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suffering to be done any hurt or prejudice unto our realm, or to the inhabitants of the same. Also our great enemy to fortify his false quarrel hath caused divers nobles of this our realm whom he had suspect and stood in dread of, to be cruelly murdered, as our cousin the Lord Fitzwater, Sir William Stanley, Sir Robert Chamberlaine, Sir Symon Mounteford, Sir Robert Radclyfe, William Daubeney, Humphrey Stafford, and many other, besides such as have dearly bought their lives, some of which nobles are now in the sanctuary : also he hath long kept and yet keepeth in prison our right entirely well beloved cousin Edward son and heir to our unele Duke of Clarence and others, withholding from them their rightful inheritance to the intent they ne should be of might and power to aid and assist us at our need, after the duty of their leigeance. He hath also married by compulsion certain of our sisters and also the sister of our foresaid cousin the Earl of Warwick and divers other ladies of the blood royal unto certain his kinsmen and friends of simple and low degree, and putting apart all well disposed nobles he hath none in favour and trust about his person but Bishop Foxe, Smith, Bray, Lovell, Oliver King, Sir Charles Somerset, David Owen, Rysley, Sir John Trobulvill, Tyler, Robert Lytton, Gylford, Chamley, Emson, James Hobert, Jolin Cutte, Garthe, Hansey, Wyot, and such other caitiffs and villains of simple birth, which by subtle inventions and pilling of the people have been the principal finders, occasioners, and counsellors of the misrule and mischief now reigning in England.
Also we be credibly informed that our said enemy not regarding the wealth and prosperity of this land, but only the safeguard and surety of his person, hath sent into divers places out of our realm the foresaid nobles, and caused to be conveyed from thence to other places the treasure of this our realm, purposing to depart after in proper person with many other estates of the land being now at his rule and disposition, and if he should be so suffered to de part as Guil
defend it should be to the greatest hurt jeopardy and peril of the whole realm that could be thought or imagined. Wherefore we desire and pray you and nevertheless charge you and every of you as ye intend the surety of yourself and the commonweal of our land, your native ground, to put you in your most effectual devoirs with all diligence to the uttermost of your powers, to stop and let his passage out of this our realm, ascertaining you that what person or persons shall fortune to take or distress him shall have for his or their true acquittal in that behalf after their estate and degrees, so as the most low and simplest of degree that shall happen to take or distress him, shall have for his labour one thousand pounds in money, and houses and lands to the yearly value of one hundred marks to him and his heirs for ever. We remembering these premises with the great and execrable offences daily committed and done by our foresaid great enemy and his adherents in breaking the liberty and franchises of our mother holy Church to the high displeasure
. of Almighty God, besides the manifold treasons, abominable murders, manslaughters, robberies, extortions, the daily pilling of the people by dismes tasks tallages benevolences and other unlawful impositions and grievous exactions, with many other heinous offences to the likely destruction and desolation of the whole realm as God defend, shall put ourself effectually in our devoir, not as a step-dame but as the very true mother of the child, languishing or standing in peril to redress and subdue the foresaid mischief and misrule and to punish the occasioners and haunters thereof after their deserts in example of others. We shall also by God's grace and the help and assistance of the great lords of our blood with the counsel of other sad persons of approved policy prudence and experience dreading God and having tender zeal and affection to indifferent ministration of justice and the public weal of the land, peruse and call to remembrance the good laws and customs heretofore made by our noble progenitors kings of England and see them put in due and lawful execution according to the effect and true meaning they were first made or ordained for, so that by virtue thereof as well the disinheriting of rightful heirs as the injuries and wrongs in anywise committed and done unto the subjects of our realm, both spiritual and temporal, shall be duly redressed according to right law and good conscience and we shall see that the commodities of our realm be employed to the most advantage of the same, the intercourse of merchandises betwixt realm and realm, to be ministered and handled as shall more be to the commonweal and prosperity of our subjects, and all such dismes tasks tallages benevolences unlawful impositions and grievous exactions as be above rehearsed utterly to be foredone and laid apart and never from henceforth to be called upon but in such causes as our noble progenitors kings of England have of old time been accustomed to have the aid succour and help of their subjects and true liegemen.
Also we will that all such persons as have imagined compassed or wrought privily or apertly since the reign of our foresaid enemy or before anything against us except such as since the reign have imagined our death shall have their free pardon for the same of their lives lands and goods, so that they at this time according to right and the duty of their allegiances take our righteous quarrel and part and aid comfort and support us with their bodies and goods.
And over this we let you wot that upon our foresaid great enemy his adherents and part-takers, with all other such as will take their false quarrel and stand in their defence against us with their bodies or goods, we shall come and enter upon them as their heavy lord and take and repute them and every of them as our traitors and rebels and see them punished according, and upon all other our subjects that according to right and the duty of their leigance will aid succour and comfort us with their powers with their [lives] or goods or victual our host for ready money, we shall come and enter upon them lovingly as their natural leige lord and see they have justice to them equally ministered upon their causes: wherefore we will and desire you and every of you that incontinent upon the hearing of this our proclamation ye according to the duty of your allegiances aready yourselves in your best defensible array and give your personal attendance upon us where we shall then fortune to be, and in so doing ye shall find us your right especial and singular good lord and so to see you recompensed and rewarded as by your service shall be unto us deserved.
CHARACTER OF HENRY VII.
(From the Latin Translation.)
Rex iste (ut verbis utamur quæ merita ejus exæquent) fuit instar miraculi cujusdam: ejus scilicet generis, quod prudentes attonitos reddit, imperitos leviter percellit. Plurima siquidem habuit et in virtutibus suis et in fortuna, quæ non tam in locos communes cadunt, quam in observationes prudentes et graves. Vir certe fuit pius ac religiosus, et affectu et cultu: sed ut erga superstitionem, pro modo temporum suorum, satis perspicax, ita interdum politicis rationibus et consiliis nonnihil occæcatus. Personarum ecclesiasticarum promotor, erga asylorum privilegia (quæ tanta ei mala pepererant) non durus. Haud pauca religiosorum cænobia fundavit, dotavit ; quibus accedit memorabile illud hospitale Saroya dictum. Magnus nihilominus eleemosynarius in secreto; quod luculenter indicat, etiam publica illa opera Dei gloriæ, non suæ, data. Pacem se summopere et amare, et pro viribus procurare, perpetuo præ se tulit. Atque illud in fæderum præfationibus illi frequens fuit; Pacem, cum Chris
tus in mundum veniret, angelos præcinuisse ; cum e mundo excederet, ipsum Dominum legasse. Neque hoc ei, timori aut animi mollitiei imputari poterat (quippe qui animosus fuerit et bellator), sed virtuti vere Christianæ et morali. Neque tamen illud eum fugit, a via pacis aberrare illum, qui eam nimio plus videatur appetere: itaque famas et rumores et apparatus belli sæpe excitabat, donec pacis conditiones in melius flecteret. Etiam illud notatu non indignum, quod tam sedulus pacis amator in bellis tam felix extiterit. Siquidem arma et expeditiones ejus neque in bellis externis neque in civilibus, unquam ei improspere cesserunt; neque noverat ille quid clades bellica esset. Bellum in adeptione regni, necnon Comitis Lincolniæ et Baronis Audlæi rebelliones, terminavit victoria. Bella Gallica et Scotica pax,
ab hostibus ultro petita. Bellum illud Britanniæ, casus; mors nimirum Britanniæ ducis. Tumultus Baronis Lovelli, item Perkini, tam ad Exoniam quam in Cantio, fuga rebellium, antequam prælium tentarent: adeo ut propria ei fuerit armorum felicitas, atque inviolata. Cujus rei causa haud parva, quatenus ad seditiones intestinas compescendas, proculdubio fuit, quod in iis restinguendis personam suam nunquam subtraxerit. Prima quandoque pugnæ per duces suos transegit, cum ipse ad suppetias ferendas præsto esset: sed aliquam belli partem semper ipse attigit. Neque tamen hoc ipsum omnino propter alacritatem et fortitudinem, sed partim ob suspiciones, quod aliis parce fideret.
Leges regni in magno honore semper habuit, easque auctoritate sua munire videri voluit. Licet hoc ipsum non minimo quidem ei esset impedimento, ad ea quæ voluit pro arbitrio suo exequenda. Ita enim commode earum habenas tractavit, ut ne quid de proventibus suis, aut etiam prærogativa regia, intercideret. Attamen tali usus est temperamento, ut sicut interdum leges suas ad prærogativæ suæ jura traheret et prope torqueret; ita rursus per vices prærogativam suam ad legum æquabilitatem et moderationem consulto demitteret. Etenim et monetarum regimen, et belli ac pacis