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407 - 10. "et – versat,' and examines, first on one side, then on the other, the weight and great size of the gauntlets : senior,' Entellus. •Herculis ipsius,' of Hercules himself, who killed Eryx in a pugilistic contest.
413. You perceive they are yet stained with blood and scattered brains.
415 - 6. While more youthful blood gane me strength, and envious old age had not yet scattered gray hairs over both my temples.
418-9. Idque - Æneæ,' and this is the determination of pious Eneas : 'auctor,' adviser, who urged me to enter the contest : terga,' the hides, the crestus.
422. • Et — artus,' and the great joints of his limbs, his muscular frame.
424 - 8. • æquos,' of equal size or weight. “in digitos arrectus,' erect on their toes, in order to gain the advantage of height. extulit Bra. chia,' brandished their arms: • Abduxêre — capita, drew their heads far back, to avoid the threatened blow.
429 — 32. pugnam lacessunt,' proroke the contest by sparring at each other. Nle,''Dares: pedum motu,' in agility of foot. Hic, Entel. lus : sed — labant,' but' his weakened kners shake, irembling with age : 'æger anhelitus,' painful short breath. Genua'; Gr. § 306. (3.)
433, «inter — jactant,' mutually aim heavy blows. 434 - 6. • Multa – ingeminant, strike repeatedly on the holloro chest : Crebra manus errat,' the hand often plays round : 'duro - malæ,' the jaws ring under the hard stroke.
437 – 9..nisu eodem,' in the same posture, or without shifting his ground. •Corpore tela modò exit,' avoids the blows only by a quick de. clination of the body. Ille'; Dares, who is compared to an active and skilful enemy attacking a fortified city, molibus,' with military engines.
442. 'et - urget,' and tries many modes of assault without effect.
444 - 6. 'venientem a vertice,' coming with a dounward stroke. "celeri — cessit,' jumping aside with a quick movement, avoided it. vires ultro,' speni his strength upon the air ; and by his own impetus, &c.
448-50. 'ut - pinus,' as sometimes a hollow, decayed, pine-tree, torn up by the roots, falls either on Erymanthus, or on great Ida. Erymanthus was the name of a mountain in Arcadia. Consurgunt studiis,' start up in sympathy for either combatant.
* 454-7.'.ac-ira,' and anger lends him fresh strength : "Tum pudor,' shame also. et conscia virtus,' and the consciousness of power. And the crcited Entellus drircs Dares headlong over the whole plain. nunc ille sinistra,' now also with the left.
458 - 60. “Quàin - crepitant,' as clouds send forth much hail rattling upon the roofs : pulsat - Dareta,' pummels Dares, and drives him round the field ; Dareta,' and · Daren’in line 456; Gr. $ 80. IV.
461 – 2. ' haud passus iras procedere longiùs, did not allow his anger to go on increasing.
200- 7. alias,' different, more than mortal : 'conversa numina,' and that the gods are opposed to you. • direnit,' put an end to.
468-72. ' At fidi æquales Ducunt illum ad naves '; his trusty companions lead him to the ships : • Jactantem — caput,' his head hanging powerless either way. This graphic but painful description of the ap. pearance of Dares after the fighi is closely imitated from Homer. "ga. leamque ensemque,' the helmet and sword, which were promised, line 367, to the second best in the fight : 'vocali,' being called back. 'palmam,' the victory.
473 – 4. superans animnis,' elated in mind. Observe this, he said, O goddess-born Æneas, and you Trojans.
476. And from what sort of death you have rescued Dares.
478-81..donum pugnæ,' as the prize in the contest : duros -cerebro,' and, drawing back and on high his right hand, directed the heavy cestus against the space between the horns of the bull, where the skull is thickest, and dashed in the broken bone upon the brain. “Sternitur,' is struck down : ' tremens,' quivering.
483-4. I pay my dow to thee, O Eryı, giving thee the life of the bull in preference to killing Dares; being victorious, I here lay aside the cæstus and the practice of the art.
485. celeri – sagittà '; to compete with each other in archery.
487 – 9. ingenti manu,' with a great band of assistants : 'malum Seresti,' a mast taken from the ship of Serestus. 'et – alto,' and, by a cord passed through the top, he suspends on the high mast a swift dode, at which they might aim the iron. pointed arrow.
490 – 2. Tablets, on which were inscribed the names of the competitors, were shaken together in a helinet, and then drawn out one by one. bet — Hippocoontis, and the first place for Hippocoon, the son of Hyrtacus, comes forth, is drawn from the helmet, with the acclamations of those who favored his pretensions. He had been a comrade of Rheeus, and was preserved by Apollo from the attack in which that hero was slain.
493-6. Quem - Consequitur,' uchom Mnestheus follows, lately victorious in the naval contest. "Tertius — Pandare,' Eurytion was the third, your brother, O renowned Pandarus : jussus — fædus,' being ordered to break of the truce. Pandarus was a Trojan chieftain, celebrated for his skill in archery. He put an end to the truce between the two parties at the siege of Troy, by wounding Menelaus with an arrow.
498 -9. The name of Acestes remains last in the bottom of the helmet. juvenum laborem,' a task appropriate for young men.
501 - 6. · Pro - quisque,' each one to the best of his ability; Gr. $ 209. Rem. 11. (4.) 'nervo stridente,' from the sounding string : "volucres - auras,' swiftly cleaved the air : 'adversi arbore mali,' for 'adverso malo.' timuit – Ales,' and the frightened bird fluttered its wings, the arrow having struck the mast just below it. plausu,' with applause from the bystanders.
508 - 9. * Alta petens,' aiming high : pariter - tetendit, shot the arrow, straining his eye at the same time to follow it. miserandus,' unfortunately, he did not hit the bird, but his arrow cut the string which confined it to the mast.
511-2. innexa pedem,' tied by its foot; Gr. 234. II. Notos nubila,' flying to the winds, into the air, and the dark clouds : 'fugit,' it is on the point of cscaping.
513 – 6. Then the quick Eurytion, who already held the arrow strained upon the ready bou, invoked his brother with dous; and, following with his eye the dore, now rejoicing in the open sky and plying its wings, he transfixed it just beneath the dark cloud. The deceased Pandarus is in. voked, as if already deified.
517-9. vitam reliquit'; it died before it reached the ground; 'in astris Etheriis'; at a great height in the air. 'superabat,' remained : • Amissâ palma,' the chance of victory being lost, as the bird was now killed.
520 – 3. •aërias — artem,' shot his arrow into the upper air, displaying his skill, by showing how far he could send the dart. 'pater,' a term of dignity, in apposition with ' Qui.' 'magno - monstrum,' a miracusa lous occurrence, which was soon to appear as a forewarning: docuit ingens,' a great event afterucards erplained it.
524. And the soothsayers, foreboding ill, interpreted the omen too late. The arrow taking fire evidently signified the conflagration among the ships, which is soon to be related.
526 – 8. ' lenues — ventos,' and being burnt up, was dissipated by the light winds. "cælo - ducunt,' as often the falling stars, loosened from the firmament, shoot across the sky, and draw a train behind them.
529 - 31. hæsêre,' they hesitated, in doubt whether it boded good or ill. nec omen Abnuit, did not reject the omen; that is, he received it at once, as a happy augury.
533 - 4. Take the prize, o father; for the great king of Olympus through such prodigies has signified his will, that you should receive the honor out of course. It was usual to distribute booty by lot among the captors; but the chiefs received their share first, not depending upon the issue of the lots.
535 - 8. * Anchisæ munus'; the gift of an article which once belonged to Anchises. 'impressum signis,' with figures carred upon it:
in munere,' as a great gift. Cisseus was a king of Thrace, the father of Hecuba. 538. Ferre dederat,' gate into the possession of Anchises.
541. prælato — honori,' enoy him who had the preference in receiving the prize.
543 - 4. He comes next to Eurytion for a reward, icho severed the cord; that is, Mnestheus. “Extremus,' last came Hippocoon.
545. nondum - misso,' the games being not yet ended. Virgil con. cludes his account, by describing an equestrian exhibition by the boys. In the poet's own times, the sons of senators and other distinguished persons displayed in public, on certain days, their skill in horsemanship, and their knowledge of the rudiments of military training. This exhibition by the boys was called “ludus Troje, probably from an obscure tradition, that it was of Trojan origin. The poet adopts this tradition, and gives a minute and elegant description of the sport, as it was practised in his day, making Ascanius and his youthful companions the performers.
548 - 51. In this order; Vade age, ait, et Dic Ascanio': .si - tur. mas,' if he has the troop of children in readiness with him, and has prepared the exercises of horse, to lead out the bands in honor of his grand. father. longo circo,' froin the spacious race-ground.
553 - 5. pariter,' side by side, moving in ranks : 'Frænatis - equis,' make a fine show on their bridled steeds. mirata fremit,' admire and applaud.
* 556 - 9. According to custom, the hair of each was covered with a trimmed chaplet of leaves. • Cornea,' of cornel wood: præfixo ferro, with an iron point : lēves,' smooth, polished : 'it - auri,' a fiexible chain of twisted gold surrounded the neck, and hung down upon the chest.
560 - 2. terni - Ductores,' and three leaders ride round. “Agmine partito,' with divided ranks, each troop keeping apart from the other iwo. There were twelve in each troop besides the leader; the whole number of boys, therefore, was thirty-nine.
563 - 7. ducit - Italos,' which – ovantem,' in its pride - the little Priam conducts, bearing the name of his grandsire, - your illustrious offspring, 0 Polites, soon to augment the number of the Italians ; that is, about to reside in Italy. Polites was that son of Priam, who was killed in his father's presence, as related in Book II. ' vestigia - albam,' showing white fore-feet, and a white forehead, stepping high.
568. Atys is the second leader, from whom the Latin Atii trace their descent. This is a compliment to Augustus, who was descended from the Atii ; his mother was daughter to M. Atius Balbus by Julia, the sister of Julius Cæsar. By calling this boy a favorite of Iulus, the poet typifies the union between the Atian and Julian families.
570 – 4. · Extremus,' the last, the leader of the third troop, is sulus. 'candida,' fair : " Trinacriis equis Acestæ, Sicilian horses, the proper. ty of Acestes.
576. They recognise the likeness of the children to their parents.
578 - 9. Lustravêre,' passed in review : signum — flagello,' from afar, Epytides gave the signal to the ready boys by a shout, and cracked his whip.
580 – 2. They gallop out, keeping on a line with each other, and divide the troop, riding by threes in separate squadrons ; that is, they break up into twelve little bands, called ' chori,' three in each; again, receiving the word of command, they wheeled about, and carried their weapons levelled, as if on a charge.
533-5. 'Inde - cursus,' then they ride out in different directions,
some to the right and others to the left, alios spatiis,' and return from opposite quarters, fronting each other. When they meet by thus galloping towards each other, the lines are opened and they pass through, and then wheel round, so as to face each other again, having changed sides; that is, alternis - Impediunt,' by allernate wheelings they encircle, ride round, each other ; for, this evolution being repeated, each boy would pass round the one opposite to him. This maneuvre had the appearance of two squadrons constantly charging each other, or pug. næ simulacra,' a mock fight.
586 - 7. Noro, they expose their backs in flight; now, they turn their darts against each other in hostile array; and then, as if making peace, they ride side by side.
588 - 91. · Labyrinthus '; a structure full of intricate windings and passages, so that it was nearly impossible for an individual placed in it to find his way out without a guide. There was a famous one in the island of Crete, built by Dædalus. The intricate manquvres of the boys are compared to the ground plan of this building. As formerly the labyrinth, in mountainous Crete, is said to have had the passage through it hemmed in with blind partition walls, so that one could see neither to the right nor left. 'ancipitem dolum, for “fallens et dolo. sum iter'; and a perplexing and deceitful route among its thousand windings ; whereby error, that could not be aroided or repaired, — Falleret signa sequendi,' rendered all signs deceptive to one attempting to find his way ihrough. •Parietibus'; Gr. § 306. (3.)
592-3. Haud — Impediunt,' with such a perplexed course did the sons of the Trojans wind on their truck : • Texunt,' and intermingle.
595. Carpathium - secant, cut through the Carpathian and the Libyan sea. 'The former lies to the east of Crete, where is the island of Carpathus.
596 - 600. "Ascanius primus Retulit Hunc morem,' &c., Ascanius first reëstablished this custom. “Longam Albam,' • Latinos'; see note to Book 1. 7. Quo – suos,' in the way in which he had himself, when a boy, practised these sports, and the Trojan youths with him. The Albans taught their descendants.
601 - 3. patrium honorem,' the games in honor of their ancestor Anchises. The sport is now called “ Troja," and the boys “the Trojan troop.” • Hâc tenus,' by tmesis; doron to the present day, the games are celebrated to our deified ancestor.
604 - 5. • Fortuna – novavit,' Fortune shifted round and deceived our trust. 'tumulo — solemnia,' while they were performing the ceremonies at the tomb.
607 – 10. ventos — eunti,' and aided her progress with the winds. movens,' contriving : "saturata,' satiated : dolorem'; Gr. § 234. II. This virgin, hustening on her way through the bow with a thousand colors, and seen by no one, descends with a quick course.
613. in solâ actâ,' on a deserted beach ; deserted by the men, who had gone to the sports, which the women were not allowed to share.
615 – 6. 'Heu - una,' alas! was the common exclamation of all so many dangers on the voyage, so much sea yet remains to be passed by us wearied; they were weary of the protracted voyage.
618-21. • Ergo — Conjicit, therefore Iris, well acquainted with mischievous arts, threw herself among them : reponit,' she lays aside. She becomes Beroe in outward shape, the aged spouse of Doryclus, the Epirote. Tmarus is a mountain in Epirus. Cui quondam fuissent,' who once possessed : genus,' rank.
623. manus Achaica,' the army of the Greeks.
625-8. 'cui – reservat,' for whai unhappy fate does Fortune reserve you? "vertitur,' has elapsed; because the year is marked by the revolution of the heavenly bodies. "Quum,' since : "emensæ ferimur,' w6 hate been passing round. “Sidera,' tempests, caused by the rising or setting of the constellations.
63). • Erycis fraterni’; note to line 24 : •fines, á sunt' understood.
633 - 4. • Nulla — menia,' shall a city nerer rucuire the name of Troy! As in the case of Helenus and his kingdom, the exiles were fond of giving the old names to the new abodes. • Hectoreos,' for • Trojanos."
636 -40. • Nam — faces,' for in sleep the spectre of the prophetess Cassandra seemed to give me lighted torches. •Jam - prodigiis, none is the time for the thing to be done ; let there be no dday after such por. tents. The sacrificial fire on the altars erected to Neptune, upon the beach, supplied brands and torches for burning the fleet. The altars were set up by Cloanthus in pursuance of his vow; see lines 236-7.
641 - 4. prima - jacit,' she first, - Iris, disguised as Beroe, -furiously seized the hostile brand, and, supporting it in her upraised right hand, brandished it far, and threw it among the ships. Hic multis,' here one woman, Pyrgo by name, out of the croud, exclaimed.
646 - 8. O matrons, this is not your Beroć, the Rhatean spouse of Doryclus. Obserre the marks of dirine beauty, and her gloring eyes; what a majestic air she has ; 'spiritos,' est' understood; Rheteta'; see note to Book III. 108. The effect of Pyrgo's discovering the disguised goddess, and announcing the fact to her companions, is not to dissuade, but to encourage them to burn the ships.
650 – 2. Ipsa — Munere,' I myself lately quitting Beroe, left her sick and indignant, that she alone should be absent from such a celebration.
654-6. oculis malignis,' with eril eyes, eyes in which a mischievous purpose shone : “ Ambigua,' in doubt between their wish to remain in Sicily,- called “miserum amorem,' because productive of an unhappy event, - and their desire to reach Italy ; ' fatis — regna,' the kingdom whither they were inrited by the fates.
657 - 8. . paribus alis,' with equally poised wings : secuit arcum'; by cutting through the air, she formed a rainbow.
660. “ focis penetralibus '; this seems to signify the interior of a house. Probably, the fire on the altars not being sufficient, they brought brands from the neighbouring buildings.
662. • Vulcanus,' the fire : immissis habenis'; with slackened reins ; that is, without control.
664 - 5. •cuneos,' the wedge-shaped seats in a theatre : · Eumelus Nuntius perfert naves Incensas,' Eumelus as a messenger relates, that the ships are on fire.
668 – 9. turbata Castra'; the place where the ships had been drawn up on shore. Ascanius, being on horseback, reaches the ground first.
670 – 3. quò — uritis, what now, - what do you intend, he said : 0 wretched citizens ; you do not injure the enemy and the hostile camp of the Greeks ; you are burning that on which your hopes depend: Ascanius,' sum' understood.
674 - 6. Quâ - indutus,' wearing which in sport : • Accelerat, hastened up. • diversa littora,' different parts of the shore : illæ’; the Trojan women.
678 - 9. • Piget - lucis,' they are ashamed of their undertaking, and of the light of day; Gr. $ 215. “suos — agnoscunt,' recovering from their madness, they recognise their friends. Juno'; for — the frenzy inspired by Juno.
681 – 3. posuere,' lay aside, cease to manifest : "Stuppa,' the oakum, with which the seams were filled : • vivit,' is all on fire : vapor,' the smoke, for the fire which causes it : * Est,' from ' edo, consumes : toto corpore,' throughout the hold : pestis,' the destructive flame.
685 - 9. abscindere'; Gr. $ 209. Rem. 5. To tear off the gar. ments was a sign of extreme grief. 'si — Trojanos,' if you do not yet hate all the Trojans without exception : "si — humanos,' if your long standing compassion has any regard for mortal woes : ‘da,' grant.