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agated by semination, and yet could never see e seed, were much at a loss for a solution of the ifficulty; and as wonder always endeavours to gment itself, they ascribed to fern seed many range properties, some of which the rustic virins have not yet forgotten or exploded.
JOHNSON. "Out of all cess."—Act II. Sc. 1.
That is, out of all measure; the phrase being aken from a cess or tax; which being by regular and moderate rates, when anything was exorbitant was said to be out of all cess.-WArburton.
"Gadshill."-Act II. Sc. 2.
Gadshill, the scene of the robbery in this play, is
n the Kentish road. Steevens informs us, that as arly as 1558, a ballad, entitled, The Robbery at Gadshill, was entered on the books of the stationers' ompany. The poet, however, on whom the more oted facts of his time were never lost, probably alluded to the conduct of a particular gang, who appear, in 1590, to have infested Gadshill and its eighbourhood with more than common boldness, and who, like our author's robbers, were mounted
and wore vizors.-BOSWELL.
Look down into the Pomegranate.”—Act II. Sc. 4. To have windows or loop-holes looking into the srooms beneath them was, anciently, a general custom.-STEEVENS.
"Crystal-bution."-Act II. Sc. 4.
Pawnbrokers formerly wore a peculiar dress, the buttons of which were of crystal. "A black taffata doublet, and a spruce leather jerkin with crystal buttons. I inquired of what occupation: marry, sir, quoth he, a broker."-Greene's Quip for an Upstart Courtier.
Caddis garter."-Act II. Sc. 4.
Caddis was a kind of coarse ferrett. In Shakspeare's time, the garters were worn in sight, and were often very costly. He who wore a plainer sort was probably called "caddis garter" in contempt. "At this day, (about 1625) says the continuator of Stow's Chronicle, men of meane ranke weare garters and shoe roses of more than five pound price.' In a memorandum book kept by Henslowe, step-father to the wife of Alleyn the player, is the following item: "Lent unto Thomas Hewode, (the dramatic writer) the 1 of September, 1602, to bye him a payre of silver garters, ij s. vi d."-MALONE, and STEEVENS.
"The strappado."-Act II. Sc. 4.
"The strappado is when the person is drawn up to his height, and then suddenly to let him fall half way with a jerk, which not only breaketh his arms to pieces, but also shaketh all his joints out of joint, which punishment is better for a man to be hanged than to undergo.-RANDLE HOLME'S ACADEMY OF ARMES AND BLAZON.
"I could have.crept into any alderman's thumb ring." Act II. Sc. 4.
An alderman's thumb_ring is mentioned by Brome, in The Antipodes, 1641. "Item, a distich graven in his thumb ring." Again, in The Norhern Lass, 1632. "A good man in the city &c. wears nothing rich about him, but the gout or a thumb -ing; and in The Wit's Constable, 1610, No more wit than the rest of the bench; what lies in is thumb ring."-STEEVENS.
"A Welsh hook."-Act II. Sc. 4.
The Welsh book was pointed like a spear, to ash or thrust with; and, below, had a hook to ize the enemy, if he should attempt to escape by ght.-WHALLEY.
"Manningtree ox."-Act II. Sc. 4.
Manningtree in Essex, and its neighbourhood, are famous for rich pastures. The farms are chiefly tenanted by graziers. Some ox of an unusual size was probably roasted there on some occasion of public festivity, or exposed for money to public show.-STEEVENS.
"Hide thee behind the arras.”-Act II. Sc. 4.
When arras was first used in England, it was suspended on hooks driven into the bare walls; this practice was soon changed; for after the damp of the wall had been found to rot the tapestry, it was fixed on wooden frames, at such a distance from the wall, as to prevent its being injured. In old mansions, therefore, sufficient space could have been easily found, to conceal even one of Falstaff's bulk.-MALONE.
"As if thou never walked'st further than Finsbury." Act III. Sc. 1.
Open walks and fields near Chiswell-street, London-wall, by Moorgate, the common resort of the citizens, as appears from many of our ancient
"Holland of eight shillings an ell."—Act III. Sc. 3.
Falstaff's shirts, according to this calculation, would come to about 22s. each, and we learn from Stubbe's Anatomie of Abuses, that the shirt of the meanest man cost at least 5s. He thus concludes his invective on this subject: "Insomuch as I have heard of shirts that have cost some ten shillings, some twentie, some fortie, some five pound, some twentie nobles, and (whiche is horrible to heare) some ten pound a piece, yea, the meanest shirt that commonly is worn of any doest cost a crowne, or a noble at the least; and yet this is scarcely thought fine enough for the simplest person that is."-MALONE.
They'll find linen enough on every hedge.” Act IV. Sc. 2. This propensity of soldiers on a march to purloin, is noticed by a writer contemporary with Shakspeare, Barnaby Riche says: "Fyrste by the way as they travayle through the countrey where they chance to lye all night, the good wyfe hath spedde well if she fynde hyr sheets in the morning, or if this happe to fayle, yet a coverlet or curtens from the bed, or a carpet from the table, some bed clothes, or table napkins, or some other thing, must needs packe away with them; there comes nothing amisse if it will serve to by drinke."
"Turk Gregory never did such deeds in arms." Act V. Sc. 3.
Meaning Gregory VII., called Hildebrand. This furious friar surmounted almost invincible obstacles to deprive the emperor of his right of investiture of bishops, which his pre-ordinary etymology.-SKINNER.
"Yea, this man's brow, like to a title-leaf, Foretells the nature of a tragic volume.” Act I. Sc. 1. It may not be amiss to observe, that in the time of our poet, the title-page to an elegy, as well as every intermediate leaf, was totally black. I have several in my possession, written by Chapman, the translator of Homer, which are ornamented in this manner. STEEVENS.
KING HENRY IV. (PART II.)
decessors had long attempted in vain.—
"A parcel gilt goblet."-Act II. Sc. 1.
A "parcel gilt goblet" is a goblet, gilt only on such parts of it as are embossed. On the books of the Stationers' Company, among their plate 1560, is the following entry:' Item, nine spoynes of silver, whereof vii gylte and ii parcel-gylte."
WARBURTO “If Percy be alive, I'll pierce him.”— Act V. && ! The name of Percy, according to Boetius, va derived from piercing the king's eye: a most estre
"I must be fain to pawn my plate.""Glasses, glasses, is the only drinking." Act II. Sc. 2. Mrs. Quickly is here in the same state as the earl of Shrewsbury, who, not having been paid for the diet of Mary, queen of Scots, while she was in his custody in 1580, writes as follows to Thomas Bawdewyn:-"I wold have you bye me glasses to drink in. Send me word what old plat yelds the ounce, for I will not leve me a cuppe of sylvare to drink in, but I wyll see the next terme my creditors payde."-STEEVENS.
"Boar's Head tavern in Eastcheap." Act II. Sc. 4. The historical Sir John Fastolf, was a considerable benefactor to Magdalen College, Oxford, for which he is celebrated in an annual speech, and though we cannot obtain the particulars at large, the Boar's Head, in Southwark, which still retains that name, though divided into tenements, yielding £150 per annum; and Culdecot Manor, in Suffolk, were part of the lands he bestowed. The Boar's Head was very properly selected as the scene of Prince Henry's revellings, as it was close to his residence. Rymer says: "A mansion called Cold Harbour, (near Allhallows church, Upper Thames Street,) was granted to the Prince of Wales, 11th Henry IV. 1410." Shakespeare must have passed this tavern daily, in his way to the Globe Theatre. "Thou whorson little tidy Bartholomew boar pig." Act II. Sc. 4. From Ben Johnson's play of Bartholomew Fair,
« Fillip me with a three-man beetle.”—Act I. Sc. 2.
A diversion is common with boys in Warwickshire, on finding a toad, to lay a board, about two feet long, over a stick about three inches in diameter, at right angles; then placing the toad on the lower end of the board, the upper end is struck by a bat or large stick, which throws the reptile forty or fifty feet perpendicular from the earth, and the violence of the fall usually kills it: this is called filliping the toad. A three-man beetle was an imple-a ment used for driving piles; it was made of a log of wood about twenty inches in diameter, and fifteen in thickness, with one short and two long handles. A man at each of the long handles manages the fall of the beetle, and a third man at the short handle assists in raising it to strike the blow. Such an implement was very suitable for filliping so corpulent a subject as Falstaff.-STEEVENS.
we learn, that it was the custom formerly to barbooths in Bartholomew fair, in which pigs wer roasted, and to these, it is probable, an allusion here made.-STEEVENS.
"Do not speak like a death's head.”—Act II. St. 4
It appears from a passage in Marston's Dud Courtezan, 1605, that it was the castom for the bawds of that age to wear a death's head in a ring. very probably with the common motto, Mement Mori. Cocledemoy speaking of some of these says: "As for their death, how can it be bad, since ther wickedness is always before their eyes, and i death's head most commonly on their middle ager STEET ENS
"Skogan's head."—Act III. Se. 2 There has been much dispute about a Jois Scogan, who lived in the reign of Edward IV., and Henry Scogan, who wrote some poetical trilm during the time of Henry IV. In a masque by Ben Johnson, 1626, we find the following:
“........ methinks you should enquire now after Skeims, And master Scogan.
.... Scogan? what was he?
Oh, a fine gentleman, and a master of arts
Of Henry the Fourth's times, that made disguises
Scogan's Jests were published by Andrew Barde a physician in the reign of Henry VIII. S speare had probably met with this book; and as he was careless about anachronisms, this person might have been in his thoughts. Certainty, how ever, cannot be arrived at on such a subject.
"Harry ten shillings.”—Act III. Sc. 2. This is an anachronism; there were no ecins d ten shillings value in the reign of Henry IV. ShakVII. or VIII; but he thought those might do is speare's Harry ten shillings were those of Henry any other Henry,-DOUCE.
"I was then Sir Dagonet in Arthur's show." Act III. Se. 2. The story of Sir Dagonet is to be found in la Morte d'Arthure, an old romance, much read in our author's time, or a little before it." When papistry, (says Ascham,) as a standing pool, overflowed all England, few books were read in our tongue, saving certain books of chivalry, as they said, for pastime and pleasure; which books, some say, were made in monasteries by idle monks. As one for example, La Morte d'Arthare." In this romance Sir Dagonet is King Arthur's fool. Shakespeare would not have shewn his Justice capable of taking any higher character.-JOHNSON.
y Villiers, Duke of Buckingham, to James I. "I onfesse, so long as he conseled the meanes he Prought by, I despised all he said: but when be tould me that which he hath given your sovrain
hip to preserve you from all sicknes ever herefter, was extracted out of a t-d, I admired the ellow, and for theis reasons: that being a stranger o you, yett he hath found out the kind you are Tome of, and your natural affections and apetis nd so, like a skillful man, hath given you natural Pisicke, which is the onlie means to preserve the radical humours; and thus I conclude: My sow is ealthfull, my divill's luckie, myself is happie, and Leeds no more than your blessing, which is my rew felosopher's stone, upon which I build as upon rocke. Your majesties most humble slave and oge,-Stinie."-STEEVENS.
KING HENRY IV.]
Whose white investments figure innocence."
and you must put two shillings in his pocket as his
Kept by a devil."-Act IV. 3.
It was anciently supposed, and is still a vulgar superstition of the east, that mines, containing precious metals, were guarded by evil spirits. So, in Certaine Secrete Wonders of Nature, by Edward Fenton, 1569, There appeare at this day many strange visions and wicked spirites in the metal mines of the Greate Turke In the mine at Anneburg was a metal sprite which killed twelve workmen; the same causing the rest to forsake the myne, albeit it was very riche."-STEEVENS.
It seems to have been usual to serve up carraway seeds in sugar, as a part of the dessert. The custom is evident from a passage in Cogan's Haven of Health: "This is a confirmation of our use in England, for the serving of apples and other fruites last after meals. How be it we are wont to eat carrawies or biskets, or some other kind of comfits or seeds, together with apples, thereby to breake winde engendered by them; and surely it is a very good way for students."-STEEVENS.
"Therefore, thou best of gold, art worst of gold;
"With a dish of carraways, and so forth."
"And welcome merry Shrovetide."-Act V. Sc. 3.
Shrovetide was formerly a season of extraordinary sport and feasting. In the Romish church, there was a feast immediately previous to Lent, which lasted many days. In some cities of France, an officer was annually chosen to preside over the sports for six days before Ash-Wednesday. Some traces of these festivities may still be found in our universities. In the Percy Household Book, 1512, it appears, "that the clergy and officers of Lord Percy's chapel performed a play before his lordship upon Shrow ftewesday at night."-T. WARTON.
Fig me like
The bragging Spaniard.”—Act V. Sc. 3 To fig in Spanish, higas dar, is to insult by putting the thumb between the fore and middle finger. This phrase is of Italian origin. When the Milanese revolted against the Emperor Frederick Barbarossa, they placed the Empress, his wife, upon a mule, with her head towards the tail, and ignominiously expelled her their city. Frederick afterwards besieged and took the place, and compelled take with his teeth a fig from the posteriors of a every one of his prisoners, on pain of death, to mule. The party was at the same time obliged to pre-repeat to the executioner the words, "Ecco la fica!”
Behold the fig!) From this circumstance, "far la fica" became a term of derision, and was adopted by other nations.--JOHNSON, and DOUCE,
Act IV. Sc. 4. There has long prevailed an opinion, that a solution of gold has great medicinal virtues, and that the incorruptibility of gold might be communicated to the body impregnated with it. Some have tended to make potable gold, among other frauds practised on credulity.-JOHNSON.
"Laud be to God!—even there my life must end."
"At length he recovered his speech, and understanding and perceiving himself to be in a strange place, which he knew not, he willed to know if the chamber had any particular name, whereunto answer was made that it was called Jerusalem. Then said the king, Lauds be given to the Father of heaven, for now I know I shall die here in this chamber, according to the prophesie of me declared, that I should depart this life in Jerusalem."
If I cannot once or twice in a quarter bear out a knave against an honest man, I have very little credit with your lordship."-Act V. Sc. 1.
"Censers."-Act V. Sc. 4.
The sluttery of ancient houses rendered censers or fire-pans, in which coarse perfumes were burnt, most necessary utensils. Lodge tells us, that Lord Paget's house was so small that" after one month In a letter of the earl of Shrewsbury's, respecting it would wax unsavery for hym to contynue in it." his prisoner Mary queen of Scots, we read," that dayes, to klense her chamber, being kept very unher majesty was to be removed for fyve or sixe klenly." And in the Memoirs of Anne, Countess of Dorset, we are informed of a party of lords and ladies, who were all lowsy by sitting in Sir Thomas Erskin's chamber."-STEEVENS.
This is no exaggerated picture of the course of justice in those days. The lord keeper, Sir Nicholas Bacon, in his speech to both houses of parliament, 1559, says: Is it not a monstrous disguising, to have a justice a maintainer, acquitting some for gain, enditing others for malice, bearing with him as his servant, overthrowing the other as his enemy?" A member of the house of commons in 1601, says: "A justice of peace is a living creature, that for half a dozen of chickens will dispense with half a dozen of penal statutes. If a warrant comes from the lord of the council to levy a hundred men, he will levy two hundred, and what with chopping and chusing out, he'll gain a hundred pounds by he bargain: nay, he will write the warrant himself,
"To pray for the queen."-EPILOGUE.
It was usual, at the end of a play, for the actors to pray for their patrons. We will give an instance
New Custom. "Preserve our noble queen Elizabeth, and her councell all."
"This shows like kneeling after the play: I praying for my lord Owemuch and his good countess, our honourable lady aud mistress." Middleton's Mad World my Masters. "As duty bids us, for our noble queene let us pray
And for her honourable councel, the truth that they may use,
To correct all those that would her grace and grace's laws abuse
To be guided by trueth and defended from wrong.
KING HENRY V.
"Gun-stones."-Act I. Sc. 2.
When ordnance was first used, they discharged balls, not of iron, but of stone. So, Holinshed: "About seven of the clocke, marched forward the light pieces of ordnance, with stone and powder." In the Brut of England, it is said, that when Henry V. before Hare-flete, received a taunting message from the dauphine of France, and a ton of tennis balls by way of contempt, "he anone lette make tenes balles for the Dolfin (Henry's ship), in all the hayste that they myght, and they were great gonnestones for the Dolfin to playe with alle. But this game of tennis was too rough for the besieged, when Henry played at the tennis with his hard gonnestones."-STEEVENS.
“The man that was his bedfellow.”—Act II.Sc.2. Holinshed says: The said lord Scroop was in such favour with the king, that he admitted him sometime to be his bedfellow." The familiar name of bedfellow, which seems strange to us, was common with the ancient nobility. There is a letter from the sixth earl of Northumberland (still preserved in the collection of the present duke,) addressed "To his beloved cousyn, Thomas Arundel," which begins, Bedfellow, after my most harté recommendacion." This unseemly custom continued common till the middle of last century, if not later. Cromwell obtained much of his ligence during the civil wars from the mean men with whom he slept.-STEEVENS, and MALONE. "I saw him fumble with the sheets.”-Act II. Sc. 3.
Catching and pulling at the bed clothes has always been considered as a sign of approaching dissolution. Pliny in his Chapter on the Signs of Death, mentions, "a fumbling and pleiting of the bedclothes." So also in the Ninth Booke of Notable Things, by Thomas Lupton: If the foreheade of the sicke wax redde, and his nose waxe sharpe; if he pulls straws, or the cloathes of his bedde, these are most certain tokens of death.' -STEEVENS.
"At turning of the tide."-Act II. Sc. 3.
It has been a very old opinion, which Mead, de imperio solis, quotes, as if he believed it, that nobody dies but in the time of ebb: half the deaths in London confute the notion; but it was common in Shakspeare's age.-JOHNSON.
earl of Southampton, our author's patron, v passed much of his time in camps, is drawn E the latter of these beards, and his hapless friest lord Essex, is represented with the former. In ballad is worth transcribing :
"A beard of the general's cut.”—Act III. Sc. 6.
It appears from an old ballad, inserted in a miscellany, entitled Le Prince d' Amour, 8vo. 1660, that our ancestors were very curious in the fashion of their beards, and that a certain cut or form was appropriated to the soldier, the bishop, the judge, the clown, &c. The spade-beard and the stilettobeard belonged to the military profession. The
"The feast of Crispian."—Act IV. Sc. 3. The battle of Agincourt was fought upon 25th of October (1415), St. Crispin's day. The l gend upon which this is founded, follows:- Cre pinus and Crispianus were brethren, born at Rome, from whence they travelled to Soissons in Frant, about the year 303, to propagate the Christian te intel-ligion; but because they would not be chargeak to others for their maintenance, they exerted the trade of shoemakers; but the governor of the town discovering them to be Christians, ordered them to be beheaded. From which time, the shermakers made choice of them for their terr saints."—GREY.
A pix."-Act III. Sc. 6.
In Henry VIIIth's will, we read: "Forasmoch as we have often and many tymes to our inwarde regrete and displeasure, seen at our Jen, in diverse manie churches of our reame, the holie sacrament of the aulter, kept in ful simple and inhonest pixes, specially pixes of copre and tymbre; we have appointed and commaunded the treasurer of our chambre, and maistre of our juell-bouss, to cause to be made furthwith, pixes of silver and gilt, in a great nombre, for the keeping of the holie sacrament of the aulter, after the faction of a pixe which we have caused to be delivered to theim. Every of the said pixes to be of the value of iiiil. garnished with our armes, and rede roses and poart-colission crowned."-REED.
"Now of beards there be
Of fashions such a throng;
"The steeletto beard,
"The soldiers beard
To think their grave is made.”
Thou hast unwish'd five thousand men.” Act IV. Sc.3. The numbers engaged at the battle of Agincourt are variously stated; Holinshed makes the English army consist of 15,000, and the French of 60.000 horse, besides foot, in all 100,000; while Wa singham and Hardinge represent the English but as 9,000; and other authors say that the number of the French amounted to 150,000.—STEEVENS.
"Monmouth caps.”—Act IV. Sc. 7.
Monmouth caps were formerly much worn. The best caps (says Fuller, in his Worthies of Wales.) were formerly made at Monmouth, where the Capper's chapel doth still remain. If (he adds) at this day, (1660) the phrase of wearing a Monmouth esp. be taken in a bad acception, I hope the inhabitants of that town will endeavour to disprove the occa thereof."-MALONE.
When Alençon and myself were down together.” Act IV. Sc. T. This circumstance is not an invention of Shakspeare's. Henry was felled to the ground at the battle of Agincourt, by the duke of Alençon, bat recovered and slew two of the duke's attendants. Afterwards, Alençon was killed by the king's guard, contrary to Henry's intention, who wished to have saved him,-MALONE.
Do we all holy rites."-Act IV. Sc. 8. The king, when he saw no appearance of ene
mies, caused the retreat to be blowen, and gatherGod for so happy a victory, causing his prelates ing his army together, gave thanks to Almighty and chapelines to sing this psalme, În exitu Israel de Egypto; and commaunding every man to kneel downe at this verse,-Non nobis, domine, non nobis, sed nomini tuo da gloriam; which done, he caused Te Deum and certain anthems to be sung, giving laud and praise to God, and not boasting of his owne force, or any humaine power.'
KING HENRY VI. (PART I)
Hung be the heavens with black."—Act I. Sc. 1. Alluding to our ancient stage practice, when a agedy was to be performed. So in Sydney's Aradia: "There arose even with the sunne, a vaile f darke cloudes, before his face; which shortly ad blacked over all the face of heaven, preparing (as were) a mournfull stage for a tragedie to be layed upon."-STEEVENS.
"Sir John Fastolfe."-Act I. Sc. 1.
The historical Fastolfe, here introduced, was a eutenant-general, deputy regent to the Duke of Bedford, in Normandy, and a knight of the garter. Tall and Holinshed say that he was degraded for owardice; but Heylen, in his Saint George for England, tells, that "He was afterwards, upon Good reason by him alledged in his defence, restorThis Sir John Fastolfe," cond to his honour."
inues he, "was, without doubt, a valiant and wise aptain."-FARMER.
"England all Olivers and Rowlands bred.”—— Act I. Sc. 2.
-The terror of the French,
"This man (Talbot) was to the French people a very scourge, and a daily terror, insomuch, that as his person was fearful, and terrible to his adversaries present, so his name and fame was spiteful and dreadful to the common people absent; insomuch that women in France to feare their yong children, would crye, The Talbot commeth, the Talbot commeth."-HALL'S CHRONICLE.
These were two of the most famous in the list of Charlemagne's twelve peers; and such an extravagant detail of their exploits is given by the old romancers, that from thence arose the saying, of giving one a Rowland for his Oliver,' to signify the matching one incredible lie with another.
Thy promises are like Adonis' gardens." Act I. Sc. 6. The gardens of Adonis, so frequently mentioned by Greek writers, Plato, Plutarch, &c. were no thing but portable earthen pots, with some lettuce or fennel growing in them. On his yearly festival, every woman carried one of them for Adonis's wor
ship, because Venus had once laid him in a lettuce bed. The next day they were thrown away. It will be seen by the text, that the poet has totally misapplied this circumstance.-BENTLEY, &c. "Rhodope."-Act I. Sc. 6.
"Enter the Bastard of Orleans."-Act I. Sc. 2.
Bastard, in former times, was not a term of reproach. Bishop Hurd, speaking of the agreement between the heroic and Gothic manner, says, that "6 Bastardy was in credit with both;" and one of William the Conqueror's charters begins, Ego Gulielmus, cognomento Bastardus." (I, William, surnamed the Bastard.)-VAILLANT.
-Here is my keen edg'd sword, Peck'd with five flower-de-luces on each side.”
Act I. Sc. 2. "In a secret place there among old iron, apointed she hir sword to be sought out and brought er, that with five floure de luces was graven on both des."-HOLINSHED.
Rhodope was a famous strumpet, who acquired immense riches by her trade. The least, but most finished of the Egyptian pyramids, was built at her cost. She is said afterwards to have married Psammetichus, king of Egypt.-STEEVENS.
Was Mahomet inspired with a dove?"-Act I.Sc. 2. "which he used to feed Mahomet had a dove, th wheat out of his ear; which dove, when it was ngry, lighted on his shoulder, and thrust its bill to find its breakfast; Mahomet persuaded the le and simple Arabians, that it was the Holy ost that gave him advice."-LIFE OF MAHOT, BY DR. PRIDEAUX.
Coffer of Darius."-Act I. Sc. 6.
When Alexander the Great took the city of Gaza, the metropolis of Syria, amidst the other sports and wealth of Darius, treasured up there, he found an exceeding rich and beautiful little chest or casket, and asked those about him what they thought fittest to be laid up in it. When they had severally delithing so worthy to be preserved in it as Homer's vered their opinions, he told them, he esteemed noIliad.-THEOBALD.
This be Damascus, be thou cursed Cain,
"The Parliament-house.”—Act III. Sc. 1. This parliament was held in 1426, at Leicester, though the author of this play has repreKing sented it to have been held in London. Henry was now in the fifth year of his age. In the first parliament which was held in London, shortly after his father's death, his mother Queen Katherine brought the young king from Windsor to the metropolis, and sat on the throne of the parliamenthouse with the infant in her lap.-MALONE. "Thou bastard of my grandfather!”—Act III. Sc. 1.
The Bishop of Winchester was an illegitimate rine Swynford, whom the duke afterwards married. MALONE. son of John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster, by Kathe
"Ye charming spells, and periapts.--Act V. Sc. 3.
Periapts were portions of scripture enclosed in bags of silk or velvet, and worn round the neck; STEEVENS, &c. they were sometimes quilted on parts of the dress. They were esteemed preservatives from disease.