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222-4. Multa – Turno,' at the same time, many expressed opposite opinions in different language, favoring Turnus : reginæ,' of the queen Amata : obumbral,' protects him : « virum,' Turnus : meritis tropæis,' by the trophies which he had earned.
2:26 – 8. super mesti Legati,' moreover, the sorrowful ambassadors ; see Book VIII. 9-10, and note. nihil - operum,' they report, that nothing had been accomplished by all the cost of so great efforts.
232 - 5. The anger of the gods, and the new tombs before their eyes prove, by manifest evidence of divine will, that Æneas was fated to reign in Latium; • ferri,' for 'esse.' 'primos — accitos,' and the chiefs of his people, summoned by his authority.
236 - 9. 'plenis viis, crowding the roads : primus sceptris,' first in authority. i Ætolâ ex urbe '; Argyripa, the city of Diomed.
241-3. Ordine - suo,' every thing in its order, omitting nothing. 'farier'; Gr. $ 3:22. 1. 6.' Dioinede, the Greek accusative contracted: •castra' and 'urbs' are often used as convertible terms.
245-7. We have touched the hand of the man, by whom the Trojan kingdom was destroyed ; Dioined contributed much to the fall of Troy. He triumphantly founded the city of Argyripa, so called from his natite place, in the territory round the lapygian Garganus. 'Argyripa' is derived from 4oyos irrnios, i.e. ín nopútns, equestrian Argos, the birthplace of Diomed; Tapygia, — from Iapyx, a son of Dedalus, - is another name for Apulia, a district in Italy. Garganus,' now called Monte di S. Angelo, is a mountain in this district.
250-2. quæ - Arpos,' what motive had brought us to Arpi, the name afterwards given to Argyripa. “Auditis,' to what he had heard: Saturnia regna,' over whom Saturn formerly reigned.
254-7. ignota,' hitherto unknown to you; peace prevailed under Saturn. "Quicumque,' all of us who : • Mitto – viros,' I say nothing of those hardships, which were suffered during the war, under the lofty zoalls of Troy, or of those men whom the Simois covers with its waves.
259 - 60. Vel - manus,' a band of men whom even Priam ought to pity. “Scit - Sidus,' the fearful storm excited by Minerca attests this; see Book I. 39 – 45, and notes; • Sidus,' the constellation for the tempest supposed to be caused by the rising of the constellation. Caphereus'; a promontory of Eubæa, where the younger Ajax was shipwrecked.
262-5. • Atrides – Exsulat,' Menclaus, the son of Alreus, was driven into exile as far as the pillars of Proteus, — the name given to certain islands near Alexandria in Egypt; see notes to Geor. IV. 387. Ulysses'; see Book 111. 613-30. Neoptolemi'; see Book III. 330 - 3.
Idomenei'; see Book III. 121 -2. Some of the Locrians passed over from Italy into Africa ; see Book III. 399.
266. The king of Mycene himself, the leader of the great Greeks ; Agamemnon, for whose death, see note to Book III. 330.
268 - 70. "devictam - adulter,' the adulterer (Ægisthus, the paramour of Clytemnestra) overcame by stratagem the conqueror of Asia; • devictam Asiam,' for victorem Asie.' The gods have prevented me from returning to the altars of my fathers, and seeing once more my beloved wife and fair city of Caludon ; see note to Book VII. 306. • Invidisse,' "an referam' understood.
272. By the anger of Venus, the companions of Diomed were changed into birds. A strange class of sea-birds, frequenting certain islands off the coast of Apulia, were called “ the birds of Diomed."
275-8. · Hæc - quum,' these misfortunes, which I ought to have ezpected, have befallen me since the time when, &c. Diomed wounded Venus in the hand, when she came to assist the Trojans. tales pug. nas’; wars of such unhappy issue, as those against the Trojans.
280 – 1. 'malorum,' calamities, which I brought upon the Trojans. patriis ab oris,' from your native shores. 283-7. experto — hastam,' believe one roho has found from erperience, how high Æneas lifts his great shield, with what force he hurls the spear. duo – tales,' two more such men : "Inachias,' Grecian ; see note to Book VII. 236. "ultru,' of his own accord,- for offensive war: • versis fatis,' a far different issue of the contest.
288 - 90. Quidquid cessatum est,' whatever delay was caused. 'Hwsit,' was obstructed by : 6 vestigia retulit,' vous put back, suffered reverses.
293. • Quâ datur,' in any way that is possible. 295 - 8. And what Diomed's opinion is respecting this great war. varius fremor,' as in Book X. 97. morantur,' dam up: clauso gurgite,' the current being stopped.
301 - 2. • Præfatus divos,' having first invoked the gods. summa statuisse,' to have deliberated on the critical state of affairs.
305. .cum - deorum,' with a people of divine origin.
308 - 11. 'quam,' for 'aliquam': adscitis Ætoldin armis,' of uniting the arms of the Ætolians to your own: • Ponite,' lay aside : spes quisque,' each one must hope in himself only : quàm angusta,' how small this hope is; in what a prostrate and ruined condition are all our other resources - except this hope — is all manifest and visible to you ; "inter manus esse,' to be manifest, palpable.
312 - 4. • Potuit - fuit,' the greatest valor, which could exist, has been manifested. Toto corpore,' with the whole strength. quæ — menti, what opinion now occupies my yet unsettled mind.
316 - 7. . antiquus,' long cultivated : Sicanos'; see Book VII. 795.
320 - 1. (et-Teucroruin,' and a pine-bearing tract on the lofty mountain be ceded in token of friendship to the Trojans.
324-5. Sin Est animus,' if their intention is : aliam gentem, another territory.
327. “Seu — valent,' or more, if they are able to man them.
329. • Præcipiant,' let them prescribe : "manus,' labor : "navalia,' ship's stores.
333 - 5. "auri — talenta,' a weight, or quantity, of gold and ivory: • sellam,' a curule chair : trabeam'; see note Book VII. 188. "Con. sulite in medium,' deliberate together for the common good.
337 - 41. Obliquâ invidia,' with squint-eyed endy : Largus opum,' abounding in wealih. "consiliis — auctor,' considered an able adviser in council. incertum — ferebat,' on the father's side he was ignoble.
345-7. Ósed - mussant, but they dare not say so openly. "flatus remittat,' and lower his arrogance : mores sinistros,' perverse character.
349. “Lumina ducum, illustrious leaders.
351 - 6. •et - armis,''even while he boastfully threatens heaven with his arms. "Unum etiam Adjicias,' you should add yet one thing : plurima,' in great abundance : • dici,' to be appropriated by : vincat - genero Des,' overcome your determination to gire your daughter to a noble son-in-laro : 'et - firmes, and to confirm this peace by a permanent connexion.
358 - 9. "Ipsum,' Turnus : veniam,' permission : Let him yield, and allow the king and the country again to exercise their own righis.
361. 'o caput,' 0 thou, who art the author.
363 – 6. pignus,' Lavinia, whose marriage with Æneas would confirm the peace. “invisuni - moror,' whom you feign lo consider as your enemy, and I care not if I am. 'et - abi,' confess that you are conquered and depart.
369. 'et - est,' and if you find so great delight in receiving the kingdom as a dowry; 'regia,' for ' regnum.'
371. In order that Turnus may obtain a royal spouse.
374 – 6. If you have any of your father's bravery, dare to look him in the face, who challenges you. , violentia Turni,' the passionate Turnus.
378-9. You indeed, Drances, have always great copiousness of speech, when the war calls for action ; when the chiefs are summoned to council.
381. Quæ — volant,' which big words are safely thrown out by you.
383-6. Proinde - tibi,' thunder aray, then, with your eloquence, as you are wont to do: .quando,' since ; spoken in irony. • Proinde,' a dissyllable ; Gr. § 306. passim — agros,' and everythere adorn the fields with trophies; Insignis' is a verb here.
389 - 91. Quid - erit,' why do you delay? Will your valor always be situated in your boasting tongue, and in those swift feet of yours?
393 - 4. • Iliaco- Sanguine videbit,' who sees the overflowing Tiber swollen with Trojan blood.
397 - 400. die,' in one day : Inclusus muris,' when I was shut up within their walls'; see Book IX. 724 - 30. Nulla — tuis,'" no safety in war," do you say? Go, madman, and prate about such things to the Trojan chief and your own party; insinuating that he is a traitor.
402-5. bis victæ'; first, by Hercules; see note to Book II. 642; secondly, by the Greeks. premere,' underrate, undervalue. Deriding the fears of Drances, Turnus ironically declares, that even Achilles and Diomed would now tremble before the Trojan arms, and the rivers would roll back their waters. Myrmidonum'; see note to Book 11. 7. • Larissæus'; see note to Book II. 197. "Aufidus.' now the Lofanto, flows into the Adriatic. In its fright, it would flow back from this sea.
406 – 9). See lines 348 and 364. jurgia,' threats : 'Artificis scelus,' for "scelestus artifex,' this wicked calumniator : “crimen,' the accusation. 'moveri,' to be frightened : habitet'; 'tua anima' understood.
413 -7. Although, if any of our former manliness remained to us, 0! he would seem to us happier than the others, even in his misfortunes, and noble in mind, who, rather than see any such disgrace, &c; mihi, for ' nobis,' in the warmth of speech.
421 - 4.'* Sin – Sanguine, if, also, victory has been obtained by the Trojans with great loss of blood: • Tempestas,' for 'clades': «anie tubam, before the cominencement of the fight, the signal for which was a blast from the trumpet.
425 - 9. • Multa – melius,' if the lapse of time, and the changeable morements of the fickle years have altered many things for the better : .in solido,' on a firin foundation Time changes much, and Fortune may favor to-morrow those whom she persecutes to day. • Ætolus et Arpi”; see lines 239 and 230, and notes.Tolumnius' was a princely soothsayer, called “felix,' from his success in divination.
433. Repeated from Book VII. 804.
435 - 6. tantùm — fugit,' and I am so great an obstacle to the public good ; Victory is not so hostile to me, as to shun these hands of mine.
438 - 9. vel — Achillem,' even if he should show himself as great as Achilles : paria,' equal to those of Achilles.
442-4. Solum – tollat,' Æneas calls for me alone, and I pray that he may continue to call. Nor shall Drances, rather than I, suffer death, if this is a judgment of the gods, or if glory and the reward of calor are to be had, shall he oblain them. He shall have no share either in defeat or victory.
449-50. Instructos acie,' in battle array: "totis - campis,' were approaching, covering the whole plain.
452 - 3. .et – iræ,' and their zeal for the fight was roused with great excitement. trepidi, trembling with haste, not with fear; hurried: fremit,' for 'cum fremitu postulat.'
455. 'Dissensu vario,' with various and dissenting cries, some advising one course, and some another.
457. 'amne Paduse'; the southern mouth of the river Po. 459. ' arrepto tempore,' seizing this occasion. Turnus speaks in irony. 462. Corripuit sese,' he hastily started off.
464 - 5. • Equitem - campis,' do you, Messapus, and Coras with your brother, draw out the armed cavalry orer the broad plain.
467. Cætera manus,' let the rest of the army : quâ jusso,' where I shall direct; `jusso' for jussero'; Gr. 322. 4.
470 - 6. 'ac - differt,' troubled by this sad occasion, puts off his plans for another time. Multa,' for multùm':'urbi,' for 'in urbis regnum.' * Præfodiunt,' dig ditches in front of the gates : ósignum cruentum,' the signal for bloody war. "variâ corona,' with a miscellaneous band girdling the walls. labor ultimus,' extreme necessity.
480. oculos - decoros,' her beautiful eyes bent on the ground.
483-5. Tritonia'; see note to Book II. 171. prædonis'; see Book X. 774. portis — altis,' prostrate him under our lofty gates.
488 -9. Sauro,' golden greaves: Tempora — adhuc'; he had not yet put on his helmet.
491. et — hostem,' and anticipates in hope the presence of the enemy.
492- 7. This picture of a runaway horse is given with wonderful spirit and graphic distinctness. "abruptis vinclis,' having broken his halter : « Tandem liber,' free at last : tendit in pastus,' goes towards the pasture : assuetus — noto,' according to his wont, to wash himself in the well knoron stream : 'arrectis - Luxurians,' with upraised neck, neighs loudly and erullingly : 'ludunt,'float loosely.
499. regina,' Camilla : “sub ipsis portis, close by the gate.
501 - 2. defluxit equis,' dismounted in a body from their horses. • Turne — forti,' Turnus, if a brave man rightly has confidence in himself.
506 – 7. Do you remain on foot — with the foot soldiers — near the walls, and guard the city. “horrendâ,' worthy of admiration.
508 - 10. quas — laborem,' what thanks can I utter, or what may I prepare to offer you? But now, divide the task with me, since this cour. age of yours is above all dangers; omnia,' pericula' understood.
°511-5. .fidem,' trustworthy news : equitum — urbem,' Æneas has cunningly sent forward the light-armed caralry to scour the plains ; he himself, passing over the heights, is approaching the city by a steep and lonely mountain path. Turnus sends Camilla and Messapus with the cavalry against the Trojan horse, and takes the infantry himself to lie in ambush against Æneas on the mountains. Furta belli,' an ambuscade : 'convexo in tramite,' in a winding path.
516-7. fauces,' mountain pass. Do you go to meet the Tuscan cacalrycollatis signis,' in regular batlle, - not in ambush. "Tyrrhenum equitem'; the cavalry sent by Evander.
519. And the troops from the city of Tibur ; see Book VII. 670-2; and do you take the office of their leader.
522-5. · Est – valles,' a valley runs in a winding direction : quam – latus,' which a hill-side, dark with thick forests, hems in on either side : tenuis,' narrow : .aditus maligni,' difficult entrance and exit. 527. • ignota,' to the Trojans : «tuti receptus,' a safe hiding-place.
530 – 1. juvenis,' Turnus : 'notà regione viarum,' by well known paths : 6 silvis iniquis,' nearly impervious woods.
532 - 5. Meanwhile, in the celestial habitations, the sad Diana addressed the swift Opis, one of the sacred band of her attendant virgins, and utter. ed these words : Camilla is going to the cruel war, &c;' Latonia,' Diana was the daughter of Latona.
539 - 40. vires superbas,' for 'superbiam'; his haughty conduct : 6 antiquâ urbe Priverno,' from the ancient city of Prirernum, of which Metabus was king. The city was in the country of the Volsci, where Piperno now stands. 543, mutatâ parte,'' nominis ' understood.
544 - 5. • Ipse — nemorum,' carrying her before him in the folds round his bosom, he himself sought the distant hills in the solitary woods : premebant,' followed closely upon him.
547 - 9. • Amasenus'; see note to Book VII. 685. 'tantus — Ruperat,' so heavy a shower had fallen from the clouds, and swelled the stream.
550 - 5. Omnia — sedit,' with difficulty he fired upon this plan, after he had hastily turned over in his mind all the chances. "Telum Huic'; for this change of construction, see Gr. § 323. 3. (5.) Huic - Implicat,' to this he attaches his daughter, having wrapped her up in the bark of the wild cork tree : habilein'; so as to be easily thrown.
550 - 60. * Ipse - fugit,' 1, her father, derote her to you as a handmaid; she now, as a suppliant, flies from the enemy through the air, for the first time holding your weapon; that is, the spear to which she was bound. The attendants of the divine huntress, Diana, carried spears. dubiis,' dangerous. 563. Infelix'; in reference to her now impending fate.
565 - 6. atque — vellit,' and victoriously plucks out from the grassy turf the spear, with the virgin now — donum,' consecrated to - Diana; · Trivia'; see notes to Book VII. 774. and IV.511.
568 - 9. neque - ævum,' nor would he himself, from the wildness of his character, hare submitted to live within doors. He led the life of the shepherds, passed upon the solitary mountains ; dare manus,' to submit.
573 -4. Utque — Institerat,' and when the infant first left an imprint from the soles of her little feet on the ground; primis,' for 'primum.' 577. The skin of a tiger hung from her head orer her back.
579 - 82. See Book 1X. 500-7, and note : "Strymoniam'; see note to Geor. I. 120. “Dianâ '; with the service of Diana.
584 - 5. •Intemerata,' chaste : • Vellem - tali,' I could wish that she had not been attracted into such a war.
533. Descend from hearen, O nymph, and visit the Latin country.
590 - 1. Hæc cape'; as Diana speaks, she gives a bow and quiver to the nymph. corpus,' of Camilla.
593 – 5. nube cavả,' in an enteloping cloud : • Inspoliata,' not deprived of her arms : illa,' the nymph Opis.
599 - 600. · Compositi— turmas,' drawn out by number into troops : pressis habenis,' as we say, pulling on the bit : ' pugnat' refers to his impatience of control. This, with the next two lines, is very graphic and spirited.
604 - 7. •ala,' troop of horse : ' hastas - dextris,' with their right arms drawn back, (so as to give force to the blow,) they level their spears from afar. "Adventus'; so Milton; “ Far off his coming shone." "ardes. cit,' grows louder, is heard more plainly. This description of the approach of the two armies and the beginning of the fight is unequalled for vividness and grandeur.
609-)1. When they arrive within a spear's throw, each army makes a sudden halt; then a shout breaks forth, and they urge on their eager steeds. 'fundunt — ritu,' then, on all sides, they rain down the weapons, thick as the snow falls.
613 - 6. Dant ruinam,' meet with a shock : ' perfracta rumpunt,' for 'perfringunt'; the horses dash full against each other. “Excussus, throron off: aut - acti,' or of a weighty missile driven by a catapult.
619-20. “Rejiciunt parmas,' put their bucklers behind them, to guard their backs: 'agunt,' drive on.
022 – 8. mollia colla,' the flexible necks of their horses : 'Hi,' the Trojans : datis habenis,' giring the reins ; that is, at full speed. As when the sea, running up the shore with wares alternately advancing and retreating. 'extremam - arenam,' and washes the uppermost sands with its winding wave. littus — relinquit,' and the wave receding leaves the shore.
630. Twice driven back, they turn the other way, covering their backs with their shields.
632. “legit -- vir,' each man selects an opponent.
636-7. Orsilochus - equo,' Orsilochus (a Trojan) hurls his spear against the horse of Remulus, since he dared not attack Remulus himself,
640. “ille,' Remulus : 'Catillus,' dejicit' understood.
642-5. nudo - Cæsaries,' whose yellow hair falls over his uncovered head, – unprotected by a helmet: "Tantus — patet,' so much of his body is exposed to the vocapons of the enemy; he scorned to wear de.