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redeemed. The natural bent of Virgil's genius was for describing scenes and characters of this class, and here, as in the whole of the fourth book, he appears to write with the greatest ease and naturalness, and to be moved by the truest inspiration. The remainder of the book is occupied with a description of the battle, and, though it falls far short of the grandeur and vivacity which Homer displays on similar occasions, the narration is full of interest, and the picture is presented with great force and vividness. The reader will observe, that this is the only book, in which Æneas does not appear. Turnus is the principal figure in the story.



JUPITER calls a council of the gods, and endeavors in vain to recon. cile Juno and Venus to each other. He declares his own intention to re. main neutral in the contest, and to leave the issue to the fates. Mean. while, the Rutuli return to the attack, and the Trojans prepare for an obstinate defence. Æneas, having obtained numerous allies in Etruria, sets sail on his return with a fleet of thirty ships. On his voyage, he meets with the sea nymphs, who had been created out of his old vessels, and is informed by them of the transformation of the fleet, and the dangerous situation of his friends. Having arrived within sight of the camp, the Rutuli give up the attack upon the intrenchments, and assemble upon the seashore to oppose his landing. A furious contest ensues. Pallas, having killed many of the enemy, is slain by Turnus. Eager to revenge his death, Æneas makes great havoc among the Rutuli. Ascanius, making a sally from the camp, joins his forces to those of his father. Juno, fearful for the safety of Turnus, decoys him away from the contest, and conveys him to Ardea. Mezentius kills many of the Trojans and Etrurians, but is at last severely wounded by Æneas, and compelled to retire. His son Lausus, attempting to protect his retreat, is killed by the Trojan prince. Mezentius becomes desperate, when he hears of this event, and rushes back to the contest, where he meets his death from the same hand which slew his son.

1. 'domus'; the palace of Jupiter, where the gods were wont to as. semble : 'omnipotentis,' an epithet belonging to Jove, is here applied to his habitation.

5-9. The gods take their seals in the building having troo entrances. Jove himself begins. quia — discordia,' wherefore has your opinion changed, and why do ye contend so fiercely with hostile minds? I was unwilling that the Italians should make war on the Trojans. What quar. rel has arisen in spite of my prohibition ? quia nam,' for quare'; • Italiam,' for Italos.

10-4. lacessere,' for 'movere': 'ne arcessite, do not hasten, or an. ticipate it : Quum — apertas,' when hostile Carthage, by opening a way hereafter over the Alps, shall bring the Roman citadels into great peril; this refers to the invasion of Italy by Hannibal. 'res rapuisse,' to carry of booty.

15-6. sinite,' grde way, yield : placitum,' agreed upon by both parties. “aurea,' beautiful, resplendent.

18. poteslas,' for ' potens'; the abstract for the concrete.

21 - 2. lumidus — ruat,' and proudly rushes on in successful contest.

27 - 9. ónec - Tydides,' a second army also, and Diomed, from tolian Arpi, once more rises against the Trojans. Diomed, the son of Ty. deus, led a colony of Ætolians to Arpi ; see Book VIII. 9. and note. 'mea vulnera'; Venus was wounded in the hand by Diomed, when she rescued Æneas from his power; see Book I. 97. and note.

30- 1. And I, your daughter, must wage a contest with a mortal. 'sine - tua,' without your permission.

34 - 6. •Superi Manesque'; oracles from the celestial gods, and spirits from the lower world had promised Æneas success in founding a colony in Italy; see Books II. 294 and 781. III. 94, and V. 730. nova fata,' to change the decisions of fate._classes'; alluding to the attempt to burn the Trojan fleet in Sicily ; Book V. 662.

37 - 41. Juno's attempt to destroy the Trojan fleet by the aid of Æolus is described in the opening of Book I. • Irim"; Book IX.2-3. Manes,' the infernal gods : hæc — rerum,' this portion alone of Juno's resources remained as yet untried; see Book VII. 312. superis — repentè,' suddenly let loose upon the upper world : Allecto'; see Book VII. 323 40, and notes.

42. Nil — moveor,' I am not entreating now for the kingdom, which you promised to the Trojans ; Book I. 263 - 4. Giving up this hope, I now beg only for the life of Æneas, or even that of Ascanius.

48-50. If Æneas should not be permitted to remain in Italy, he would be obliged to wander again at random over the seas. "Hunc tegere,' to protect Ascanius : 'valeam,' let me be able.

51 – 6. Amathus, Paphos, and Idalium, cities of Cyprus, and Cythera, an island in the Ægean sea, were all 'sacred to Venus.' Magnâ Ausoniam,' command Carthage then, if you will, to hold lofty sway over Italy: inde'; by Ascanius and his descendants ; nihil Obstabit,' no opposition shall be made. Quid - Juvit,' of what use is it, that he has escaped destruction in the Trojan war?

58 - 9. recidiva Pergama"; see Book IV. 344. cineres - insedisse,' to have fixed their abode on the ashes of their native city.

61 - 2. iterum — Teucris,' permit the Trojans, o father, to try oter again the fortunes of Troy ; to rebuild their native city, and again, if need be, to sustain a siege by the Greeks.

64. 'et — dolorem,' and to dirulge in speech my hidden griefs.

68 - 72. Cassandræ — furiis,' urged on by the mad prophecies of Cassandra. 'linquere castra '; alluding to the voyage of Æneas up the river to Evander's city. puero,' Ascanius : 'summam belli,' the conduct of the war. Tyrrhenam fidem'; or to allure the Etrurians into an alliance with him. in fraudem,' into danger.

76 - 9. Pilumnus'; see note to Book 1x. 4. Venilia'; a nymph, sister to Amata. Is it a less wrong, that the Trojans have brought fire and sword upon the Latins ? 'et - pactas,' and to tear away a betrothed bride from her parents' embrace ?

82-4. It was Neptune, who rescued Æneas from Achilles by en. veloping him in a cloud, though Juno here charges the action upon Venus. So it was Cybele, who transformed the ships. "Nos — est,' and is it a great crime, that we have rendered some aid to the Rutuli, while you have done so much for the Trojans ?

87-8. gravidam bellis,' that has waged many wars: 'corda — tentas,' for ' tentas corda, ut sint aspera,' incite their minds to hostilities. “fluxas,' weak, perishing : ' tibi 'is expletive, as the corresponding English pronoun often is, in animated dialogue.

91 - 3. furto,' on account of the abduction of Helen. Juno asserts, that Venus herself was the whole cause of the Trojan war. “Dardanius adulter,' Paris : 'expugnavit,' by exaggeration; committed a hostile act against the king of Sparta. . fovi — bella,' or have I kept alive the war by the aid of Cupid, who, by cherishing the affection between Paris

and Helen, prevented the latter from returning to her husband, and thereby ending the war?

97 - 9. A murmur arises among the gods, like the whistling of the winds in a forest. de prensa,' for inclusa': 'venturos -- ventos,' sig. nifying to the mariners the gales which are to come.

102 - 3. solo tellus,' for • solum telluris': posuere,''se' understood, wcre hushed : premit - pontus,' and the placid surface of the sea is smoothed.

107 - 9. Whatever luck any one may meet with from this day henceforth, whatever hope he may entertain, be he Trojan or Rutulian, I will make no distinction between them; this is a forced meaning for secat,' but the reading is probably corrupt. "fuat’; Gr. § 154. 2. "Seu — Italum, whether by the evil fate of the Italians.

110-2. Or by mistakes and sinister predictions, fatal to the Trojans. Nec — ferent,' nor do I erempt the Rutulians from this decree. Whatever each has undertaken shall produce its proper good or evil consequences; I will not control or alter the issue.

113-5. “Fata – invenient,' the Fates will find a way to effect their designs. Stygii - Olympum'; repeated from Book IX. 104 -6.

117. medium,' in the midst of them : 'ad limina,' to his apartment. 122. "rarà coronâ ’: as in Book IX. 508-9; see note.

125 - 6. • Prima acies,' form the front rank. germani - ambo,' the tuo brothers of Sarpedon; or, as others understand it, tuo brothers, sons of Sarpedon : ab altâ Lycia,' from noble Lycia, of which country Sar. pedon was king.

129. • Nec — minor,' not inferior in strength to his father Clytius. 130. · Hi,' the Rutulians : illi,' the Trojans.

132 - 6. Ipse Dardanius puer,' Ascanius : 'Veneris - cura,' justly the darling of Venus : "caput detectus honestum, with his pretty head uncovered, or without a helmet, as they would not allow him to fight.

fulvum — aurum,' which is set in yellow gold: (per - terebintho,' skilfully rimmed with box-wood, or with the terebinth wood of Oricus, a city of Epirus.

137 - 8. fusos - auro,' whose milk-white neck supports his flowing locks, and a circlet of ductile gold binds them together.

141-5. Mæoniâ - domo,' born of a noble family in Lydia : 'Pactolos,' a river of Lydia, that flowed over golden sands. quem – tollit,' whom the recent glory of having driven Turnus out of the intrenchments exalts on high ; see Book IX. 781 -9. hinc - urbi,' from him the name of Capua, the Campanian city, is derived.

147 - 8. The story now goes back to Æneas, who was left on his way from Evander's city to Cære, the place occupied by the insurgent subjects of Mezentius. Æneas is described as on his voyage from Cære back to the Trojan camp, his success in treating with the Etrurians being briefly mentioned.

149–52. Regem,' Tarcho, the leader of the insurgents. «Quidconciliet,' what he had to request, and what to offer ; what allies Mezentius had obtained ; viz. Turnus and his army, who, having routed the Tro. jans, would return and subdue the subjects of Mezentius. 'humanis - rebus,' how little confidence could be placed in mortal affairs ; strong as the insurgents might now seem, a reverse of fortune was still possible.

154-5. libera fati'; having complied with the requisitions of fate, being now led by a foreigner; see Book VIII. 499 - 503. 'Lydia'; see note to Book VIII. 479.

157. • Prima,' the first place : rostro — leones,' haring the Phrygian lions under her prow; a representation of which, with mount Ida, held a place corresponding to the figure-head of modern ships.

161 - 2. • quærit - iter,' asks about the stars, that point out one's course in a dark night, and about the adventures of Æneas. 48 *


163. Repeated from Book VII. 641. The poet now gives a catalogue of the troops, who, under Tarcho, had united themselves to Æneas.

166 - 9. • æratâ Tigri,' in the brass-corered Tigress, - the name of his ship. Clusium, now Chiusi, was a large city of Etruria, on the banks of ihe Clanis; Cosæ was a smaller city in its neighbourhood. Coryti leves,' light quicers.

171 - 4. aurato Apolline, with a gilt figure of Apollo on its prow. Populonia'; an Etruscan city, situated on a promontory of the same name : «mater,' his native country : • Ilva,' now the island of Elba, famous among the ancients for its iron mines. generosa,' famed for : • Chalybum,' as rich as those of the Chalybes ; see note to Geor. I. 58.

170. Whom the entrails of animals, and the stars of heaven obey; be. cause, being a soothsayer, he made them disclose futurity.

179 - 80. • Alpheæ - solo,' Pisa, an Etrurian city in situation, but by descent connected with Alphean Pisa. The Greek city of Pisa, on the river Alpheus, sent forth a colony which founded Etrurian Pisa, a city which retains its naine to the present day.

182-4. adjiciunt,' 'se' understood: Qui - domo,' whose home was at Cære : Minionis,' a small river, now called Mugnone, lying west of Cære. “Pyrgi' and Graviscæ' were cities on the seacoast, the latter - intempeste,' in an unhealthy situation.

187 - 93. From whose helmet swan feathers rise, - form a plume. • Crimen - paterne,' the crime of your family was love, and your swan plume was the token of your father's beauty; the line is obscure, and probably not genuine. Phaëthontis,' sororum'; see note to Ecl. VI. 02. Cycnus, a friend of Phaëthon, bewailed his death, until he was himself changed into a swan. He was the father of Cupavo. Ca. nentem — senectam,' becoming white with soft feathers, he thus passed his old age: .et - sequentem,' raising his voice (as a swan) to the stars.

194_ 7. Filius.' Cupavo: "æquales - catervas,' having in his fleet troops equal to himself in valor. Centaurum'; the name of his ship, which had on its prow the figure of a Centaur, in the act of throwing a rock. ille,' the Centaur: 'Instat - Arduus,' hangs over the water, and threatens to throw from above a great rock into ihe wates ; Ardu. us,' for desuper.'

199 - 200. The son of the prophetess Manto and of the Tuscan rider, (the Tiber,) who gave walls and the name of his mother to thee, O Mantua ; Mantùs'; Gr. $ 69. Exc. 3.

201 - 3. Mantua illustrious in its ancestry : but the troops of Ocnus were not all of one origin, — were not all from Mantua; three nations were with him, each including four tribes ; Mantua itself was the chief of these tribes ; the troops generally were of Tuscan origin.

205 - 6. Whom the Mincius, decked with green reeds, with its parent lake Benacus, carried over the waters in a warlike ship. Mincius was the name of the ship of Ocnus, and it bore a figure of that river god; • Benaco'; see note to Geor. II. 160.

207 - 12. centenâ arbore,' with a hundred oars: 'marmore'; Geor. I. 254. The ship of Aulestes was called the Triton, and bore on its prow the appropriate figure ; see note to Book I. 144. "concha'; Triton was commonly represented as blowing a conch shell. 'cui - alvus,' the shaggy upper part of his floating body, as far doron as the flanks — • hominem præfert,' appears human, - the abdomen terminates like that of a sea-monster : Frons laterum tenus,' for a fronte usque ad latera.'

214. salis – secabant'; see Book I. 35. and note.

215-6. • dies,' for “gol': 'alma – Olympum,' and beautiful Phæbe (the moon) in her night-wandering chariot, was passing over mid heaven.

219 - 23. • Atque — comitum,' and lo! a troop of his own companions meets him in the midst of his voyage; • Cybebe,' for • Cybele.' .Numen - Jusserat,' had ordered to have authority over the sea, and from being ships to become Nymphs ; see Book IX. 116 - 20. pariter,' by the side of the fleet. 223. Repeated from Book IX. 121.

224 -5.6 lustrant choreis,' and play round him in a ring : "fandi doctissima,' most skilled in speech.

228 - 9. deum gens,' descendant of the gods : 'et-rudentes,' slacken the ropes that bind the sails ; that is, make more sail.

231-2. • Perfidus — premebat,' when the perfidious Rutulian pressed upon us with fire and sword, intending to destroy ; . Præcipites,' for ut nos daret præcipites'; i. e. perderet.'

234 - 5. Genetrix,' mother of the gods, Cybele: "refecit,' for ' fecit': lævum agitare,' to pass our lives.

237 - 40. hórrenies Marte,' terrible in war. Æneas, it seems, caused only the infantry to embark with him at Cære, and ordered the cavalry to go by land. Jam - eques,' already the Arcadian horsemen, (sent by Evander,) united with the brave Etrurians, (from Cære,) have reached the appointed spot. beques tenent'; Gr. § 209. Rem. 12. (6.) Medias illis,' in their way, — to block up the road : jungant,'se' understood.

242-3. Primus,' early in the morning : ipse ignipotens,' Vulcan.

245-7. Rutulæ cædis,' for 'Rutulorum cæsorum': 'impulit,' pushed forward : · Haud — modi,' knowing how to quicken the ship's speed : illa,' the ship.

249 - 50. aliæ,' the other nymphs push forward the other vessels. 'inscius,' ignorant of the cause of this speed : 'omine,' the prodigy.

252-5. . cui — cordi,' who art delighted with Dindyma ; see note to Book IX. 618. •Turrigeræ urbes,' leones'; see notes to Book VI. 785, and IIl. 111. 'tu — Augurium,' hasten onward the accomplishment of the happy omen; 'rite,' in a favorable way, happily.

256 - 7. 'et - dies,' meanwhile, the day was already hastening forward in its revolution, with full light; it was full daybreak.

258 - 9. signa sequantur, that they should follow his signals : Atque - armis,' and should rouse their courage for warlike deeds.

261 - 3. As the fleet approaches the shore, Æneas raises his shield on high, and the besieged Trojans recognise it, and shout for joy.

265 - 9. Strymoniæ grues'; see note to Geor. I. 120.° tranant, float through : notos'; cold and stormy winds, which the cranes mi. grate in order to avoid. Turnus and the Rutulians, having their faces towards the camp, know not what the clamor means, till they turn round and perceive the fleet.

270. · Ardet - capiti,' the helmet on the head of Æneas gleams like fire: "cristis – vertice,' from the summit of the crest. The arms, forged by Vulcan, shone with intolerable splendor.

272-5. A sublime comparison, which Milton has finely imitated in “ Paradise Lost." 'liquidâ nocte,' in a fair night : 'quando,' at times : "aut - ardor,' or the burning Sirius : 'lævo,' ill-omened.

277 - 80. præcipere,' to be the first to occupy. 278. Repeated from Book IX. 127. perfringere,' to break through, to fight hand to hand; formerly, they had to besiege an intrenched camp. Mars,' for 'pugna.'

281 -3. nunc – laudes, now remember the great deeds, which formed the glory of your ancestors. egressi, haring disembarked : labant vestigia'; persons just landed, after a voyage, walk with difficulty.

285-6. Turnus intends to leave one part of his force to watch the Trojan camp, and with the other to oppose the landing of Æneas,

288-90. Pontibus,' bridges stretched from the ship to the shore : • Multi – pelagi,' many watched for the retreat of a gentle wade from a shallow spot, where the water, spreading out, lost its violence by diffu. sion. Per remos'; they used the oars as leaping poles.

291-2. Where the breakers did not foain, nor the breaking waves resound. 'inoffensum,' tranquil : crescenti — æstu,' rolls up with a full - outspreading wave. Here he resolved to run the ship aground.

296 – 7. sulcum — carina,' and let the keel plough out for itself a deep furrow in the sand, so as to stick fast, and not be carried back by the retreating wave. ótali statione,' on such ground, he cares not if the ship be broken, so that the crew land easily and safely.

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