Book VI. because the triangle ABC is similar to ADB, as CB to BA, so is BA to BD b; and because these three straight lines are prob 4. 6. portionals, as the first to the third, so is the figure upon the first c 2. Cor. to the similar and similarly described figure upon the seconde; 20. 6. therefore, as CB to BD, so is the A figure upon CB to the similar and similarly described figure upon d B. 5. BA: and, inversely d, as DB to D BC, so are the figures upon BA, & 24. 5. AC to that upon BCe: but BD and DC together are equal to fA. 5. BC. Therefore the figure described on BC is equal f to the si milar and similarly described figures on BA, AC. Wherefore, in right angled triangles, &c. Q. E. D. See N. IF two triangles which have two sides of the one proportional to two sides of the other be joined at one angle, so as to have their homologous sides parallel to one another, the remaining sides shall be in a straight line. Let ABC, DCE be two triangles which have the two sides Because AB is parallel to A meets them, the alternate aua 29. 1. gles BAC, ACD are equal a ; D the angle C E a the triangles ABC, DCE have one angle at A equal to one at D, Book VI and the sides about these angles proportionals, viz. BA to AC as CD to DE, the triangle ABC is equiangular b to DCE :b 6. 6. therefore the angle ABC is equal to the angle DCE: and the angle BAC was proved to be equal to ACD: therefore the whole angle ACE is equal to the iwo angles ABC, BAC; add the common angle ACB, then the angles ACE, ACB are equal to the angles ABC, BAC, ACB : but ABC, BAC, ACB are equal to two right angles c; therefore also the angles ACE, ACB are c 32. 1. equal to two right angles: and since at the point C, in the straight line AC, the two straight lines BC, CE, which are on the opposite sides of it, make the adjacent angles ACE, ACB equal to two right angles ; therefore a BC and CE are in a straight line. d 14. 1 Wherefore, if two triangles, &c. Q. E. D. PROP. XXXIII. THEOR. IN equal circles, angles, whether at the centres or See N circumferences, have the same ratio which the cir. cumferences on which they stand have to one another: so also have the sectors. Let ABC, DEF be equal circles ; and at their centres the ; angles BGC, EHF, and the angles BAC, EDF at their circumferences ; as the circumference BC to the circumference EF, so is the angle BGC to the angle EHF, and the angle BAC to the angle EDF; and also the sector BGC to the sector EHF. Take any number of circumferences CK, KL, each equal to BC, and any number whatever FM, MN each equal to EF: and join GK, GL, HM, HN. Because the circumferences BC, CK, KL are all equal, the angles BGC, CGK, KGL are also all equal a : therefore what multiple soever the circum-a 27.3 ference BL is of the circumference BC, the same multiple is the angle BGL of the angle BGC : for the same reason, whatever multiple the circumference EN is of the circumference EF, the same multiple is the angle EHN of the angle EHF: Book VI. and if the circumference BL be equal to the circumference EN, the angle BGL is also equal a to the angle EHN; and a 27. 3. if the circumference BL be greater than EN, likewise the angle BGL is greater than EHN; and if less, less: there being then four magnitudes, the two circumferences BC, EF, and the two angles BGC, EHF; of the circumference BC, and of the angle BGC, have been taken any equimultiples whatever, viz. the circumference BL, and the angle BGL ; and of the circumference EF, and of the angle EHF, any equimultiples what с ever, viz. the circumference EN, and the angle EHN : and it has been proved, that, if the circumference BL be greater than EN, the angle BGL is greater than EHN; and if equal, equal ; and if less, less: as therefore the circumference b 5.def.5. BC to the circumference EF, so b is the angle BGC to the angle EHF: but as the angle BGC is to the angle EHF, so is c 15. 5. Cthe angle BAC to the angle EDF, for each is double of d 20. 3. each d: therefore, as the circumference BC is to EF, so is the angle BGC to the angle EHF, and the angle BAC to the angle EDF. Also, as the circumference BC to EF, so is the sector BGC to the sector EHF. Join BC, CK, and in the circumferences BC, CK take any points X, O, and join BX, XC, CO, OK: then, because in the triangles GBC, GCK the two sides BG, GC are equal to the two CG, GK, and that they contain e 4. 1. equal angles ; the base BC is equal e to the base CK, and the triangle GBC to the triangle GCK : and because the circumference BC is equal to the circumference CK, the remaining part of the whole circumference of the circle ABC is equal to the remaining part of the whole circumference of the same circle : wherefore the angle BXC is equal to the angle COK ; $11. def. and the segment BXC is therefore similar to the segment COK'; and they are upon equal straight lines BC, CK : but similar seg-Book VI. ments of circles upon equal straight lines are equals to one another : therefore the segment BXC is equal to the segment COK : g 24. 3. and the triangle BGC is equal to the triangle CGK ; therefore the whole, the sector BGC, is equal to the whole, the sector CGK: for the same reason, the sector KGL is equal to each of the sectors BGC, CGK: in the same manner, the sectors EHF, FHM, MHN may be proved equal to one another : therefore, what multiples soever the circumference BL is of the circumference BC, the same multiple is the sector BGL of the sector BGC: for the same reason, whatever multiple the circumference EN is of EF, the same multiple is the sector EHV of the sector EHF: and if the circumference BL be equal to EN, the А Ꭰ . sector BGL is equal to the sector EHN; and if the circumference BL be greater than EN, the sector BGL is greater than the sector EHN; and, if less, less : since, then, there are four magnitudes, the two circumferences BC, EF, and the two sectors BGC, EHF, and of the circumference BC, and sector BGC, the circumference BL and sector BGL are any equal multiples whatever; and of the circumference EF, and sector EHF, the circumference EN, and sector EHN, are any equimultiples whatever; and that it has been proved, if the circumference BL be greater than EN, the sector BGL is greater than the sector EHN ; and if equal, equal; and if less, less. Therefore b, as the cir- b5.def. 5. cumference BC is to the circumference EF, so is the sector BGC to the sector EHF. Wherefore, in equal circles, &c. Q. E. D. Book VI. PROP. B. THEOR. See N. IF an angle of a triangle be bisected by a straight line, which likewise cuts the base; the rectangle contained by the sides of the triangle is equal to the rectangle contained by the segments of the base, together with the square of the straight line bisecting the angle. a 5.4. Let ABC be a triangle, and let the angle BAC be bisected by the straight line AD ; the rectangle BA, AC is equal to the rectangle BD, DC, together with the square of AD. Describe the circle a ACB about the triangle, and produce AD to the circumference in E, and A join EC : then because the angle BAD is equal to the angle CAE, and b 21.3. the angle ABD to the angle b AEC, for they are in the same segment; B D с angular to one another : therefore as BA to AD, so is c EA to AC, and consequently the rectangle BA, d 16. 6. AC is equal d to the rectangle EA, c 3. 2. AD, that is, to the rectangle ED, E DA, together with the square of AD: f 35. 3. but the rectangle ED, DA is equal to the rectangle f BD, DC. Therefore the rectangle BA, AC is equal to the rectangle BD, DC, together with the square of AD. Wherefore, if an angle, &c. Q. E. D. C 4. 6. See N. IF from any angle of a triangle a straight line be drawn perpendicular to the base; the rectangle contained by the sides of the triangle is equal to the rectangle contained by the perpendicular and the diameter of the circle described about the triangle. Let ABC be a triangle, and AD the perpendicular from the angle A to the base BC; the rectangle BA, AC is equal to the rectangle contained by AD and the diameter of the circle described about the triangle. |