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ing of the contest between the parties of cavalry, and the moving pic. ture of the death of Camilla. But these are enough to refute the judgment of that class of critics, who can see nothing in the last six books of the Æneid but a feeble and insipid imitation of Homer. Vir. gil is often indebted to his predecessor for single lines and particular images; but in the general spirit and execution of these passages, as well as of many others, I can discern but few traces of similarity with the lliad, and none of slavish adherence to this, or any other model. The peculiarities of his genius are strongly marked, even in this book, where the nature of the subject might frequently betray the poet into an unconscious imitation of the fine battle pieces of Homer. But he has avoided this difficulty with apparent ease, and the novelty with which the theme is treated, shows the native strength and richness of a vigorous inagination.



THE Latins being disheartened by the two defeats which they had suffered, Turnus offers to redeem his promise of meeting Æneas in single combat. The Trojan accepts the challenge, and a truce is sol. emnly proclaimed between the contending parties, till the arrangements for the duel can be made. The nymph Juturna, the sister of Turnus, incited by Juno, persuades the Latins to break the truce; and the augur Tolumnius, deceived by false omens, promises certain victory to his party, and with his own hand kills one of the Trojans. Both armies then run to arms, and Æneas endeavouring to stay the tumult, is wounded by an arrow from an unknown hand, and compelled to quit the field. Turnus, encouraged by the departure of his dreaded opponent, makes great havoc among the Trojans. Venus cures her son by means of a potent herb, and Æneas rushes back to the field, and calls upon Turnus to meet him in single combat. Juturna assumes the shape of the charioteer of Turnus, and drives him off to another part of the ground. The Trojans resolve to attack the city, and throw fireballs and torches against ihe fortifications. The queen Amala supposes that Turnus is killed, and hangs herself in despair. Turnus, that the city may not fall into the power of the enemy, at length offers himself to the contest, and is vanquished by Æneas. The latter is moved to pity by the entreaties of his fallen opponent, but happening to perceive the belt of Pallas on the other's shoulders, he is roused to fury, and avenges the death of his young friend by slaying Turnus; with which action the poem concludes.

1-2. 'infractos - Marte,' weakened by the unsuccessful fight : Defecisse,' had lost heart : promissa ’; his promise to meet Æneas in sin. gle combat.

5-7. ille leo'; 'ille'is expletive, as in Book XI. 809. pectus'; Gr. § 234. II. movet arma,' makes ready for the fight : “comantes toros,' shaking the bushy mane on his neck : latronis,' the huntsman who had attacked him by surprise. "fixum,' thrust into his body.

10- 3. regem,' Latinus : nihil — recusent,' there is no pretext for the dastardly followers of Eneas to take back their words, or break their engagements. sacra,' the religious rites with which engagements with enemies were sanctioned: 'et fædus,' and formally proclaim a treaty.

15-17. sedeant - Latini,' let the Latins sit still and look on: crimen - refellam,' I will refute the common imputation upon me of want ing courage :'victos,'' nos' understood.

19-21. quantùm — Consulere,' as much as you excel in daring bra. dery, so much the more diligently ought I to provide for your safety.

23. 'nec - est,' Latinus also has gold and a disposition to give; there is no cause why you should contend with Æneas for the hand and dowry of Lavinia; you have enough without them.

25 – 6. · Sine - hauri,' allow me, putting aside all artifice and reserve, to lay open these things which are not pleasant to be spoken of ; hear this also with strict attention.

28-9. id canebant,' declared that this was fated. cognato - victus,' overcome by considering the connexion in blood between us. Tur. nus was the nephew of Amata, the wife of Latinus.

31 - 32. • Promissam'; Latinus had promised Lavinia to Æneas. qui casus,' what calamities

34-5. vix - Italas,' with difficulty we preserve in the city the last hope, or refuge for the Italian arms : recalent,' were twice warmed.

37-41. Why do I haver so much ? What frenzy makes me chanoe my resolution incolumi,''Turno' understood : • Rutuli,' dicent' under. stood. "Fors — refutet,' O may Fortune prove that I am mistaken!

43. res – varias,' the doubtful fortune of war.

46. exsuperat – medendo, he rather becomes more obstinate, and is exasperated by what was designed to soothe him.

49. · lelum — pacisci,' and allow me to barter death for glory.

51 - 3. nostro de vulnere,' from wounds inflicted by me. His god. dess mother will be far away, who in vain would shelter the runaway in a cloud wuh a woman's care, and hide herself (and her son) in darkness.

54. novâ pugnæ sorte'; that is, the single combat.

56 -7. per — animum,' by your respect for Amata, if any such feel. ing moves your mind ; per — honos'; Gr. § 323. 3. (5.) . ego te' is construed with · Unum oro,' in the 60th line.

59. inclinata,' threatening to fall : recumbit,' resls upon.

61 - 6. •Quicumque casus,' whatever fate : "Et me manent,' awaits me also: " Lumina,' life, existence. “Accepit,' overheard : Flagrantes,' burning with blushes : cui - rubor,' in whose veins much blushing kin. dled a fire; the cause here changes place with the effect.

67 - 70. veluti Si quis violaverit Indum ebur,' as if any one should stain Indian itory: aut rosà,' or the white lilies should become red when mingled with many roses. •figit vultus,' fizes his gaze.

74 - 8.. neque - mortis, for Turnus cannot by his simple will obtain a respite from denth : • Phrygio lyranno,' Æneas. • Haud placitura,' a disagreeable message for him to receive. Puniceis'; see Écl. VII. 32. rotis,' for curru : Non agat,' let him not lead.

82-6. gaudet – frementes,' and rejoices to see them neighing before him. Orithyia'; see note to Geor. IV. 463. She was carried off to Thrace by Boreas, whose horses were celebrated for fleetness. "decus Pilumno, as a mark of respect to Pilumnus, the ancestor of Turnus. 'cursibus,' in speed : properi,' quick, active : lacessunt plausa,' for plaudunt': 'cavis,' madę concave, so as to pat loudly.

87 - 9. squalentem,' shining : orichalco'; a mixed metal, like our brass. "aptat habendo,' he fits on so as to be conveniently handled; Gr. $ 275. III. Rem. 2. cornua'; the several points of the crest.

91. 'tinxerat'; in order to témper the metal; see Geor. IV. 172-3.

94 - 100. “Actoris spolium,' taken in battle from Actor. The Aurunci lived near the river Liris, in the neighbourhood of the Rutuli. 60-meos,' O spear, that when invoked, has never deceived me; ' vocatus' is a substantive. sternere,' by a Greek idiom, for • ut sternam': 'revulsam,' torn off from his body : Semiviri Phrygis'; see Book IX. 614 - 20, and notes. Crisped with the curling tongs and wet with myrrh, as a perfume. 101 - 6. furiis,' frenzied eagerness for the fight. 'toto — absistunt,' sparks flash from his whole countenance burning with rage, prima in prelia,' in preparing for the fight : . atque - arenâ '; repeated from Geor. III. 232 - 4. see notes.

107 - 9. maternis,' furnished by his mother : "sævus,' brade : 'acuit Martem,' kindles his ardor for the fight : .componi,' was ended.

112. • Certa,' definite : • leges,' conditions, articles of peace. 114. 'alto – tollunt,' rise from the deep ocean.

117 - 23. · Dimensi,' measuring out the ground. Upon the altars, constructed of turf, were the focos,' places for the sacrificial fire. "fontein,' pure water : • limo,' the priest's apron : ' verbenâ '; see note to Ecl. VIII. 65. pilata,' armed with javelins : " variis,' particolored.

126 - 9. volitant,' move about : ' genus Assaraci,' a descendant of Assaracus, and therefore a relative of Æneas. 128. Repeated from Book VII. 691. "spatia in sua,' to his own assigned spot.

133-5. Obsedere,' occupied in crowds.'e- habetur,' from the summit, which is now called the Alban mount; now Monte Caro, about twelve miles from Rome. “Tum - nomen'; nameless then, as Alba Longa was not yet founded.

138 - 41. • Turni sororem'; the nymph Juturna, the presiding deity of a fountain at the foot of the Alban mount. • Diva,' Juno: 'deam,' Juturna, in apposition with sororem.' stagnis,' standing water, lakes. Jupiter violated her, and, in recompense, made her a goddess of lakes and streams. hunc honorem,' this office.

143-8. In this order: • Scis, ut Prætulerim te unam,' &c. 'ingratum,' hateful ; Juno's anger at the frequent amours of Jove is well known. cæli — locârim'; that is, I willingly allowed you to become a goddess. dolorem,' misfortune: 'Quà - Latio,' so far as fortune seemed to permit, and as the Fates allowed the affairs of Latium to prosper.

151 -8. • Non adspicere oculis possum,' I cannot bear to look upon. · Ta - Perge,' do you now act, if you dare give any more effectual aid to your brother : miseros' for miserum Turnum': meliora,''fata' understood. 'honestum,' for pulchrum': si — modus,' if there is any way possible : 'conceptuin'; see line 13.

160-1. Incertam,' whether she should attempt to follow Juno's ad. vice : 'vulnere '; any painful affection of mind. "reges,' the kings — Latinus and Turnus — came forth. ingenti mole,' with grcat pomp.

163 – 4. Aurati — radii,' tuelve golden rays were affixed to his crown, •Solis – specimen,' as a proof that the Sun was his ancestor. Circe, the daughter of the Sun, is supposed to be the same with Marica, the mother of Latinus; see notes to Book VII. 10 and 47.

165. Repeated from Book I. 313. 168 -70spes altera,' the second hope, after Æneas : purâ,' white. The offspring of a bristly hog, and a two year old sheep that had neret been shorn.

172 - 4. lumina,' for oculos': 'fruges salsas '; see notes to Book II. 133, and Ecl. VIII. 82. et- pecudum'; see note to Book VI. 245.

179–87. melior,' more propitious, reconciled to us : pater,' an epithet of dignity : 'tuo sub – torques, guidest by thy power. quæque - Religio, and whatever deity there is in the upper air. "fors,' for . forsan' :' Cesserit Turno,' should be gained by Turnus : Convenit victos discedere,' it is agreed that we, the dunquished, will depart: arma,' war. 187. But if victory should faror our arms.

189 - 93. • Teucris parere,' to be subject in a servile manner to the Trojans : "regna,' absolute rule : Paribus legibus,' with laros equally favorable to both : 'se æterna – mittant,' shall be joined in perpetual alliance. Sacra - dabo'; that is, I shall have the right to prescribe the religion of the state : 'arma'; the right of making peace or war:

socer,' Latinus, 'habeto' understood : Imperium solemne,' the regal authority, - he shall be considered as king.

198 – 200. Latonæ - duplex'; Apollo and Diana: "Janum'; see note to Book VII. 180. Vim dem,' for "deos,' as 'canum vis,' Book IV. 132. duri - Ditis,' the sacred abode of inerorable Pluto.

204-7. In this order; non, si ulla vis, miscens Diluvio, effundat tellurem,' &c.; no, not even if some force, mingling them together in a deluge, should dissolve the earth in the waves, and bring down the skies into Tartarus. Ut - hoc,' • Nunquam- unubras,' us this sceptre shall never send forth shoots with light folinge, nor cause a shade.

209. Matre,' its mother root : brachia,' brunches.

213-4. Conspectu — procerum,' in the full riero of the assembled chieftains : 'rité sacratas,' having received the proper rites ; see lines 172 - 4. In - jugulant,' they kill and throw into the flames.

217 - 20. 'et - motu,' and their minds were agitated with various thoughts : 'ut - æquis,' as they see the contest draroing nigh, which would be waged with powers not equally matched. Adjuvat, this fear is strengthened, when they see Turnus advancing, &c. demisso lumine,' with downcast eyes.

222-5. “Quem Sermonem crebrescere,' this conversation -expressive of fear – increasing : " Jabantia corda,' failing hearts : 'formam — Camerti,' taking the shape of Cumers: genus ingens,' noble descent.

227. In - acies,' she goes into the midst of the ranks.

229-33. pro — talibus,' for all these brave men : Objectare,' to expose. Fatalis – habemus, and the destructive bands, the Etrurians hostile to Turnus. If only every other man — only half of our force should engage, we should hardly huve an enemy for each.

234 -8. Ille,' Turnus : quorum — aris,' to whose service he devotes himself: Succedet,' will be eralted : 'vivus — feretur,' and will obtain immortal reputation ; per ora,' that is, in sermonibus.' 'lenti,' idle : sententia,' feelings, opinions, yróun.

241 – 3. ' Qui jani Sperabant,' who were just now hoping for: 'salutem,' security: fædus Infectuin,' that the treuty might be broken off

245 - 50. præsenlius,' more clear and manifest : - monstro,' prodigy: "rubrâ,' ruddy, as the sky sometimes appears in a peculiar state of the atmosphere : ·Jovis ales,' the eagle : Littoreas aves,' shore birds : * sonantem,' noisy. •lapsus,' gliding doun : improbus,' ravenous.

252-4. Convertunt — fugam,' wheel about, screaming, in order to attack - hostem,' the eagle: Factå nube,' 'for agmine'; banding together, in a body : 'premunt,' follow closely, harass.

258. • Expediunt manus,' raise their hands, a gesture expressive of sudden conviction and resolution.

260. • Accipio — deos,' I receive the omen and acknowledge the power of the gods. . Any one might accept an omen, that is, acknowledge its truth and act upon it, or not.

262 – 3. As Tolumnius interprets the omen, the eagle signified Æneas, the swan Turnus, and the other birds the Latins. penitùs profundo,' far off on the deep sea.

267 - 71. cornus,' a spear made of cornel-wood : Certa,' well-aimed. The repetition of «simul' expresses the hurry and agitation of the moment. 'cunei' here means the assembled spectators ; see note to Geor. 11. 509. fratrum Corpora,' for 'fratres.'

273 - 6. Horum - medium Transadigit costas,' the flying spear (line 270) pierced the side of one of these brothers, in the middle of his body: 'et - mordet,' and where the clasp holds together the ends of the belt ; laterum' of the belt, not of the body.

280- 1. binc - Trocs,' then again sueep forth in crowds the Trojans, &c. “Agyllini'; see note to Book VIII. 479.

285 - 6. • Crateras — ferunt,' they hurl goblets and brands of fire, snatched from the allars. Pulsatos,' for 'violatos': divos,' images of the gods.


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289-91. insigne,' the budge, the diadem : 'Aaverso – equo,' frightens by urging his horse against him : “ruit,' he falls.

292. And unluckily tumbles over the altars that were behind him. 294. Lrabali,' like a beam, very great.

296. Hoc habet'; the cry used in the amphitheatre, when a gla. diator was hit by his opponent.

300 - ]. Occupat --- Hammis,' strikes him in the mouth with the flam. , ing brand : reluxit — dedit,' caught fire, and emitted a burnt smell.

303-8. Putting his knee against him, by a great effort throws him to the ground. “securi - reductă,' drawing back the are: frontem mediam Disjicit,' cleaves the middle of his forehead.

312. • Nudato capite,' without his helmet; seeking, by this show of confidence, to still the tumult.

315 - 7. mihi — soli,' I alone have the right to combat. "faxo Firma,' for “firmabo'; 'faxo,' for ' fecero'; Gr. § 102.7 and 9. hæc sacra'; the solemn rites with which the treaty had been confirmed.

319 - 22. allapsa alis,' for 'advolavit': Incertum - adacta,' no one knowing by what hand it was sent, by what whirlwind force it was impelled. •Pressa est,' was suppressed, kept secret.

324. 'cedentein,' departing in consequence of his wound.

326 - 8. • saltu – currum,' confidently jumps into his chariot : moli. tur,' takes hold of, assumes : volitans,' driving round.

330 - 5. aut — hastas,' or hurls in quick succession the spears, which he had seized, against the enemy. Qualis — increpat,' as the bloodthirsty Mars, when irritated, near the streams of the cold Hebrus, strikes his shield. gemit - pedum,' distant Thruce echoes the tramp of his horses' feet : . atræ - ora,' dark and fearful shapes.

338-9. quatit,' urges on : miserabilė — insultans,' trampling terri. bly over his slain foes.

342. congressus,' haring met in close conflict : illum,' Sthenelus.

347 -9. The offspring of noble Dolon, renowned in war ; ' Antiqui,' for ' nobilis '; this is said ironically, for Homer makes Dolon a coward, and Eumedes is slain in a rather ignominious way. Representing his grandfather in name, but his father in disposition and actions, which father, when he visited as a spy the camp of the Greeks, &c.

351 - 2. alio Affecit pretio,' gave him another sort of reward, – slew him for his audacity: 'nec adspirat,' he no longer aspired after.

354. Having first wounded him by a light arrow, hurled through the air from a distance.

357 - 62. alto tingit jugulo,' deep in his neck, so that it was stained with blood. In this order; • En, Trojane, jacens metire agros et Hesperiam,' &c. Huic comitem,' as u companion to him in death.

365 - 6. • Ac – Ægæo,' as when the blast of the Thracian Boreas — the northeast wind – resounds over the deep Egean sea. The Edoni were a people of Thrace; hence, . Edonus,' Thracian.

370-2. And the wind raised by his swiftly-gliding chariot shakes his waving plume. 'spumantia frænis,' foaming m the bits.

374 - 6. 'hunc - consequitur,' the broad lance reaches him, as he was unprotected by his shield: degustat,' grazes.

379 - 80. Quum - solo,' when the wheel and axle-tree, urged swiftly on, struck him, and hurled him headlong to the ground.

386 - 8. • Alternos nitentem gressus,' supporting every other step ; one leg being wounded, he used his spear as a crutch. 'Savit,' he is impatient and angry : auxilio — poscit,' and calls for the readiest means of healing the wound.

389 - 91. teli - penitùs,' and that they should cut deep into the hidingplace of the weapon in the flesh. “Phæbo dilectus,' loved by Apollo, who gave him skill in surgery.

395 7. That he might retard the fate of his dying father ; ' depositi,' laid out, as if already deceased : usum,' the art founded on experience. 'et - artes, and to practise ingloriously the obscure art of medicine.

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