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out restraint ; as sometimes a top, flying round under the twisted lash. The comparison is a lively, but not very dignified one.
381-5. Curvatis – spatiis,' spins round in curtes: Impubes manus,' the beardless troop : ' buxum'; the top; literally, the wood of which it is made. •Dant - plage,' the strokes impart a livelier movement to the toy. “Non — illo,' no less rapid than that motion : 'agitur,'' Amata' understood. "simulato - Bacchi,' under pretext of the rites of Bacchus.
388 - 9. That she might deprive the Trojans of the bride, and delay the nuptials : Euæ – fremens, shouting Euæ Bacchus,''the usual cry of the Bacchanals.
390 - 1. For she assumes the pliant thyrsus for thee, passes before thee in the dance, and unbinds her sacred hair for thee. The thyrsus' was a staff bound round with ivy and vine leaves, that the Bacchanals, with dishevelled hair, carried in their orgies.
392 -3. Fama volat,' the report goes abroad, that Amata is thus engaged, and all the matrons in the city at once follow her example. The same desire impels all at once, to seek a new habitation in the woods, where the rites were going on.
396 - 400. “incincte pellibus,' clothed in skins, as was usual in these revels. "Ipsa,' Amata :'hymenæos,' the nuptial song, the burning pine answering for the marriage torch. Sanguineam --- aciem'; see Book IV. 643. torvum,' used adverbially : ubi quæque,' wherever you are.
401 - 2. If in your compassionate minds there remains any kindness towards the unhappy Amuta, if any alarm for a mother's rights affects you. She calls on them to defend a mother's right to dispose of her daughter in marriage.
404 - 5. •Talem,' in such a state of mind : stimulis Bacchi,' by the incitements of the Bacchic festival, which increased her madness.
408. Then the terrible
409-12. "Rutuli'; that is, of Turnus: • Acrisioneis colonis,' with colonists coming from the city of Acrisius ; see note to line 372. The common fable is, that Danaë, after her intercourse with Jupiter, was shut up with her infant son in a chest by her angry father, and committed to the waves. But Virgil adopts a tradition, according to which, she fled with a party to Italy, and there founded the city of Ardea. • Locus — avis,' the place was formerly called Ardea by the ancients.
413. Sed – fuit,' but its fortune has passed away ; see Book II. 325. 417. · Et arat,' and furrows her ugly forehead with wrinkles.
419. She becomes — assumes the shape of — Calybe, the aged female attendant of Juno, and priestess of her iemple.
421 - 3. O Turnus, will you allo so many toils to be expended to no purpose ? " sanguine,' with your blood; Turnus had performed many services, and fought many battles for Latinus.
425 – 6. Go novo, you who have become a laughing stock, erpose your. self to useless dangers; go, and scatter the Tuscan armies; protect the Latins in peace, by expelling their foes.
423 - 30. Saturnia,' Juno. "Quare — para,' go, therefore, and joyfully prepare the young men for taking up arms, and moving out of the gates of the city to bottle.
433-4. Unless he will complete the marriage, and keep his proinise, let him feel, and find at last by experience the power of Turnus in war.
435 - 7. óvatem,' for ó sacerdotem '; the priestess : orsa' for • dicta': (alveo' is here a disyllable ; Gr. § 306. . ut rere,' as you suppose.
440 - 2.victa – senectus,' old age wenkened by mental decay, and incapable of distinguishing truth from error; the figure is taken from a field exhausted and rendered sterile by long use. te curis — exercet,' troubles you with needless anxiety : 'arma - falså formidine,' with idle fears respecting the wars of princes.
443 - 4. ·Cura tibi,''sit' understood ; let it be your care : queis gerenda,' by whom wurs ought to be carried on ; Gr. § 274. Rem. 8.
446-7. 'oranti,' while speaking. Allecto, angry at the contemptuous manner in which her advice is received, resumes her own shape, and frightens Turnus into obedience. His eyes became fised in terror; with so many snakes does the Fury hiss.
449. • Lumina,' for 6 oculos': cunctantem,' "illum' understood.
451. - rabido ore,' with a furious mien. The next two lines are repeated with a trifling alteration from 440 and 442.
454. Think upon these things; I come from the abode of the terrible sisters; - that is, the Furies.
456 - 7. juveni,' for 'ad juvenem'; Gr. $ 225. IV. last paragraph. et - tædas,' and fixed the smoking torch with its lurid light in his breast ; she inspired him with raging passion by means of the Lorch.
460. • fremit, in the sense of poscit,' but more forcible.
462-6. 'Ira super,' wrath more than all. "sonore,' crackling : Virgea,' made of small rods : aheni,' a brazen cauldron. In the Scriptures, wrath is compared to the crackling of flames under a pot. “Exsultant - latices,' the water boils up with the heat : 'Fumidus amnis aquar,' the steam : intus,' inside of the vessel : atque - exuberat,' and the froth rises high : Nec — unda’; that is, it boils over: 'ad auras,' on high.
467 –8. pollutâ pace,' friendship between the kings being broken: • primis juvenum,' to the leaders of the young men.
*470-1. That he was himself enough- a match for — both the Trojans and the Latins ; 'venire,' for .esse.' 'in vota'; see Book V. 234.
473 -4. The handsome person and noble mien of Turnus attract some to his cause ; others follow him from regard to his noble ancestry; others in emulation of his exploits. Hunc,' one : 'hunc,' another.
476 - 80. Stygiis — alis,' hurries off on Stygian wings : 'Arte nova,' by another deception : quo littore,' where, on the shore. Insidiis,' with snares. Cocytia virgo'; Allecto: 'et – odore,' and affected their nostrils with the well-known scent of the stag:
481 - 2. laborum,' of the misfortunes ihat ensued: "animos agrestes,' the minds of the country people : bello,' for ' ad bellum.'
484 - 6.Tyrrhidæ pueri,' the children of Tyrrheus : Nutribant,' reared, brought up by hand, as a pet: 'cui — Armenta,' who had charge of the royal herds.
487 - 8. Rendered tame by much care, their sister Silvia was wont to deck its horns, weaving pretty garlands round them.
490. 'manum - herili,' suffering the hand to touch his neck, and constantly present at its master's table, - being there fed with the relics of the meal. This description of the tame stag is in Virgil's best manner, though more suited to a pastoral poem, than to an epic. Compare the following stanza from Byron.
“A band of children, round a snow-white ram,
There wreathe his venerable horns with flowers;
The patriarch of the lock all gently cowers
Or eats from out the palm, or playful lowers
Yielding to their small hands, draws back again." 493 - 5. 'rabidæ,' maddened by the agency of the Fury : Commovêre,' started it up, a technical phrase of the chase : 'fuvio - levaret, when by chance, after swimming doron the stream a while, it was cooling itself on the green bank.
497 - 9. curvo cornu,' with the curved bow tipped with horn : Nec -abfuit,' the god (Allecto) did not fail to direct his erring hand : « actaque multo sonitu arundo,' the arrow driven with a loud whizzing.
501 - 2. questu — replebat,' bloody and like one entreating aid, it filled the whole building with its plaint.
504 - 5. 'et- agrestes,' and cries out to the rough husbandmen for aid. pestis - silvis,' for the baleful Fury lay concealed in the silent woods.
506 - 11. hic - facit,' one armed with a half burnt brand ; another with a heavy and knotty stake; whatever each one found in his search, anger conderts it into a weapon. "Scindebat Quadrifidam,' was splitting into quarters : 'spirans immanè, Vocat agmina,' breathing rage, calls together the troop. 'e speculis,' from her lurking-place.
513. · Pastorale — signum,' gives the shepherds' signal, by blowing a horn on the house top.
516 - 7. lacus Triviæ'; now the Lago di Nemi, not far from the village of Gensano. 'audiit - Velini,' the river Nar, white with its sulphurous waters, and the springs of Velinus heard it. The river Nar, the water of which has a milky hue, and is slightly impregnated with sulphur, empties into the Tiber. The river Velinus, now called the Velino, flows into the Nar.
519-21. vocem quâ — dedit,' the note which the boding horn gave forth as the signal : Indomiti,' rude.
522-6. Pour forth to the assistance of Ascanius from the open gates of the camp. 'non — agresti,' already not in the manner of a mere rustic skirmish : agitur,' is the contest carried on: "ancipiti,' twoedged: "atra seges Horrescit,' the dark field bristles.
527. Struck by the sun's rays, and reflect the light to the clouds.
530 - 4. "inde — fundo,' then, rising from its lovest depths, tosses its waves into the air. Hic juvenis Almo Sternitur,' here the youth Almo is struck down : hæsit - vitam,' the arroro sticks in his throat, and chokes up with blood the moist passage of the voice, and stops the faint breath ; : vulnas,' for sagitta.
535-6. •Corpora,' sternuntur' understood : "Dum – offert,' while he places himself between the parties to restore peace.
538. “Quinque -- balantùm,' he had five flocks of sheep : "redibant,' were wont to return from pasture.
540 - 2. • æquo Marte'; fortune inclining neither way, the battle being undecided. "dea,' Allecto: 'facta potens Promissi,' having fulfilled her engagement. Imbuit,' for initiavit': 'et - dugne,' and caused the first deaths in the battle.
543-4..et - auras,' and borne through the air, the vault of heaven; convexa' is in apposition with auras,' and evecta’ is understood. victrix,' having accomplished her purpose.
546. Speak, tell them to meet together in friendship, and form an alliance, – and see if they will obey you.
548. I will add this also to what I have already done, if your desire is made known to me.
552-4. “fraudis abundè': Gr. § 212. Rem. 4. Stant,' exist, are created. Fresh blood has imbued the arms, which chance first supplied.
556. •Egregium - genus,' the excellent son of Venus, -in irony...
559 - 62. Cede — regam,' leave this place. If any chance of diffi culty remains, I will myself direct it; “super- est,' by tmesis. Even the wings of the Fury are covered with snakes. 'supera ardua,' the upper world ; Gr. § 205. Rem. 7. (3.)
* 565 – 9. • Amsancti valles'; a celebrated valley and lake in the coun. try of the Samnites, in Italy. A cave in this valley, like that near lake Avernus, from the noxious vapors which it sent forth, was considered as one of the openings to the infernal regions. densis - nemoris,' a wooded hill-side on either hand shuts in this place, dark with thick foliage : * torto vortice,' with whirling eddies. 'sævi — Ditis,' a breathing hole of cruel Pluto, - an opening to Tartarus : 'rupto - vorago,' a great chasm reaching down to Hades.
570 – 1. queis — Erinnys,' sinking into which, the Fury - terras levabat,' relieced earth and sky of her presence.
572-3. 'extremam Imponit manum'; we also speak of putting the last hand to a work, for executing the final process, or completing it.
577-8. medio — ingeminat,' and while accusing the Trojans, excites the fear, that the country would be wasted with fire and sword.
580 - 2. Those also meet together, whose mothers, inspired by Bacchus, leap about in the dance amid the thick groves, - for the authority of Amata's name was not small : "Martem fatigant,' cry out for war.
583 - 4. contra omina, Contra fata deum,' contrary to the auspices, contrary to the will of the gods : perverso,' for 'irato.'
588 - 92. “Quæ -- tenet, which maintains itself by its weight and firm position, while many waves are roaring around it: lateri – alga,' and the sea-ideed, hurled against its sides, is thrown off again. "cæcum Consilium,' insane purpose : 'nutu,' according to the wish
593. 'auras inanes,' the open skics, – the free expanse of heaven. 595. “sacrilego'; because acting against the divine will. 598 - 600. Nam - spolior,' for rest is prepared for me, and being close to the entrance of a harbour from trouble, I am deprived only of a happy death ; - I am old, and only the close of life can be disturbed by these events; omnis in limine,' as if totus in aditu.' ' rerum habenas,' the direction of affairs.
601 - 2. quem sacrum,' which the Alban cities constantly kept up as a solemn usage.
604 - 6. • Getis,'" Hyrcanis'; see notes to Geor. III. 462, and Æneid, Book IV. 367. 'Auroram sequi,' to follow the dawn, poetically, for – making an expedition to the east. •Parthos - signa,' and demand back the standards from the Parthians. The king of the Parthians, afraid of being attacked by Augustus, of his own accord sent back to him the standards and captives taken when Crassus, several years before, was de feated with great slaughter.
607 - 9. · Belli'; that is, the temple of Janus; see note to Book I. 294. The custom of opening the gates of the temple of Janus, on the commencement of a war, certainly existed before the time of the Romans. •ærei'; a dissyllable ; Gr. § 306.
611. ubi — pugnæ,' when the resolution of the senate is taken for war.
612-3. The consul himself, arrayed in the garment of Quirinus, and with the Gabine cincture, opened the creaking doors. This cincture was formed by the toga thrown back over the left shoulder, and brought round under the right arm. The citizens of Gabii being once suddenly attacked, while employed in religious ceremonies, they left the altar, and in this dress fought and defeated the enemy. 'Quirinali trabeâ '; see note to line 187.
615. And the brazen trumpets respond together in hoarse concord.
616 - 7. Hoc More Latinus jubebatur,' Latinus was requested in this manner to open the gates of the temple, and proclaim war.
620 – 3. • Tum Saturnia, regina deùm,' &c. morantes,' moving with difficulty: 'et - postes,' and forced back the iron-bound gates of war, revolving on their hinges. “immobilis'; Latium had been long at peace.
627 - 8. subigunt — secures,' and sharpen the battle-axes on a whetstone: Signa – juvat,' they are delighted to carry the standards.
630- 3. Atina was in the country of the Volsci. Tibur is now Tiroli. Crustumerium was not far from Rome, in the Sabine territory. Antemna was at the confluence of the Anio and the Tiber. Crustumeri,' the citizens of Crustumerium, the metre not allowing the name of the town itself. “Tegmina capitum,' helmets : salignas — crates,' the willow framework of the shields.
631. Or beat out the polished greaves from malleable silver.
635 - 7. honos,' regard for : Cessit huc,' yields to this passion for arms; they beat their ploughshares into swords, and their pruninghooks to spears. "recoquunt,' they forge over again. “it - signum,' the signal passes round for war; the tessera' was a square bit of board, with a token or watch word inscribed on it.
639. •auro trilicem,' inlaid with a triple line of gold.
611. The enumeration, which follows, of the tribes and cities that banded themselves together against the Trojans, is evidently imitated
from Homer's famous catalogue of the ships. The passage is not so interesting as that brilliant episode, for most of the cities here mentioned, even in Virgil's time, were either level with the ground, or had lost much of their former splendor. The learned of our own day can hardly determine the site of inost of them. •Pandite Helicona,' open Helicon, so that the poet may have access to it. Helicon was a famous mountain of Bæotia, near Parnassus, sacred to Apollo and the Muses, whence the poet derived his inspiration.
613 - 4. quibus — viris,' with what men the beautiful land of Italy was eoen then furored.
646. Hardly a faint rumor of their glory has come down to us.
643-50. Mezentius was king of Cære in Etruria, whence he was expelled by his own subjects. Filius — Lausus,' nent, his son Lausus : corpore Turni,' for • 'Turno.'
652. “Agyllinâ ex urbe,' from the city of Agylla, the ancient name of Cære. nequidquam secutos,' following him in rain, because they could not avert his death.
654. Worthy of a better father, for Mezentius was a cruel tyrant.
655 – 7. • Post — Aventinus,' after these, the beautiful Aventinus, the son of noble Hercules, displays on the turf his chariot distinguished by the palm of triumph in the race, and his victorious horses' : insigne paternum,' the device of his father; that is, a Hydra surrounded by snakes.
660 - 2. sub luminis oras,' for in lucem '; secretly gave birth to : postquam — arva,' when the victorious Hercules, after the death of Geryon, came to the Laurentian land. Laurentum was the capital of Latium. • Tirynthius'; an epithet of Hercules, from the city of Tiryns, where he was nursed. After killing the three-headed monster Geryon, and taking possession of his fine oxen, the hero passed over from Iberia into Italy, bringing the cattle with him.
664 – 6. gerunt,' the followers of Aventinus carry: dolones,' pikes with iron heads : : veruque Sabello,' and the Sabellian javelin. torquens,' wearing the lion skin as a mantle, a part of it being thrown over his head, for a helinet.
671-2. A race called by the name of their brother Tiburtus ; Catillus, Coras, and Tiburtus, the three sons of Amphiaraus, – see note 16 Book VI. 445,- founded the city of Tibur. Argiva,' because they came originally from Argos.
674-5. Ceu duo nubigenæ Centauri,' as when two cloud-born Centaurs, who were the offspring of Ixion and the cloud. Homolen, Othrym'; two mountains of Thessaly.
678 -80. Preneste was an ancient city of Latium, lying east of Rome. Cæculus, 'genitum Vulcano,' the son of Vulcan, was its founder. • Inventum focis,' found on a hearth, when he was an infant.
682-5. 'quique – Junonis,' and those who inhabit the country of Gabinian Juno; the men from the territory of Gabii, where Juno was particularly honored. The Hernici were a people of Sabine descent, inhabiting a rocky country on the east of Latiuin. Anagnia was their capital city, and the Amasenus, now the Toppia, a river on their borders.
pascis,' support, nourish. "Non — arma,' not all of them possess arms; that is, not regular arms.
636 - 90. pars – spargit,' the greater part of them hurl balls of darkcolored lead : "vestigia — pero,' they march with the left foot unprotected; a boot of raw hide protects the other foot; • Instituêre vestigia,' expresses the regular tramp of soldiery ; altera,' agreeing with ' vestigia.'
691-2. Messapus came from Greece, and established his kingdom in the eastern part of Etruria. Neptunia proles'; Neptune rendered his son invulnerable. neque fas cuiquam,' nor is it possible for any one.
695 – 8. • Hi,' these, one party of the followers of Messapus : Hi,' another party of them : acies,' ducunt'understood ; lead forward the Tanks from Fescennia, a city of Etruria, near the confluence of the Nar