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'to afford an instance of an uncivilized people pas
sing from slavery to freedom, and becoming in a * few years civilized and even refined. This certainly is a wonderful circumstance, and is justly said to be 'novel in the history of the species, although it is scarcely more novel than another told us by the party, that civilized and refined Europeans, crossing the Atlantic, to islands in the same neighbourhood, speedily undergo a transformation no less miraculous, into cruel and merciless savages !
But are these novelties in the history of the species, supported by such proof as their novelty demands? We suspect not. The Reviewers admit, that 'little intercourse having been held with ‘ the New Empire, we are very imperfectly informed of its internal situation; and countries far more remote are familiar to us in comparison :' and hence there is room to doubt the truth of so extraordinary an occurrence as this sudden transition from ignorance and barbarism to civilization and refinement. But though few may choose to visit the interior of Hayti, or perhaps are allowed to do so, it is not true that we have had little intercourse with the island; for, notwithstanding Mr. Stephen says that we have foolishly renounced its very valuable commerce in complaisance to Jamaica, the truth is, that nearly one half of its produce is brought to this country in British ships direct; and our ships of war on the Jamaica station also frequently visit its ports. Our naval officers and ship captains, however, who have been in the island, tell a different tale, and one which does not suit
the Reviewers' purpose so well. If they are entitled to any credit, we must form a very different opinion as to the population, industry, and moral habits of the Haytians: and certainly the documents from which the Reviewers collect their 'authentic information must be viewed by the impartial with some little distrust: viz.-1. Gasconading proclamations by President Boyer, and the official returns' he published at a time when invasion by the French was apprehended ; 2dly, a letter from his Secretary-General, Inginac; and 3dly, a report of a committee of the African Intitution of America, or American Convention, as it is called, for the abolition of slavery and improvement of the African race.
Let the reader consider whether it would be most extraordinary that the President of Hayti should exaggerate the power and prosperity of the • New Empire' at such a moment, or that, under the 'vicissitudes, disasters, and revolutions of “twenty-five years' (to borrow the words of Christophe), there should have been such an advance in population, wealth, industry, and the civilization and refinement of a rude and savage people. By these official reports and proclamations, we are required to believe, that, notwithstanding the enormous slaughter of the revolution, so unprecedented in its cruelties,-notwithstanding the many thousands of white and coloured French people who fled to Jamaica, Cuba, and the United States,notwithstanding the Spaniards that more recently fled to Cuba and Porto Rico,—and notwithstand
ing the great number of natives killed in the war so long and so bloodily maintained between the rival negro and mulatto chiefs, Petion and Christophe, the population has had an increase of 270,000 since the revolution! It is stated by the Review to have been, previous to that event, 655,000, and is now estimated at 935,335, and will receive an additional increase, says the Reviewer, by the resolution adopted by President Boyer to receive and allot land to 6,000 free blacks and men of colour from the United States. *
* But it has since appeared, by the following oficial document,' that whatever hardships those helpless creatores had to struggle with, in a country where they are deprived of all civil rights, they were glad to return to it, after getting a sight of the situation of their civilized and refined' brethren of colour in the New Empire.'
• From the Office of the Secretary-General of Hayti. • The Government of the Republic, in offering an asylum to the African descendants who exist in the United States, deprived of all civil rights, did it not so much for its own advantage, as of that of this oppressed people. Its munificence, indeed, has extended not only to the encouragement of emigration to Hayti, but the entire expense of it has also been defrayed.
• It was not, therefore, to have been expected that a base speculation would have been made of the transportation of emigrants to Hayti from the United States, and that among Captains of vessels, as well as among the emigrants themselves, there would have been found persons so demoralized as to violate their good faith. Yet, it cannot be denied, that Captains, not satisfied with having persuaded emigrants who had settled in the Republic, to return to the United States, have even shared with them the profits of the speculation.
• How many persons have been known to have demanded the means of returning before they had scarcely debarked, and before the expiration of the four months, for which rations had been granted by the State ? Were it necessary to offer new proof of the concert of a large number of emigrants with Captains of vessels, we would state, that several families which arrived in the Olive Branch, on the 4th instant, demanded their permission to return three days after they had landed. These emigrants are so completely destitute, as to require that the Republic should pay, not only the expense of their passgae, but also that of their removal from the interior to the ports of the United States where they embark. How, then, could this speculation take place, were not these emigrants interested in the scheme?
Wishing, therefore, to suppress this fraudulent practice, which draws considerably from the public treasury, without accomplishing the object proposed,
This increase, under such circumstances, is surely not a little extraordinary, and to be credited requires the most unexceptionable evidence; but it is thus confirmed :-* The armed force of the country,' say the Reviewers, speaking on the same authority, is quite in proportion to its population ; the
regular troops amounting to 45,520, and the * national guards to 113,328, making a body of * 158,848 men trained to arms.' What! an armed force of 158,848 men in an island, where, taking the population to be even as stated, there cannot (including boys and old men, hale and sick) be more than 467,664 males. This surely is quite in proportion. Let not Mr. Hume object to our Army Estimates after this, for to be in proportion to our population, even if we had no colonies to defend, our armed force for Great Britain and Ireland alone, ought to be little short of 5,000,000 of men trained to arms.
With regard to the credit due to such authority, opinions may differ; but he who has seen the island of St. Domingo clothed in its native woods, with scarcely a vestige of cultivation, will attach little belief to the existence of
all Captains of United States' vessels, and others who shall convey emigrants to Hayti, are hereby notified, that the Government of the Republic will not defray any expense for the passages of the said emigrants, after the 15th of Jane, 1825.
The emigration societies that have been formed in the United States are also notified, that, after the above date, no allowance will be made to them by the Government, for any aid rendered to emigrants; and that, hereafter, they will only be entitled to four months' provisions, and a lot of ground for cultivation, the property of which they may acquire, after having paid its value. • By Authority :
· B. INGINAC, • Port-au-Prince, April, 1825.
such a population ; or to the possibility of taking a census of a barbarous people thinly scattered amidst its extensive forests. The Reviewers, however, who can believe nothing but what is bad of their own countrymen in the West Indies, and think even the Assemblies unworthy of credit when they speak of the improved condition of the slave population, have no such distrust of the civilized and refined people of the New Empire;' and Boyer's bravadoes and high-sounding statements serve admirably, with Mr. Cropper's ingenious calculation of the decrease of the slaves in Jamaica, to make an invidious comparison between it and Hayti.
But to proceed to a consideration of the effects of negro emancipation on the wealth and industry of St. Domingo, as shewn by these very acceptable official reports.
• We have now before us,” say the Reviewers, 'the official returns of 1822, specifying ' the trade of the island with all parts of the world. By this it appears, that 652,541 pounds of sugar, equal to about 544 hogheads of 12 cwt., 891,950 • of cotton, and 35,117,834 of coffee, or 350,000
cwt. are exported to foreign parts. This is beside the cocoa and woods; and it is also over and * above all the sugar, coffee, and cotton, required ' for home consumption.* The whole exports of ' the island for that year were of the value of above ' nine millions of dollars, or above two millions of ' pounds sterling. The value of the imports was
* Of cours
urse all the West India islands cousume a part of their sagar and coffee ; but the only manufactory of cotton there is into cotton lamp wicks,