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OF TEACHING

ENGLISH GRAMMAR,

WITH EXERCISES ADAPTED THERETO.

New Edition, Enlarged and Improved,

ENTERED AT STATIONÈRS' HALL.

PUBLISHERS.

GEORGE GALLIE, 99 BUCHANAN STREET, GLASGOW.
J. & J. THOMSON, 39 MARKET STREET, MANCHESTER.

N. BURROWS, PRINTER, HALIFAX.

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In some of the examples on the participles the Relative may, with propriety, be displaced by the antecedent and the conjunction and.

ERRATA,
Page 28 and 19th line, read imperfect for "perfect.”
Page 45 and 14th line , read verbs for “ vorbs.”

TESTIMONIAL.

Mr. William Horsfall,

I am much pleased with the originality of your Grammar. If you have any to sell with you Mrs. Vale will pay you 20s, for 60 copies of the small edition.

BENJAMIN VALE, L. L. D.,

Rector of Longton. 17 Sept. 1852.

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TO THE READER.

The following pages contain the footsteps of the author, walking to obtain a practical knowledge of English Etymology and Syntax. Having a dislike to the committing of tasks to memory, I became my own teacher; and my inquiries were not, how many parts of speech have we, and how many moods and tenses have verbs; but my inquiries were, what specific forms have those words (which change their forms) for the specific offices they perform ; and what specific forms do verbs assume, for the specific businesses for which they are employed. If you perseveringly adopt the latter inquiries, the following pages may assist you to obtain answers.

WILLIAM HORSFALL,

AUTHOR.

ENGLISH GRAMMAR.

1. Nouns.—All things you see are nouns. Example : Day, night, man, horse, town, street, soldier, &c.

All things you hear are nouns. Ex. : Sound, noise, &c.

All things you feel are nouns. Ex. : Pain, anger, grief, sorrow, joy, love, hatred, envy, malice, benevolence, &c.

All things you taste are nouns. Ex. : Sweetness, bitterness, &c.

All things you smell are nouns. Ex.: Stench, savour, &c.

Every cause is a noun, every effect is a noun, every thing material is a noun, and every thing immaterial is a noun. Remark: That language can displace one noun or name by another is certain; but that language can reach nothing but noun or name, is equally certain ; nevertheless there is something more than noun or name, to which the powers of the mind can reach.

2. COMMON NOUNS.—The noun that applies to every individual of the species, is common; as man, woman, child, horse, tree, plant, day, night, week, month, year, century, &c.

Man, applies to every man; woman, applies to every woman; child, applies to every child; horse, applies to I every horse ; tree, applies to every tree; plant, applies

to every plant; day, applies to every day; night, applies to every pignt; week, applies to every week; month, applies to every month; year, applies to every year; century, applies to every century; then man, is cominon to all men; woman, is common to all women; child, is common to all children; horse, is commion to all horses; tree, is common to all trees; plant, is common to all plants ; day, is common to all days ; night, is common to all nights; week, is common to all weeks; month, is common to all months ; year, is common to all years ; and century is common to all centuries. | 3. PROPER Nouns.— The name which does not apply 'to every individual of the species is proper; and, when { writing, the first letter of every proper name or noun must be a capital. There is no exception to this statement. City is common, because it applies to all cities; but London is proper, because it does not apply to all cities; street is common, because it applies to all streets; but Cheapside is proper, because it does not apply to all streets; town is common, because it applies to all towns; but Halifax is proper, because it does not apply to all towns ; tea is common, because it applies to all teas; but Hyson is proper, because it does not apply to all teas; piece is common, because it applies to all peices; but Damask is proper, because it does not apply to all peices ; man is commom, because it applies to all men; but John is proper, because it does not apply to all men.

How many proper names soever apply to the saine person or thing, when written, the first letter of each must be a capital. Abbey is common, because it applies to all abbeys; but Westminster Abbey is proper, because it does not apply to all abbeys.

Whatsoever name, or names, distinguish an individual, or individuals, from the other individuals of the species, is, or are, proper: hence all trades, professions, titles, &c., are proper names or nours. King, Queen, Lord, Lady, Duke, Duchess, Shoe Maker, Dress Maker, Woollen Manufacturer, Pump Maker, Weaver, Comber, Wool Sorter, John, James, Timothy, Charles, Mary, Susan, Nancy, are proper names, or nouns, because all Men and Women are not Kings, Queens, Lords, Ladies, Dukes, Duchesses, Shoe Makers, Dress Makers, Woollen Manufacturers, Pump Makers, Weavers, Combers, Wool. Sorters, Johns, Ja.leses, Timothies, Charleses, Maries, Susans, and Nancies.

4. NUMBER.-One thing is a noun of the singular number, two or more things expressed by one word, are a noun of the plural number-as man, men; woman,

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