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doubt, at first written by Euclid, is the design of this edition, that so it may be rendered more useful to geometers, at least to beginners who desire to learn the investigatory method of the ancients. And for their sake, the compositions of most of the Data are subjoined to their demonstrations, that the compositions of problems solved by help of the Data may be the more easily made.
MARINUS the philosopher's preface, which, in the Greek edition, is prefixed to the Data, is here left out, as being of no 'use to understand them. At the end of it, he says, that Euclid has not used the synthetical but the analytical method in delivering them ; in which he is quite mistaken ; for in the analysis of a theorem, the thing to be demonstrated is assumed in the analysis; but in the demonstrations of the Data, the thing to be demonstrated, which is, that something or other is given, is never once assumed in the demonstration, from which it is manifest, that every one of them is demonstrated synthetically; though indeed, if a proposition of the Data be turned into a problem, (for example, the 84th or 85th in the former editions, which here are the 85th and 86th,) the demonstration of the proposition becomes the analysis of the problem.
WHEREIN this edition differs from the Greek, and the reasons of the alterations from it, will be shown in the notes at the end of the Data.
I. Spaces, lines, and angles, are said to be given in magnitude, when equals to them can be found.
II, A ratio is said to be given, when a ratio of a given magni
tude to a given magnitude which is the same ratio with it can be found.
III. Rectilineal figures are said to be given in species, which
have each of their angles given, and the ratios of their sides given.
IV. Points, lines, and spaces, are said to be given in position,
which have always the same situation, and which are either actually exhibited, or can be found.
A. An angle is said to be given in position, which is contained
by straight lines given in position. A circle is said to be given in magnitude, when a straight line from its centre to the circumference is given in magnitude.
VI. A circle is said to be given in position and magnitude, the
centre of which is given in position, and a straight line from it to the circumference is given in magnitude.
VII. Segments of circles are said to be given in magnitude, when
the angles in them, and their bases, are given in magnitude.
VIII. Segments of circles are said to be given in position and mag
nitude, when the angles in them are given in magnitude, and their bases are given both in position and magnitude.
IX. A magnitude is said to be greater than another by a given
magnitude, when this given magnitude being taken from it, the remainder is equal to the other magnitude.
nitude, when this given magnitude being added to it, the
PROPOSITION I. See n. The ratio of given magnitudes to one another is
Let A, B, be two given magnitudes, the ratio of A to B is given.
Because A is a given magnitude, there * 1 Def. may a be found one equal to it; let this be
And because B is given, one equal to it may be found; let it be D: And since 57. 6. A is equal to C, and B to D: thereforeb
A is to B, as C to D; and consequently
PROP. II. See N. If a given magnitude has a given ratio to another
magnitude," and if unto the two magnitudes by " which the given ratio is exhibited, and the given " magnitude, a fourth proportional can be found;" the other magnitude is given.
Let the given magnitude A have a given ratio to the magnitude B : if a fourth proportional can be found to the three magnitudes above-named, B is given in magnitude.
Because A is given, a magnitude may be •1 Def. found equal to ita; let this be C: And be
cause the ratio of A to B is given, a ratio
done. Wherefore, because A is to B, as E 011.5. to F; and as. E to F, so is C to D; A is b
* The figures in the margin show the number of propositions in the other editions,
to B, as C to D. But A is equal to C: therefore B is 14. 5. equal to D. The magnitude B is therefore givena, because * 1 Def. a magnitude D equal to it has been found.
The limitation within the inverted commas is not in the Greek text, but is now necessarily added; and the same must be understood in all the propositions of the book which depend upon this second proposition, where it is not expressly mentioned. See the note upon it.
If any given magnitudes be added together, their sum shall be given.
Let any given magnitudes AB, BC, be added together, their sum AC is given.
Because AB is given, a magnitude equal to it may a be · 1 Def. found; let this be DE: And because
A BC is given, one equal to it may be
B found ; let this be EF: Wherefore
E because AB is equal to DE, and BC
F equal to EF; the whole AC is equal to the whole DF; AC is therefore given, because DF has been found which is equal to it,
If a given magnitude be taken from a given magnitude; the remaining magnitude shall be given.
From the given magnitude AB, let the given magnitude AC be taken; the remaining magnitude CB is given.
Because AB is given, a magnitude equal to it may a be *1 Def found; let this be DF: And because AC is given, one
В B. equal to it may be found ; let this be DE: Wherefore, be- D
F cause AB is equal to DF, and AC to DE; the remainder CB is equal to the remainder FE. CB is therefore givena, because FE which is equal to it has been found.
PROP. V. See N. Ir of three magnitudes, the first together with the
second be given, and also the second together with the third ; either the first is equal to the third, or one of them is greater than the other by a given magnitude.
Let AB, BC, CD, he three magnitudes, of which AB together with BC, th:t is, AC, is given ; and also BC together with CD, that is, BD, is given. Either AB is equal to CD, or one of them is greater than the other by a given magnitude.
Because AC, BD, are each of them given, they are either equal to one another, or not
С equal. First, let them be equal, and because AC is equal to BD, take away the common part BC; therefore the remainder AB is equal to the remainder CD.
But if they be unequal, let AC be greater than BD, and make CE equal to BD. Therefore CE is given, because BD is given. And the whole
B Ç * 4 Dat. AC is given ; therefore a AE
the remainder is given. And because EC is equal to BD, by taking BC from both, the remainder EB is equal to the remainder CD. And AE is given ; wherefore AB exceeds EB, that is, CD, by the given magnitude AE.
PROP. VI. See N. If a magnitude has a given ratio to a part of it, it
shall also have a given ratio to the remaining part of it.
Let the magnitude AB have a given ratio to AC a part of it; it has also a given ratio to ihe remainder BC.
Because the ratio of AB to AC is given, a ratio may be 2 Def. founda which is the same to it: Let this be the ratio of DE, a given magnitude to the given
CB magnitude DF. And because DE, $ 4 Dat. DF, are given, the remainder FE is b
F E given : And because AB is to AC, as * E. 5. DE to DF, by conversion AB is to BC, as DE to EF.
Therefore the ratio of AB to BC is given, because the ratio of the given magnitudes DE, EF, which is the same with it, has been found.