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750 - 1. * Illum,' Clonius : infrænis – lapsu,' from the fall of his imperfectly trained horse : "Hunc — pedes,' the latter, (Ericetes,) who was on foot, Messapus, who was also on foot, slew. Lycius'; from Lycia, in Asia Minor. °758. inanem,' useless, because neither could gain any advantage.

763 – 6. Quàm — Orion,' as huge as Orion. This giant, after whom the constellation was named, was the son of Neptune and Euryale. His father gave him the power of walking through the depths of the sea. When he walks on foot, culting his way through the greatest depths of mid ocean, and his shoulders rise above the waves; Nerei, for oceani': 'Aut referens,' or when bringing down.

767. Repeated from Book IV. 177. * 768-71. vastis'; the size of Mezentius, not merely of his armor, is signified. speculatus - longo,' having observed him from afar in the ertended ranks. ille,' Mezentius: 'ei-stat,' and stands immovable with his vast stature.

773 - 6. • Dextra – deus,' let my right hand, which is my god : "Nunc - Æneæ,' now be propitious to me! I make a cou, that you, Lausus, clothed with the spoils taken from the body of the robber, shall be a living trophy of my victory over Eneas. The Trojan is called a robber, because he was depriving Turnus of his bride.

778-82. • Egregium Antoren figit,' pierces the noble Antores : 'qui Evandro,' who, coming from Argos, had remained with Erander. alieno vulnere,' by a wound meant for another : et — Argos'; an exquisite touch, full of nature and pathos. "

784 - 6. per- terga,' through the linen coverings : "tribus tauris, three thicknesses of bull's hide : ima — pertulit,' remains fixed in the lower part of the groin; but it had spent its force.

789-94. Ingemuit Út - Lausus,' when Lausus saw this, he groaned. In this order;. Non equidem Hic silebo, juvenis memorande, casum duræ mortis,' &c. Si — vetustas,' if any future age will give credit to so great an action, - if posterity will believe, that such devotion is credible. Ille,' Mezentius : inutilis,' disabled : 'inque ligatus, for et illigatus,' and impeded.

796 - 9. armis,' in the fight. “Jainque - mucronem,' he ran under the sword of Æneas, who was already raising his right arm and aiming the bloco : ' ipsum - Sustinuit,' and withstood Æneas himself by causing a delay.

802. •tectus — se,' keeps himself protected under his shield.

804-5. Præcipitant, 'se' understood : omnis – arator,' every ploughman hastens away from the open fields : "arce,' place of shelter.

808 - 9. • Exercere diem,' to spend the day in toil : dum - detonet,' until it ceases to rage.

811. • Majora — audes,' and dare what is beyond your strength.

814 - 5. extrema - legunt,' and the Fates gather up the end of the thread for the life of Lausus ; see note to Ecl. IV. 47.

817-8. minacis,' Lausi' understood : “molli auro,' gold thread.

822 - 6. Ora '; the repetition of this word marks the deep effect, which the pale countenance of the dead produces upon Æneas. "dextram tetendit'; a gesture expressive of deep regret. Et - imago'; Æneas thinks of the grief, which he should feel for the death of As. canius; see note to Book IX. 294. laudibus, praiseworthy actions : .indole' here means filial devotion.

827 - 30. 'te - remitto,' I will restore thee to the sepulchre and the company of thy ancestors, if thou hast any feeling for such things now. You have fallen by no ignoble hand; let this console you.

832. The Etrurians were accustomed to curl the hair. 833. genitor'; Mezentius, who was resting by the river's side. 838-40. Was resting his neck against the tree, his ample beard falling low upon his brcast. multum - revocent,' and frequently sends messengers to call him back from the fight.

842. Imitated from Homer; Keito méyaş usyawati.

845 - 8. .et - inhæret,' and clings to the body. UL - genui,' that I should suffer my son to meet death from a hostile hand in my stead.

852 -4.invidiam,' the odium excited by my crimes. I deserred to suffer for the wrongs done to my country and for the hatred of my people; I would have given up my own guilty life, by any kind of death, rather than you should perish.

856 - 8. attollit--femur'; he was leaning against a tree; now he stands upright, in spite of the wound in his thigh. "Haud dejectus, animo' understood.

860 - 1. Alloquitur mærentem,' he addresses it sorrorfully. The mind in great affliction will seek sympathy from all objects with which it is familiar, even from brutes. This address of Mezentius to his horse is full of nature and pathos, worthy to follow the feeling speech that precedes it. Rhæbe'; the name of his horse : 'res — est,' if, indeed, any thing which mortals own is of long duration ; a sentiment finely expressive of the gloom in the speaker's mind.

864 - 5. aut — pariter,' or, if no force can open a way to accomplish this, you shall fall by my side.

867. 'consueta,' accustomed to their position on horseback.

870 – 1. His heart is agitated at once by great shame and frenzy min. gled with grief; shame, because his son had died in his place. The authenticity of the next line is doubtful.

875-6. So may the father of the gods, so may great Apollo, direct events, that you, Mezentius, may begin — may seek of it own accord --- to attack me.

880 - 5. nec ulli'; nor have I sought help from any god against you. hæc Dona'; the spears which he is about to hurl. 'volat gyro,' and rides swiftly round Æneas in a great circle: umbo,' the shield, a part for the whole. "lævos -in orbes'; he rides round to the left, in order to present his left side and his shield towards Æneas; the shield being held on the left arm.

887. tegmine silvam'; the numerous spears sticking in his shield.

889. · Vellere,' to pull out from the shield : iniqua,' unequal, because he was on foot, and Mezentius on horseback.

892 - 5. 'arrectum,' erect upon his hind legs : secutus,' following in his fall – effusum equitem'- the thrown rider : ejecto — armo,' and falls prostrate with his shoulder resting on his dismounted master. 'incendunt,' for implent.'

898 - 9. ut - recepit,' as he drero his breath, looking up to the skies, (he had fallen on his back,) and recovered his presence of mind, after the shock of falling.

901 - 2. • Nullum - nefas,' there is no crime in killing me: 'Nec Lausus,' nor did my son Lausus make this agreement with you for me, that you should spare my life.

905. hunc — furorem,' forbid this outrage, I pray you.

907. haud inscius,' aware of his doom. The engagement of this day is supposed to terminate in the defeat of the Latins, terrified by the death of Mezentius.

Homer left little chance for all later poets to excel in the description of a battle ; but Virgil has succeeded in preserving some of his happiest touches, without falling into servile imitation. The incidents are suitably diversified, and the picture is drawn in lively and striking col. ors. The account of the landing of the reinforcements under Æneas, in the face of their enemies, is given with great spirit and clearness. But the episodes chiefly attract our admiration, and more especially, that of Lausus and Mezentius, with which the book concludes. The whole character of the fierce tyrant Mezentius is a masterpiece of genius. The admirable qualities of the son, and his heroic devotion for his father, enlist our sympathies for the latter in spite of our better judgment, and we finally lose all recollections of his crimes, in viewing the noble and affecting manner in which he meets his death.



Æneas erects a trophy with the spoils of Mezentius, and sends back the body of Pallas in great pomp to the city of Evander. Heralds come from the Latin army to demand a truce for twelve days, which is granted, and both parties occupy themselves in burying their dead. Venulus returns from his embassy and announces, that the Latins must expect no aid from Diomed; whereupon Latinus calls a council, and proposes to send conditions of peace to Æneas. Drances defends this proposition, and engages in a sharp contest of words with Turnus. Æneas, divid. ing his forces, sends forward the light-armed cavalry over the plain to the city of Latinus, and prepares to follow with the rest of the troops by a difficult path through the woods and mountains. Turnus, hearing of this plan, sends his own horsemen under Messapus and Camilla to oppose the Trojan cavalry, and with the foot forces waits in ambush by the road, on which Æneas is advancing. Camilla, after killing many of the Trojans, is slain by stratagem by Arruns; and Opis, a nymph of Diana, avenges her by killing Arruns. The Latin horse are driven back after the loss of Camilla, and the news being brought to Turnus, he leaves the path where he was lying in ambush, and hastens to their assistance. Æneas passes through the defile soon after Turnus leaves it, and, the night coming on, both parties encamp before the city.

3-7. Præcipitant curæ,' he is hurried and anxious : ' funere,' by the death of Pallas and others : primo Eoo,' at daybreak; the morning star is called Eous, as well as Lucifer. For the nature of a trophy, see note to Book X. 542. tumulo,' on an artificial mound.

8-12. • Bellipotens '; an epithet of Mars, the god of war: 'aptat, he places upon it : « Tela trunca,' the broken spears of Mezentius : et - locis,' and the breastplate battered and pierced in many places; the poets often use a determinate number in place of an indefinite one.

sinistræ,' upon the left side of the figure : eburnum,' with an ivory hilt. Óeum — tegebat,' stood closely around him.

15-6. Quod superest,' as to what remains to be done : • Primitiæ,' the first fruits of my victory : ' manibus — est,' through my deeds, this (pointing to the trophy) is all that remains of Mezentius.

19-21. That, as soon as the gods shall allow us to pull up the standards, and to lead out the armed youth from the camp, no delay may hinder you, ignorant that a contest is at hand, and no slothfulness proceeding from fear retard you. Before any military movement, the Romans were wont to take the auspices, to see if the gods were favorable.

22-5. socios -- corpora,' by hendiadys, for sociorum corpora': qui - est,' which is the only honor remaining for those who are in the lower world ; see note to Book VI. 325. quæ – suo,' who, by their own blood, have acquired this country for us, this new habitation in Latium.

27. non - egentem,' distinguished for valor.

29-33. 'ad limina'; the gate of the Trojan camp: “positum,' laid out as a corpse: 'Parrhasio'; see note to Book VIII. 344. sed alumno,' but afterwards, under more unlucky auspiccs, he attended Pal. las, assigned as a tutor to this dear pupil.

35. Females, with dishevelled hair and loud expressions of grief, usually attended funerals.

39 - 40. Ipse – vidit,' Æneas himself, when he saw the head and pale countenance of Pallas resting on the pillow : 'levi,' smooth, fair.

42-3. Tene --- mihi,' 0 unhappy boy, he exclaimed, did Fortune, when she appeared propitious at first, ency me the possession of you?

46 - 50. euntem,' on my departure : Mitteret--imperium,' he dismiss. ed me to my task of conquering a great kingdom : Acres,' for 'strenuos': 'cuin - gente,' that the battle must be fought with a hardy race. spe - inani,' deceired by an idle hope : Fors,' for · forsitan,' perhaps.

51 - 2. •et — Debentein,' and not indebted now to any of the gods; said reproachfully, as if the gods had not protected the son, and therefore the father was not bound to fulfil his vows.

55-7. non pudendis Vulneribus,' with honorable wounds, received in front : nec - funus,' nor shall you desire fearful death for yourself, because your son sared himself by a disgraceful flight.

59. • deflevit,' ceased to weep; when he had ended this lamentation.

64 -5. Others, with great activity, weave a bier of pliable wicker work, with arbute rods and oaken twigs.

67-8. • agresti stramine,' on a rustic bed of leates and branches. Like a flower gathered by a maiden's fingers, which retains its beauty and perfume, though having no longer a root in the earth. The comparison is very elegant.

73. • læta laborum, pleased with her task; Gr. § 213. Rem. 2. 75. Repeated from Book IV. 264.

77-8. arsuras — amictu,' and wrapped up the head, which was soon to be burned, in the other covering ; 'comas,' for 'caput.' Laurentis -pugnæ,' gifts obtained in the fight with the Latins.

81 - 2. quos – Inferias,' of the captives whom he sent as funeral offerings to the spirit of the departed. The custom of sacrificing captives on the funeral pile belonged to the heroic age.

84. inimica — figi,' and the names of the enemy who were slain to be inscribed on these portable trophies.

87. And now lies with his whole person stretched on the ground, in token of extreme grief.

89. Next came the war-horse, Æthon, with his trappings laid aside. The noble steed is represented as weeping for its master.

93. •versis armis,' with incerted arms, spears pointing downwards ;a sign of mourning in every age.

96 - 7. Nos — vocant,' the same terrible destiny of war calls us hence to other mournful rites, - burying the rest of the slain.

100 - 1. oratores,' heralds: rogantes veniam,' making this request.

104-7. That he should not roage war against the vanquished and those deprired of life; that he should spare the men, whom he had formerly called hosts and fathers-in-law ;'*æthere,' vital air, life. Latinus at first received Æneas as a friend and a son-in-law. Quos Prosequitur venia,' grants their request.

110-2. • Pacem - Oratis,' you ask from me an amnesty for the dead, and for those who are beyond the fate of war. 'veni,' for ' venissem'; nor would I have come hither.

114-5. Hospitia,' bond of friendship and hospitality. It would hate been more just for Turnus to expose himself to this death, which he is the means of bringing upon others.

118-9. He would have survived, whose life was secured by the favor of the gods or the power of his own right hand ; · Vixet,' by syncope, for vixisset.' 'supponite ignem,' commit to the funeral fire.

121 - 3. Conversi tenebant,' for 'convertebant'; they looked at each other in astonishment at the magnanimity of Æneas. “TumTurno,' then the old Drances, who was always at variance with the young Turnus, from personal dislike and inutual accusations.

125-6. óæquem cælo,' extol : laborum,' achirvements ; Gr. $ 220. 1.

129 - 33. “Quærat - juvabit,' let Turnus seek out allies for himself. It will delight us even to aid you in constructing the walls appointed by fate, and to carry on our shoulders the stones for building the Trojan city. "uno — fremebant,' all with one accord murmured assent. 'pace sequestrâ,' by the intervention of a truce.

136. •actas ad sidera'; that had grown up to a great height. 141. Which had lately reported Pallas as victorious in Latium.

143. “Funereas -- faces,' carried funeral torches, as was customary among the Romans at the burial of the dead.

145 - 6. plangentia Agmina,' crowd of mourners. 148. But no power is able to withhold Evander.

149-51. • Feretro — gemens,' the bier being set down, he falls upon the body of Pallas, and clings to it weeping and groaning. via voci,' the power of utterance.

153. O that you had been willing to act more cautiously in the cruel war!

156. • Primitiæ, first attempts : belli propinqui,' of the war with our neighbours.

160 - 3. 'ego — fata,' I hare outlired my term of life as assigned by fate. “Troum — telis,' would that the Rutulians had overichelmed me with their weapons, for having formed alliance in war with the Trojans. • pompa, funeral procession : referret,' for retulisset.'

166 - 7. Quod — natum,' although a premature death awaited my son.

169-73. Even 1, 0 Pallas, can add nothing to the funeral honors, that the pious Æneas, the noble Trojans, the Tuscan leaders, and the whole Tuscan army have bestowed upon thee. quos,' of those whom : " Tu quoque,' you also, O Turnus, would have furnished another trophy for my son, if he had been equal to you in age and strength.

175. • Teucros — armis,' why do I detain the Trojans from the war?

177-80. Quòd — est,' the hope that your right arm will avenge me, is the only reason why I prolong my hated life, after the death of Pallas.

meritis — locus,' this is the only opening left for you and Fortune to do me a kindness.

181. Nur is it right for me to look for such pleasures; but I seek only to carry the news to my son in the lower world, that he is ayenged.

185.corpora suorum,' the bodies of their friends. 187. The high heavens are darkened with the smoke. 190. · Lustravêre,' they rode round. 193 - 6. • Hinc Conjiciunt igni,' then they throw upon the flames : pars – clypeos,' others throw in offerings familiar to the dead, such as their own shields : 'non felicia’; because they did not preserve their owners from death.

199 - 203. “Tum – Busta,' then, along the whole shore, they observe the burning bodies of their companions, and watch the half.consumed pyres. "diversâ in parte,' in another place.

205-6. terræ infodiunt,' they bury in the earth : "avecta — agros,' partly they carry them off into the neighbouring districts.

208. Nec -- honore,' an innumerable multitude of ignoble persons.

210-2. lux,' for • dies': 'ruebant,' for .eruebant,' they dug out the bones from the embers : ' te pido aggere'; the mound in which the warm bones were interred.

214 - 7. fragor,' tumult : sororum Pectora,' for sorores.' "Turni hymenaeos,' the marriage of Turnus, which was the cause of the war.

219-20. primos honores'; by marrying Lavinia, he became heir to the throne. Ingravat — Drances,' the angry Drances augments these murmurs: 'vocari,' is challenged to the fight.

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