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other things that the imputation of a “natura ad amores propensissima” must be given up. This is not the place for a discussion of the question, but it is proper that Bacon's opinion, which would otherwise be of great value in such a matter, should be taken with this caution. There can be no doubt that Mr. Froude's plea for a reconsideration of the judgment is reasonable, and that he has asked some questions which it is at least very difficult to answer.

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For the text of this piece I have used two authorities, each of which may be considered as original and independent. One is Dr. Rawley's edition, printed along with the Opuscula Philosophica in 1658, with the title Opus illustre in felicem memoriam Elizabetha, Anglice, Reginæ, auctore nobilissimo heroe Francisco Bacono, Barone de Verulamio, Vicecomite Sancti Albani ; multis retro annis prælo designatum, sed non antehac in lucem editum ; the other is a manuscript copy in the British Museum (Harl. 6797. fo. 79.), written in the hand of one of Bacon's own people, though it bears no traces of revision by Bacon himself. It cannot, I think, have been the same which Rawley used; and as he gives no particulars about the one which he did use, we are left to decide for ourselves which is the best, from internal evidence.1 My own impression is that Rawley's manuscript must have been the less perfect, and that some of the dif

· The following sentence contains all that he says about it.

" His mon umentum illud Regium, cui titulus In felicem memoriam Elizabetha Angliæ Reginæ, inter opera civilia primum adjunxi, ante annos complures ab ipso honoratissimo auctore (si Deus annuisset) typis designatum: Cæterum quamvis obdormisse diu non tamen penitus expirasse jam compertum

28t."

ferences which appear in his printed copy are corrections or conjectural emendations of his own. Where the two copies differ therefore and the true reading seems doubtful, I have generally preferred that of the manuscript ; but in all cases, whichever I have received into the text, I have given the other in the notes; and therefore every reader can choose for himself.

As the principal pieces which belong to this division of Bacon's works are English, the Latin pieces being few and comparatively short and not connected with one another, I have thought it better to print the translation of each immediately after the original, instead of collecting them into a body at the end ; and as this is the first for the translation of which I am myself solely responsible, I shall add here a few words to explain the principle upon which I have attempted to do them.

My object in all my attempts at translation being, not to help a Latin reader to construe the original, but to put English readers in possession of the sense of it, my plan has been first to take as clear an impression as I could of the meaning and effect of the Latin, and then to reproduce that meaning in the best and clearest and most readable English that I could command: not tying myself to the particular form which the Latin sentence assumes, even where it could be preserved without awkwardness or obscurity, — nor even preferring it, — but always adopting that form in which I could best express the thing; keeping myself as faithful as possible to the effect of the original, — not the literal and logical meaning only, but the effect upon the imagination and the feelings,

and leaving myself as free as possible with regard to the mode of bringing it out.

How far I have succeeded it is for others to say ; but my endeavour has been to produce a translation from the perusal of which the reader shall rise with the same feelings with which he would have risen from the perusal of the original had the language of it been familiar to him.

I am of course aware that there are not only many people who would prefer for their own purposes a different kind of translation, but also some real objections to this kind which upon the whole nevertheless I prefer myself. Whether I have judged rightly, is a question which can only be determined by the effect upon readers generally. If my translations give a livelier and juster impression of the original, it will be found that most people like them better.

IN

FELICEM MEMORIAM ELIZABETHÆ

ANGLIÆ REGINÆ.1

ELIZABETHA et natura et fortuna mirabilis inter fæminas, memorabilis inter principes fuit. Neque hæc res indicium monachi alicujus, aut hujusmodi censoris umbratilis desiderat. Nam isti homines, stylo acres, judicio impares, et partis suæ memores, rerum minus fideles testes sunt. Ad principes viros pertinet hæc cognitio, atque ad eos qui imperiorum gubernacula tractarunt, et rerum civilium ardua et arcana norunt. Rarum in omni memoria est ? muliebre imperium ; rarior in eo felicitas ; rarissima cum felicitate diuturnitas. Illa vero quadragesimum quartum regni sui annum complevit ; neque tamen felicitati suæ superstes fuit. De hac felicitate pauca dicere institui ; neque in laudes excurrere. Nam laudem homines tribuunt, felicitatem Deus.

Primum in parte felicitatis pono, quod ad imperatorium fastigium a privata fortuna evecta est. Siquidem hoc in moribus et opinionibus hominum penitus insedit,

1 Harl. MSS. 6797. fo. 79. 3 laudem enim. R.

2 est memoria. R. 4 sit. R.

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