herbe cometh of the seede of
"Set London bridge on fire.”—Act IV. Sc. 6. At that time, London bridge was made of wood. "After that," says Hall, "he entered London, and cut the ropes of the draw-bridge." In this rebellion, the houses on London bridge were barnt, and many of the inhabitants perished.-MALONE.
HENRY VI. PART III.]
"That the laws of England may come out of your nouth."-Act IV. Sc. 7.
feats of chivalrie, the which in continuall warres
Holinshed says of Wat Tyler, "It was reported, Indeed, that he should saie with great pride, putting is hand to his lips, that within four days all the laws of England should come foorth of his mouth."
"Stern Faulconbridge commands the narrow seas.'
Matthew Gough."-Act IV. c. 7.
"A man of great wit and much experience in Hothfield."-HOLINSHED.
"Kent. Iden's garden."-Act IV. Sc. 10.
"A gentleman of Kent, named Alexander Eden, awaited so his time, that he took the said Cade, in a garden in Sussex, so that there he was slaine at
The person here meant was Thomas Nevil, bas"a man," says tard son to the lord Faulconbridge; Hall, of no less corage then audacitie, who for his euel condicions was such an apte person, that a more meter could not be chosen to set all the worlde in a broyle, and to put the estate of the realme on an yl hazard." He was appointed by Warwick vice-admiral, and had in charge to keep the passage between Dover and Calais. On Warwick's death he fell into poverty, and robbed, both by sea and land, from friends and foes. He once brought his ships up the Thames, and made a spirited attack on the city. After a roving life, he ventured to land RITSON. at Southampton, where he was taken and beheaded.
VI. (PART III.)
in that furie of knocking churches and sacred mo-
"Is he dead already? Or is it fear That makes him close his eyes."-Act I. Sc. 3. "Whilst this battail was fighting, a priest called Sir Robert Aspall, chappellaine and schole-master to the yonge erle of Rutlande, ii sone to the above of xii yeres, named duke of York, scarce of the a fair gentleman, and a maydenlike person, percyving that flyght was more safe-gard than tarrying both for hymn and his master, secretly conveyed the erle out of the felde, by the lord Clifforde's bande, toward the towne; but or be could entre into a house, he was by the sayd lord Clifford espied, followed, and taken, and by reason of his apparell, The young gentleman, demanded what he was. dismayed, had not a word to speke, but kneled on his knees, imploring mercy, and desiring grace, both with holding up his hands, and making dolorous countenance, for his speache was gone for feare." HALL'S CHRONICLE. “Putting a paper crown on his head.” —Act I. Sc. 4.
"Do I see three suns?"-Act II. Sc. 1.
"At which tyme the son (as some write) appeared to the erle of Marche like three sonnes, and sodainely joyned altogither in one; upon whiche sight hee tooke such courage, that he, fiercely setting on his enemyes, put them to flight; and for this cause mene ymagined that he gave the son in HOLINSHED. his full brightnesse for his badge or cognisance.”
"Sir John Grey."-Act III. Sc. 2.
Sir John Grey is here stated to have died fighting for the house of York, than which nothing can be more opposed to truth. He fell in the second battle of St. Albans, which was fought on Shrove-Tuesday, Feb. 17, 1460, fighting on the side of king Henry. In Richard III. the manner of his death is truly stated.—MALONE.
"Some write that the duke was taken alive, and, in derision, caused to stand upon a mole-hill; on whose head they put a garlande instead of a crowne. which they had fashioned and made of segges or bulrushes; and having so crowned him with that garlande, they kneeled downe afore him, as the Jews did to Christe in scorne, saying to him, ‘hayle king without rule, hayle king without heritage, hayle duke and prince without people or possessions. And, at length, having thus scorned him with these and dyverse other the like despiteful woordes, they strooke off his head, which (as ye have heard) they presented to the queen.' HOLINSHED.
"I was not ignoble of descent."—Act IV. Sc. 1.
Lady Elizabeth, Edward IV.'s queen, was the daughter of Sir Richard Widville, afterwards earl of Rivers; her mother was Jaqueline, duchess dowager of Bedford, who was daughter to Peter of Luxemburgh, earl of St. Paul, and widow of John, duke of Bedford, the brother of Henry V.
"Off with his head, and set it on York gates;
This pretty lad will prove our country's bliss." Act IV. Sc. 6. When Richmond, whose future grandeur is here prophecied, became king, his gratitude to Henry VI. cit pope Julius to canonize him as a saint; but refused, for this early presage in his favour, made him solieither Henry VII. would not pay the money depope supposes, the manded, or, as Bacon lest "as Henry was reputed in the world abroad but as a simple man, the estimation of that kind of honour might be diminished, if there were not a distance kept between innocents and saints."
This gallant prince fell by his own imprudence, in consequence of leading an army of only five thousand men to engage with twenty thousand. He and Cecily his wife, with his son Edmond, earl of Rutland, were originally buried in the chancel of Foderingay church, and (as Peacham informs us in is Complete Gentleman, 1627,)" when the chancel,
During the contest between the houses of York and Lancaster, sixteen battles were fought, and upwards of ninety thousand persons were slain. nificance when we remember the battles of Moskwa, This carnage, though considerable, sinks into insigLeipsic, and Waterloo.
KING RICHARD III.
"He hearkens after prophecies and dreams." Act I. Sc. 1.
"Some have reported, that the cause of this nobleman's death (the duke of Clarence,) rose of a foolish prophecie, which was, that after king Edward, should raigne one whose first letter of his name should be a G; wherewith the king and the queen were sore troubled, and began to conceive a grievous grudge against this duke, and could not be quiet till they had brought him to his end."-HOLINSHED.
Some historians say, that when Clarence endeavoured to obtain in marriage Mary, the daughter and heiress of the duke of Burgundy, his brother, king Edward, was displeased, because he wished to unite that lady with Rivers, the queen's brother; and in this way the breach between the brothers has been explained.-MALONE.
See! dead Henry's wounds, Open their congeal'd mouths, and bleed afresh." Act I. Sc. 2. It is a tradition very generally received, that the murdered body bleeds on the touch of the murderer. This was so much believed by Sir Kenelm Digby, that he has endeavoured to explain the cause.
"Pattern of thy butcheries.”—Act I. Sc. 2. "The dead corps, on the Ascension even, was conveied with bills and glaives, pompouslie, (if you will call that a funeral pompe) from the Tower to the church of Saint Paule, and there laid on beire or coffin bare-faced; the same in the presence of the beholders, did bleed, where it rested the space of one whole daie. From thence he was carried to the Blackfriars, and bled there likewise." HOLINSHED.
"The countess Richmond."-Act I. Sc. 3. Margaret, daughter to John Beaufort, first duke of Somerset, after the death of her first husband, Edmund Tudor, earl of Richmond, half-brother to king Henry VI. by whom she had only one son, afterwards king Henry VII.; she married first sir Henry Stafford, uncle to Humphrey, duke of Buckingham.-MALONE.
by a letter from Sir John Paston to his brother, dated Feb. 14, 1471: "Yesterday, the king, de queene, my lords of Clarence and Gloster, went in Shene to pardon; men say, not all in charity. The king entreateth my lord of Clarence for my lord of Gloster; and as it is said, he answereth, that he may well have my lady his sister-in-law, but they siat' part no livelihood, as he saith; so what will fill in not say."-MALONE.
"Enter Buckingham.”—Act III. Sc. 2. The jesting remarks here given to Buckingha were really made by Sir Thomas Howard, afterwards introduced in this play as earl of Sarry. ** The same morning ere he (Hastings) were up from he bed, where Shore's wife lay with him all night, there came to him sir Thomas Haward, [Howard] some w the lord Howard, as it were of courtesie, to accom paignie him to the counsaill; but forasmuche as he the lord Hastings was not readie, be taried awhit for him, and hasted him away. This sir ThomES, while the lord Hastings stayed awhile commODTI with a priest whom he met in the Towerstrete, brake the lord's tale, saying to him merrily, What, my lord, I pray you come on, wherefore talke you s along with the priest? you have no nede of a priest yet; and laughed upon him, as though he would saye, you shall have nede of one soone." Coutiquetion of Harding's Chronicle.
Bishop of Ely."-Act III. Sc. 4.
'Crosby-place."-Act I. Sc. 2.
Dr. John Morton, elected bishop of Ely in 1478, advanced to the see of Canterbury in 1486, up
Crosby place is now Crosby-square, in Bishops-pointed lord-chancellor in 1487, died in 1500. He gate-street; part of the house is yet remaining, and deserves the gratitude of posterity as having first is a meeting-place for a presbyterian congregation. suggested a marriage between Henry VII. and This magnificent mansion was built in the year Elizabeth, the eldest daughter of Edward IV. which 1466, by sir John Crosby, grocer and woolman. union terminated the long and bloody contest beSir J. Crosby's tomb is in the neighbouring church tween the houses of York and Lancaster.-MALONE. of St. Helen the Great.-STEEVENS.
"Your brother Gloster hates you."-Act I. Sc. 4.
Gloster hated Clarence, because he would not share with him that moiety of the estate of the great earl of Warwick, to which Gloster was entitled on his marriage with the younger sister of the duchess of Clarence, lady Ann Nevill, who had been betrothed to Edward, prince of Wales: This seems proved
"Put to death a citizen.”—Act III. Se. 5. This person was one Walker, a substantial citizen and grocer, at the Crown, in Cheapside.-GREY.
"Wert thou not banished on pain of death?" Act I. Sc. 3. Margaret fled into France after the battle of Hexham, in 1464, and Edward thereupon issued a proclamation, prohibiting any of his subjects from aiding her to return, or harbouring her, should she revisit England. On the 14th of April, 1471, she landed at Weymouth. After the battle of Tewks-merly bury, in the same year, she was confined in the Tower, where she continued till 1475, when she was ransomed by her father, Regnier, and removed to France, where she died in 1482. The present scene is in 1477, so that her appearance here is a mere poetical fiction.-MALONE.
Baynard's castle."-Act III. Sc. 5. It was originally built by Baynard, a nobleman, who, according to Stowe, came in with the Conqueror. This edifice, which stood in Thames street, has long been pulled down, though part of its strong foundations are still visible at low water. The site of it is now a timber-yard.-STEEVENS.
"Doctor Shaw."-Act III. Sc. 5.
Shaw and Penker were two popular preachers. Instead of a pamphlet being published to furnish the advocates of the administration with plausible arguments on great political measures, it was forusual to publish the court-creed from the pulpit at Saint Paul's cross. As Richard now employed doctor Shaw to support his claim to the crown, so about fifteen years before, the great earl of Warwick employed his chaplain, doctor Goddard, to convince the people that Henry VI. ought to be restored, and that Edward IV. was an usurper. MALONE. "The brats of Clarence.”—Act III. Sc. 5. Edward, earl of Warwick, who, after the battle of Bosworth, was sent, by Richmond, to the Tower, without even the shadow of an allegation against him, and executed, with equal injustice, on Towerhill, Nov. 21, 1499; and Margaret, afterwards
married to sir Richard Pole, the last princess of HARD the house of Lancaster, who was restored to her honours in the fifth year of Henry VIII. and in the thirty-first year of his reign, (1540,) at the age of seventy, was put to death by that sanguinary tyrant. The immediate cause of Warwick's being put to death was, that the king of Spain would not marry his daughter Katherine to Arthur, prince of Wales, during his life-time. This murder (for it deserves no other name,) made such an impression on Katherine, that when she was informed of Henry's intention to repudiate her, she exclaimed, "I have not offended, but it is a just judgment of God, for my first marriage was made in blood." MALONE.
“With his contract with lady Lucy.”—Act III. Sc.7. The king had been familiar with this lady before his marriage, to obstruct which, his mother alleged a precontract between them: "Whereupon dame Elizabeth Lucy was sent for, and albeit she was by the kyng his mother, and many other, put in goode comfort to affirme that she was assured to the kynge, yet when she was solemnly sworn to saye the truth, she confessed she was never ensured. Howbeit, she sayd his grace spake such lovyinge wordes to her, that she verily hoped he woulde have married her, and that yf suche kinde wordes had not bene, she would never have shewed such kindnesse to hym to let hym so kyndely gette her with chylde."-HALL'S CHRONICLE.
"Butcher's cur."-Act I. Sc. 1.
When the duke of Buckingham's death was reported to the emperor Charles V. he said, "The first buck of England was worried to death by a butcher's dog."-STEEVENS.
"The duke being at the rose."-Act I. Sc. 2.
This house was purchased about the year 1561, by Richard Hill, sometime master of the MerchantTailors' Company, and is now the Merchant-Tailors' School, in Suffolk-lane.-WHALLEY.
"O, would to God, that the inclusive verge Of golden metal, that must round my brow, Were red hot-steel, to sear me to the brain." Act IV. Sc. 1. An allusion to the ancient mode of punishing a regicide, or any other egregious criminal, by placing a crown of iron, heated red hot, upon his head. MALONE.
KING HENRY VIII.
"The earldom of Hereford."-Act IV. Sc. 2. Shakspeare makes Richard refuse to grant the Hereford estate to Buckingham, and their quarrel is the consequence in the tragedy. This is contrary to the truth of history. Buckingham actually obtained from Richard III. when he usurped the throne, the earldom of Hereford, and the office of constable of England, which had long been annexed by inheritance to that earldom.-MALONE.
Leave these remnants
Act I. Sc. 3.
"At that time (in the court of Henry VIII.) I was no common squire, no under-trodden torch-bearer; I had my feather in my cap as big as a flag in the foretop, my French doublet gelt in the belly, as though (like a pig readie to be spitted,) all my guts had been plucked out; a paire of side-paned bose that hung down like two scales filled with Holland cheeses; my long stock that sate close to my dock, my rapier pendent like a round sticke, &c.; my blacke cloake of black cloth, ouerspreading my backe, lyke a thornbacke on an elephant's eare; and in consummation of my curiositie, my handes without gloves, all a more French."
NASHE'S LIFE OF JACKE WITTON, 1594. "Enter the King, and twelve others, as maskers." Act I. Sc. 4.
"Before the king began to dance, they requested leave to accompany the ladies at mumchance. Leave being granted, then went the masquers and first saluted all the dames, and then returned to the most worthiest, and then opened the great cup of gold, filled with crownes and other pieces, to cast at. Thus perusing all the gentlewomen, of some they wonne, and to some they lost. And having viewed all the ladies, they returned to the cardinal with great reverence, pouring downe all their gold, which was above two hundred crowns. At all,
"Lest, being seen, thy brother, tender George, Be executed." Act V. Sc. 3. "The lord Stanley lodged in the same town, (Stafford) and hearing that the earle of Richmond was marching thitherward, gave to him place, dislodging him and his to avoide all suspicion, being afraide least being seen openly to be a factor or ayder to the earle, his son-in-law, before the day of battyle, that king Richard, which yet not utterly put him in diffidence and mistrust, would put to some evil death his son and heir-apparent.'
Your grace, I fear, with dancing is a little heated."
Act I. Sc. 4.
The king, on being discovered, and desired by Wolsey to take his place, said that he would "first go and shift him; and, thereupon, went into the cardinal's bed-chamber, where was a great fire prepared for him, and there he new appareled himself with riche and princelie garments. And in the king's absence the dishes of the banquet were cleane taken away, and the tables covered with new and perfumed clothes. Then the king took his seat under the cloath of estate, commanding every person to sit still as before; and then came in a new. banquet before his majestie of two hundred dishes, and so they passed the night in banqueting and dancing till morning."
CAVENDISH'S LIFE OF WOLSEY.
"Norfolk opens a folding door: the king is discovered sitting, and reading pensively."-Act II. Sc. 2. The stage direction in the old copy is a singular "Exit lord chamberlain, and the King draws the curtain, and sits reading pensively;" and it will enable us to ascertain precisely the state of the
theatre in Shakspeare's time. When a person was to be discovered in a different apartment from that in which the original speakers in the scene are exhibited, the method was to place such person in the back part of the stage, behind the curtains which were, occasionally, suspended across it. These the person who was to be discovered (as Henry, in the present case,) drew back just at the fit moment. Rowe, looking no further than the modern stage, changed the direction thus: "The scene opens and discovers the king," &c. but besides the folly of introducing scenes when there were none, such an exhibition would be improper, for Norfolk has just said "Let's in," and, therefore, should himself do some act in order to visit the king. This, indeed, in the simple state of the old stage, was not attended to; the king, very civilly, discovering himself."
That he ran mad and died.”-Act II. Sc. 2. “Aboute this time the king received into favour Dr. Stephen Gardiner, whose service he used in matters of great secrecie and weighte, admitting him in the roome of doctor Pace, the which being continually abrode in ambassades, and the same oftentymes not much necessarie, by the cardinalle's appointment, at lengthe he tooke such greete therewithe, that he fell out of his right wittes."
Two gentlemen, bearing two great silver pillars." Act II. Sc. 4.
the death-tokens of it Cry, No recovery.” Act II. Sc. 3. Dr. Hodges, in his Treatise on the Plague, says, "Spots of a dark complexion, usually called tokens, and looked on as the pledges or forewarnings of death, are minute and distinct blasts, which have their original from within, and rise up with a little pyramidal protuberance, the pestilential poison chiefly collected at their bases, tainting the neighbouring parts, and reaching to the surface."
Wolsey, on this visit, and the queen's answer in the play is exactly conformable to that which he h recorded, and which he appears to have heard he pronounce.-MALONE.
"Thou stool for a witch."-Act II. Sc. 1. In one way of trying a witch, they used to place her on a chair or stool, with her legs tied across, that all the weight of her body might rest upon her seat, and by that means, after some time, the circulation of the blood would be much stopped, and her sitting would be as painful as the wooden horse.-GREY.
"O, good my lord, no Latin.”—Act III. Sc. L. "Then begane the cardinall to speake to her in latine. Naie, good my lord, (quoth she,) speak to me in English."-HOLINSHED.
"Worse than the sacring bell.”—Act III. Sc. 2
The little bell which is rung to give notice of the host approaching, when it is carried in proces sion, as also in other offices of the Romish church. is called the sacring, or consecration bell; from the French word, sacrer."-THEOBALD.
"Ipswich."—Act IV. Sc. 2.
the cardinal founded in this place, was disce"The foundation-stone of the college, which ter-house of Christ-church, Oxford." vered a few years ago. It is now in the chap
"You'd spare your spoons.”—Act V. Sc.2. It was the custom, long before Shakspeare's time, for the sponsors at christenings to offer gilt spoons as a present to the child. These spoons were called apostle spoons, because the figures of the apostles were carved on the handles. Such us were opulent and generous gave the whole tele; those who were less rich or liberal escaped at the expense of the four evangelists; and some gave one spoon only, which exhibited the figure of the saint in honour of whom the child was named.
"Paris garden."—Act V. Sc. 3.
This celebrated Bear garden, on the Bankside, was so called from Robert de Paris, who had a bothouse and garden there in the time of Richard II. The Globe theatre, in which Shakspeare_was actor, stood on the southern side of the Thames, and was contiguous to this noted place of tamalt. See the Account of the Theatres in Shakspeare's Time, in the former part of this volume.]
"Keep this sleeve.”—Act V. Sc. 2.
is mentioned in Hall's Chronicle: "One ware on The custom of wearing a lady's sleeve for a favour his head-piece his lady's sleeve, and another bare on his helme the glove of his deareling." STEEVENS.
"The dreadful sagittary.”—Act V. Sc. 5. "Beyonde the royalme of Amasonne came an auncyent kynge, wyse and dyscreete, named Epystrophus, and brought a M knyghtes, and a mervallouse beste that was called sagittayre, that behynde the middes was an horse, and to forea man: this beste was heery like an horse, and had his eyn rede as a cole, and shotte well with a bowe: this beste made the Grekes sore aferde, and slew many of them with his bowe."
THE THREE DESTRUCTIONS OF TROIE
“Some galled goose of Winchester."—Act V. Sc. 11.
As the public stews were under the controul of the bishop of Winchester, a strumpet was called a Winchester goose, and a galled Winchester goose may mean, either a strumpet afflicted with disease, or one that felt offended by the remarks of Pandarus in the play.-MASON.