Page images
PDF
EPUB

CHAP. XV. 1-21.

:

λασσαν, και απεκατέστη το ύδωρ προς ημέραν επί χώρας. οι δε Αιγύπτιοι έφυγαν υπό το ύδωρ. και εξετίναξε κύριος τους Αιγυπτίους μέσον της θαλάσσης.

Au. Ver.-27 And Moses stretched forth his hand over the sea, and the sea returned to his strength when the morning appeared ; and the Egyptians fled against it; and the LoRD overthrew [Heb., shook of] the Egyptians in the midst of the sea.

Bphis

לִקְרָאתוֹ וַיְנַעֵר יְהוָה אֶת־מִצְרַיִם בְּתוֹךְ וּ אָז יָשִׁיר-משֶׁה וּבְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל אֶת־ הַיָּם : הַשִׁירָה הַזאת לַיהוָה וַיֹּאמְרוּ לֵאמָר-ed עוד xtipa drl עוד אףfireive at MouT< אָשִׁירָה לַיהוָה כִּי־נָאָה בָּלָה

סוּס וְרֹכְבוֹ רָמָה בַיָּם : ? עָזִי וְזִמְרָת לָה וַיְהִי־לִי לִישׁוּעָה

זֶה אֵלִי וְאַנְוֵהוּ אֱלֹהֵי אָבִי וַאֲרְמְמֶנְהוּ: יְהוָה אִישׁ מִלְחָמָה יְהוָה שְׁמָוֹ : . מַרְכְּבָת פַּרְעֶה וְחֵילוֹ יָרָה בַיָּם וּמִבְחַר שָׁלִשָׁיו טִבְּעוּ בְיַם-סוּף : .lip

. Patrick . 1nd the sea returned to t : תָּחֹמֶת וְכַסְיָמוּ וְרִדְוּ בִמְצוֹלֹת כְּמוֹ־ strength

.
]
The sense is truly expressed by
אָבְן:
6 יְמִינְךְ יְהוָה נָאִדָּרֵי בַּכֹּחַ

יְמִינְךָ יְהוָה תִּרְעַץ אוֹיֵב : 7 וּבְרֹב בְּאוֹנְךְ תַּהֲרֹס קָמֶיךְ

תִּשְׁלַח חֲרְנְךְ וְאכְלֵמוֹ בַּקְשׁ : 8 וּבְרָוּחַ אַפִיךְ גֶעֶרְמוּ־מַיִם

נִצְבְוּ כְמוֹ־נֶךְ נִזְלִים קָפְאוּ תְהמֹת בְּלֶב־יָם : 9 אָמַר אוֹיֵב אֶרְדף אשיג

,adj

. and subst . 1. Continual אֵיתָן-.Gesen אֲחַלֵּק שָׁלָל תִּמְלָאֵמוֹ נַפְשִׁי

, נָתַן flows continually

.

Root

وتن אָרִיק חַרְבִּי תּוֹרִישֵׁמוֹ יָדִי :

נַחַל ,, 10 נָשַׁפְתָּ בְרְוּחֲךָ כְּפָמוֹ יָם

,אֵיתָן אָלֵלוּ כַּעוֹפֶרֶת בְּמַיִם אַדִּירִים : 11 מִי־כָמֹכָה בָּאֵלִם יְהלָה

the month of , יֶרַח הָאֵיתָנִים :2

.Kings viii

1 נַחַל מִי כָּמֹכָה נֶהְדָּר בַּקְדֶשׁ נוֹרָא תְהִלְת עשֶׂה־פֶלֶא : נָטִיתָ יְמִינְךְ תִּבְלָעֵמוֹ אָרֶץ:

נַהֲרוֹת : 15
.Ps

.
lxxiv

perpetual flowing streams
.
Hence
,

the , אֵיתָן 13 נָחִיתָ בְחַסְדְּךָ עַס זוּ בָּאָלְתָּ

נַהַלְתָּ בְעָנְךְ אֶל־נְוֵה קָדְשֶׁךְ : 14 שָׁמְעוּ עַמִּים יִרְכָּזִוּן

חִיל אָחַז וּשְׁבֵי פְּלָשֶׁת : 15 אָז נִבְהֲלוּ אַלוּפִי אֱלֹוֹם

.
,
$
4

,
אֵילֵי מוֹאָב וְאַחֲזֵמוֹ לָעַד

-proprie stabilitatem et per אֵיתָן ,ostendit נָמֹגוּ כָּל יְשְׁבֵי כְנָעַן : 16 תִּפּל עֲלֵיהֶם אֵימָתָה וָפַחַד

בִּגְדֹל זְרוֹעֲךָ יִדְּמוּ כָּאָבֶן עַד־עֲבָר עַמְךְ יְהוָה

עַד־עֲבָר עַם זוּ קָנִיתָ : 17 תְּבִאֵמוֹ וְתִטָּעֵמוֹ בְּהַר נַחֲלָתְךָ

the Vulgar, “the sea returned to its former place.” The great walls, or heaps of water, which were on each side of them, falling down, and rushing upon them with a mighty force, overwhelmed them, and_filled_the whole channel as before.

The Egyptiuns fled against it.] They were so frighted by the light which shone in their faces, and by the thunder and hail, &c., that they turned back; and, like men distracted, ran and met the waters, which came tumbling down upon them.

.. , perennis, especially applied to water which

. ,

Arabic perennis fuit, viva fuit aqua. Hence, yra

a perpetual flowing stream, Deut. xxi. 4; Amos v. 24, and the same without

1 . 2: , the flowing rivers (otherwise Tisri), corresponding to our October. As neuter it is used as a substantive, and placed as genitive after another noun.

, . , flood itself, Exod. xiv. 27. 2. Firm, strong, powerful. .

Rosen.-Et rediit mare appetente mare ad perenne suum, s. ad perennem suum fluxum, uti vertit A. Schultens in Origg. Hebrr., 1. i., cap. viii., § 4, ubi collato Arabico böy

, ennitatem valere, tum vero et copiam et abundantiam significare, et hic quidem tò perenne maris, i.e., nativum illum atque inabruptum aquarum impetum, quo continuo æstu fervent et reciprocantur maria. Et Ægyptii fugiebant in occursum ejus, scil. maris, ei obviam.

14

[ocr errors]

were divided.] Or rather, after the waters ejus pars refluo æstu ad dextram defluxisset, were divided, as Bochart shows it should be et vadum, per quod transivere Israelitæ, translated. Thus Isa. lxiv. 5, “Thou art siccum esset.” wroth, and we have sinned ;" the meaning Dr. A. Clarke.-22 And the waters were is, “ for we have sinned,” as Kimchi, and a wall unto them on their right hand and on we ourselves also there translate it (Hie- their left.]—This verse demonstrates that the rozoic., par. ii., lib. iii., cap. 2, p. 409).

passage was miraculous.

Some have supRosen.-Ventus vocatur o'y, quæ vox posed that the Israelites had passed through, plerumque vertitur Eurus, Ostwind. Sed favoured by an extraordinary ebb, which hic facilius potuisset fluctus in littus Afri- happened at that time to be produced by a canum, in quo erant Israelitæ, impellere, strong wind, which happened just then to quam aquas dividere. Igitur Clerici placet blow! Had this been the case, there could sententia putantis, voce O'TR h. 1. non re- not have been waters standing on the right spici ad plagam cæli, unde hic spirarit hand and on the left; much less could those ventus, sed ventum vehementem, undecum- waters, contrary to every law of fluids, have que flaverit, significari. Ita Vulgatus : stood as a wall on either side while the vento vehementi et urente, quia ventus O'R Israelites passed through, and then happen adurere alias dicitur. Voce D'TE

, significatur to become obedient to the laws of gravitaventus vehemens Ps. xlviii. 8, (ubi LXX, ev tion when the Egyptians entered in! An Tveúpati Bialw) Ez. xxvii. 26. Omnia sub- infidel may deny the revelation in toto, and vertere et dispergere dicitur Job. xxvii. 21 ; from such we expect nothing better; but to Jer. xviii. 17; et Jes. xxvii. 8, vocatur in hear those who profess to believe this to be Top ventus durus. Non autem alio vento a Divine revelation endeavouring to prove facilius in Oceanum sinus Arabici repelli that the passage of the Red Sea had nothing potuerunt fluctus, nisi septentrionali. Vocem miraculous in it, is really intolerable. Such

addidit Moses, ut indicaret, ventum a mode of interpretation requires a miracle illum præter modum vehementem fuisse. to make itself credible. Poor infidelity ! Bene hæc verba vertit Michaelis : einen how miserable and despicable are thy shifts! entgegenwehenden (fluctibus maris) heftigen Wind.

Ver. 25. Ver. 22. Au. Ver.-And the children of Israel went into the midst of the sea upon the dry ground : and the waters were a wall unto

και συνέδησε τους άξονας των αρμάτων them on their right hand, and on their left. αυτών, και ήγαγεν αυτούς μετά βίας, κ.τ.λ. Into the midst.

Au. Ver.-25 And took off their chariot Ged., Booth. Through the midst.

wheels, that they drave them heavily [or, And the waters were a wall, &c.

and made them to go heavily]: so that the Rosen.Et aquæ eis erant murus a dextra Egyptians said, Let us flee from the face of eorum, et a sinistra eorum. Hæc verba Israel; for the Lord fighteth for them plures superioris ætatis interpretes nimium against the Egyptians.

Took off. proprie ceperunt, iisque impugnarunt sententiam eorum, qui tempore refluxus maris

Bp. Horsley.-For 90°, read with Sam. Israelitas sinum Arab. trajecisse statuunt. 1087,

bound,” or clogged.” So Ged., Verum recte Clericus (de maris Idum. traj. entangled. $ 4) scribit: “Moses quidem xv. 8, poëtice

Rosen. Et amovit rotam, i.e., rotas

axibus suis videlicet. haud absimiliter rem descripsit; sed fidi curruum ejus, ex interpretis fuit, figuras secernere a proprie LXX, povert. ouvédnoe, colligavit, aut dictis. Si concreta fuisset hinc atque inde impedivit, quasi DN" legissent, quod et in aqua, non opus erat vento per totam eam Cod. Samar. hic legitur. Sed recte Onkelos: noctem vehemente, quo ejus pondus sustine- et removil, ac Symmachus : metéomoe, transretur. Ut aqua muri instar Israelitis fuisse tulit, pervertit. dicatur, satis est ad dextram et ad sinistram

Ver. 27. imperviam viam fuisse, nec quidquam obstat, quo minus ad sinistram in profundioribus = ? pinaby is ng mahina ay

,

וַיָּסַר אֵת אֹפֶן מַרְכְּבֹתָיו וַיְנַהֲגֵהוּ

בִּכְבָדֶת וגו'

66

the one

may go, &c.

thus:-

Ged., Booth.—That the children of Israel dark cloud], yet it gave light by night; and

came not near the other all the

night.” But I am rather inclined to suspect Ver. 17.

that two words are lost out of the text after kaì 18où éyw okampuvô tņu kapdíay Papaw, Tom, or Tona, for so the Samaritan reads και των Αιγυπτίων πάντων, και εισελεύσονται without the 1. I would amend the passage οπίσω αυτών, κ.τ.λ.

Au. Ver.-17 And I, behold, I will &c. 2172 239 best on zeng D907 ON TOTTITI 72907 ?T? harden the hearts of the Egyptians, and —“And it was a dark cloud all the day, they shall follow them, &c.

but it gave light by night; and the one Harden. See notes on iv. 21.

came not near the other all the night.” The The hearts of the Egyptians.

cloud placed in the rear hid the army of the Ged.The hearts of Pharaoh, and of all Israelites in the day time, and, in the night, [LXX and one MS.] the Egyptians, that presented a line of fire to the pursuers, they will, &c.

which they durst not attempt to penetrate. Ver. 18.

Rosen.-Et fuit nubes, et tenebræ, scil. Au. Ver.—18 And the Egyptians shall Ægyptiis

, uti recte Onkelos addit, et illuknow that I am the LORD, when I have

minavit noctem, scil. Israelitis, eodem illo

Ita et Jonathan et gotten me honour upon Pharaoh, upon his interprete addente.

paraphrastes Hierosolymitanus: fuit nubes chariots, and upon his horsemen. And the Egyptians, &c.

partim lucida, et partim tenebricosa ; ex una Ged., Booth.And all [Sam., LXX.] the parte tenebrosa fuit Ægyptiis, ex altera lucida

Israelitis. Consentit Symmachus : kai ħv Egyptians. Upon Pharaoh, upon his chariots, &c.

η νεφέλη σκότος μεν εκείθεν, φαίνουσα δε

εντεύθεν. . Ged.—Upon Pharaoh and all his forces

Ver. 21. [Sam.], upon his chariots, &c.

Ver. 19. Au. Ver.-Israel.

Ged., Booth.—Children of Israel (Sam., 1Y???? 727n? big boy Arab., and one MS.). Ver. 20.

εξέτεινε δε Μωυσής την χείρα επί την θάλασσαν. και υπήγαγε κύριος την θάλασσαν εν

ανέμω νότω βιαίω όλην την νύκτα, και εποίησε -nn an TNIA prop bezopasny dadao sav trpáv. kai doxíoên tò ūdwp. - 9

Au. Ver.-21 And Moses stretched out : his hand over the sea; and the LORD caused

go back by a strong east wind all και εισήλθεν ανά μέσον της παρεμβολής των | that night, and made the sea dry land, and Αίγυπτίων, και ανά μέσον της παρεμβολής |the waters were divided. 'Ισραήλ, και έστη. και εγένετο σκότος και

A strong east wind. γνόφος. και διήλθεν η νύξ. και ου συνέμιξαν Pool.- A strong east wind; a proper inαλλήλοις όλην την νύκτα. .

strument both to divide that sea, which lay Au. Ver., and most of the Commentators.— north and south, and to dry and harden the 20 And it came between the camp of the mud at the bottom of the sea, that the IsEgyptians and the camp of Israel; and it raelites might walk upon

it. See Gen. was a cloud and darkness to them, but it viii. 13; Exod. xv. 8. gave light by night to these : so that the one Bp. Patrick.By a strong east wind.] Or came not near the other all the night. rather a south wind, as the LXX translate

Bp. Horsley.- -"it was a cloud and the Hebrew word kadim. Which, though it darkness [to them] but it gave light by properly signifies the east, yet in many night (to these].” Nothing about “them places it is used, as Bochart hath demonand “these" in the original. The Hebrew strated, for the south (par. ii. Hierozoic., words might be thus rendered

“And lib. i., cap. 15). though it was a cloud and darkness [i.e., a Made the sea dry land, and the waters

וט משֶׁה אֶת־יָדוֹ עַל־חַיָּשׁ וַיּוֹלֶךְ יְהוָה אֶת־הַיָּם בְּרוּחַ קָדִים עַנָּה כָּל

הַמָּיִם :

וַיָּבא בֵּין מַחֲנֵה מִצְרַיִם וּבֵין מַחֲנֵה

הַלַּיְלָה וְלֹא־קָרַב זֶה אֶל-זֶה כָּל־ הַלַּיְלָה :

the sea

to

God, with a Divine hand or power, by com- after them, all the horses and chariots of paring Exod. xiii. 16. Or, 2. Their own, Pharaoh, and his horsemen, and his army, not with hands hanging down, a posture and overtook them encamping by the sea, betraying weakness and fainting, fear and beside Pi-hahiroth, before Baal-zephon. shame, Heb. xii. 12, but with hands lifted Bp. Horsley.For yudi nyo 237 DID 53, up; with courage and confidence, not like read, as in verse 23, no 1937 nyo dio 53. fugitives, but like valiant and victorious “ all the cavalry of Pharaoh, his chariots soldiers, openly, boldly, resolvedly; as men and his riders, and his (whole) array.” are said to sin with a high hand, Numb. Pi-hahiroth, Baal-zephon. See notes on xv. 30, that sin in such a manner.

xiv. 2. Bp. Patrick.Went out with an high

Ver. 12. hand.] Boldly and with assured confidence;

Au. Ver.--Is not this the word that we not sneakingly, like slaves or fugitives. So did tell thee in Egypt, saying, Let us alone, Onkelos understood it, when he translated it bareheaded, i.e., confidently, fearing nothing; had been better for us to serve the Egyptians,

that we may serve the Egyptians ? For it having been delivered and conducted by the

than that we should die in the wilderness. powerful hand of God, as it is often repeated

Let us alone. (xiii. 9, 14, 16), unto which some refer this phrase, and not to the Israelites (see Drusius, so the Sam.

Ged., Booth.-Let us alone we pray thee. lib. xvi.; Observat., cap. 2).

For it had been better. Rosen.Et filii Israel exibant cum manu

Ged., Booth.--For it is better. elata, quod Jonathan exponit addito maana niya , prævalentes super Ægyptios. Quod

Ver. 13. potentia excelsa et manifesta. Aben-Esra Yang ang?

, : abiisse, sed armata manu. Magis arridet

ον τρόπον γαρ έωράκατε τους Αιγυπτίους Onkelosi interpretatio : 25 ης capite aperto, σήμερον, ου προσθήσεσθε έτι ιδείν αυτούς εις i.e., palam, animose confidenter.

Quod | τον αιώνα χρόνον. . confirmatur eo quod Num. xxxiii. 3, huic

Au. Ver.-13 And Moses said unto the , , omnibus Ægyptiis. Similiter Moses Men- people, Fear ye not, stand still, and see the

salvation of the Lord, which he will shew delii fil. in Commentario exponit ita : fecerunt sibi vexilla et signa militaria, et exierunt have seen to-day [or, for whereas ye have

to you to-day : for the Egyptians whom ye læti, cantantes, et tympana citharasque pul

seen the Egyptians to-day, &c.] ye shall santes, utpote e servitute in libertatem asserti,

see them again no more for ever. non sicut servi, qui ad servitutem redire

Pool.- Whom

ye have seen; or, as ye have parati sunt. Minus placet Clerici sententia,

seen them [so Rosen.], to wit, alive and quam Dathius probavit, elatâ manu valere :

armed, and ready to devour you; for othervi et metu domitis Ægyptiis, quia, nisi wise they did see them dead and disarmed, dimissi fuissent, sustulerat Deus manum,

ver. 30. Ægyptios undecima plaga percussurus. Rosen.- men, hic i.q., TEN2, sicut, quem

admodum. Sensus est : hoc modo, quo Ver. 9.

nunc videtis Ægyptios, armatos scilicet et vobis imminentes, non amplius videbitis, sed

.

Ver. 15. :

Au. Ver.-15 And the Lord said unto

Moses, Wherefore criest thou unto me? &c. και κατεδίωξαν οι Αιγύπτιοι οπίσω αυτών, ,

Ged., Booth.-Moses then cried to Jekaì cũposav avto's Trapeußeßankóras trapà thu hovah (Syr.]; And Jehovah said, Whereθάλασσαν. και πάσα ή ίππος, και τα άρματα fore criest thou to me ? Φαραώ, και οι ιππείς, και η στρατιά αυτού απέναντι της επαύλεως, εξεναντίας Βεελσεπφών.

Ver. 16. Au. Ver.-9 But the Egyptians pursued And the children of Israel shall go, &c.

וַיִּרְדְּפוּ מִצְרַיִם אַחֲרֵיהֶם וַיָּשִׂיגוּ אוֹתָם .sufocatos et mortuos חנִים עַל־הַיָּם כָּל־סוּס רֶכֶב פַּרְעֹה

וּפָרָשָׁיו וְחֵילוֹ עַל־פִּי הַחִיוֹת לִפְנֵי בַּעַל צְפָן :

XV. 4.

numero

the war chariot, αναβάται, παραβάται. Εxod. | και τριστάτας. Verum et de hujus nominis xiv. 7: he took all the chariots of Egypt, significatu variæ sunt sententiæ, quas refert ing som bryty, and warriors in each of them, Origenes in Catenis ineditt. ad h. 1. apud

LXX, in xiv. 7, Tplotárai, and in Montefalcon. Earum verisimillima est, opiscap. xv. 4, ávaßárai tplotátal. (According rátas fuisse magnos currus, qui tres homines to Origen, the combatant in a chariot is caperent, ut unus auriga esset, duo autem called Tplotátns, because there were always pugnarent. Cf. Jac. Lydius in Syntagm. de three persons in it, of whom the first fought, re militari, l. ii., cap. 3, p. 39, existimat a the second protected him with the shield, ternario

dictos tristatas milites and the third guided the horses). In 1 Kings omnium strenuissimos et revera antiquos ix. 22, omnibus and 297 m are combined ; triarios, qui in locum duarum classium compare 2 Kings ix. 25. In other passages militarium, si utraque succumberet in prethey appear to form a body-guard of the lio, tanquam potior exercitus pars, sucIsraelitish kings, 1 Kings ix. 22; 2 Kings cedebant, et rem fortiter gerebant, ut x. 25; 1 Chron. xi. 11; xii. 18 (where Triarii in exercitu Romanorum, de quibus their commander is styled b'din tini, in plura Livius viii. 8, Varro de Ling. Lat. the parallel passages, 2 Sam. xxiii. 8 : UN iv. 16. Aliam præterea conjecturam promeiten in which the plural is wanting, as in ponit Lydius, quum in pluribus linguis ma, , ??, &c. However some MSS. have ternarius numerus rem in majus extollendi the o). But these may be the same, supposing et exaggerandi vim habeat, et in comanother office assigned to them in time of paratione ultra tertium gradum non ascendi peace-bye in sing. is perhaps frequently soleat, posse per mere fortissimum significari, equivalent to bring tini, and occurs as a quasi eum, qui tertium et supremum gradum noble attendant of the king, 2 Kings vii. 2; fortitudinis obtineat, pro quo Græci dicunt ix. 25; xv. 25 ; xvii. 19. The etymology Tploaploteùs, et Galli tresfort. Nobis quidem has, perhaps, in Hebrew, the same founda- magis est verisimile, certum quendam militum tion as in the Greek, Tplotátns. Others ordinem nomine Hebræo et Græco significari, have also compared it with the Latin tri- qualem tamen, nemo facile definiverit. bunus, but the etymological foundation of

Ver. 8. this word is quite different. Other deriva

, e.g.! thirty, comp. 2 Sam. xxiii. 23 ; 1 Chron. 2 bin ?? T?! Dhe xi. 25, or officers of the third runk, are not applicable to the first passages, where the

: word is evidently used in connexion with the και έσκλήρυνε κύριος την καρδίαν Φαραώ chariots of war.—Prov. xxi. 20. Dehy in Baouléws Alyúttov, kai deparóvtWV Kri signifes probably principalia, i.e., no- αυτού, και κατεδίωξεν οπίσω των υιών Ισραήλ. bilia, comp. viii. 6.

οι δε υιοι Ισραήλ εξεπορεύοντο εν χειρί υψηλή. . Rosen.--Sumsitque sexcenlos

Au. Ver.-8 And the LORD hardened the lectos, quibus significari videntur regii et ad heart of Pharaoh king of Egypt, and he bellum parati; quum om? 337 55, omnes pursued after the children of Israel: and currus Ægyptiorum, qui post illos memo- the children of Israel went out with an high rantur, privatorum

et sarcinarii. hand. Quærunt, unde satis equorum suppetere Hardened. potuerit Pharaoni, quum ix. 6, dicantur Ged.-Emboldened. pecudes Ægyptiorum periisse. Sed excipi Booth.-Suffered to be hardened. endæ sunt eæ, quæ in stabula coactæ See notes on Exod. iv. 23. fuerant, in quibus maxima pars equorum Of Pharaoh king of Egypt. So the Heb. esse potuit. Sed quinam fuerint bris, qui Ged., Booth.Of Pharaoh king of Egypt dicuntur fuisse ispose super iis omnibus and of his servants. So the LXX. curribus, haud adeo certum est. Onkelos Au. Ver.- And he pursued, &c. High hand. vertit : et viri fortes constituti super omnes Ged.—To pursue the children of Israel illis. Sic et xv. 4, moto si vertit fortes ejus. who were now manifestly going off. Quod sequutus Jarchi exponit duces exer Booth.-But the Israelites went out with cituum, et Saadias: præfecti, 8. duces. an high hand. LXX, vocis originem respicientes reddunt Pool.With an high hand.] Either 1. Of

יִשְׂרָאֵל צְאִים בְּיָד רָמָה:

currus

se

essent

« PreviousContinue »