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or are deluged by a river breaking its banks. montano flumine'; coming from the mountains, and therefore rapid. "Sternit agros, prostrates the fruits of the fields : boum labores', note to Geor. 1. 325.

309 - 12. "Tum — fides, then, indeed, the truth of what Hector had said was manifest. 'ampla domus,' the palace : dedit ruinam,' fell in ruins : · Vulcano superante,' the fire getting the upper hand, triumphing over it. “Ucalegon,' one of the aged counsellors of Priam, here put for the house of Úcalegon : proximus ardet,' burns next to that of Dei. phobus. • Sigea freta'; the straits of the Hellespont in front of the promontory of Sigæum. The conflagration was so great, that it was reflected in the sea, even at this distance.

314 - 5. nec — rationis'; there was no wisdom in taking arms, when the city was already captured and on fire. 'glomerare – bello, to collect a band of men for the fight.

317. • Præcipitant, hurry on the mind, do not allow time to reflect. succurrit,' for in mentem venit,' it occurred to me, it appeared, pul. chrum,' an honorable fate.

319-21. Panthus, the son of Othrys, was a priest of Apollo, whose temple was in the citadel. 'ad – tendit,' runs to the house of Eneas.

322. Quo – Panthu,' what is the state of affairs, 0 Panthus? 'arcem,' place of refuge, or strong ground for making resistance.

325 - 7. Fuimus,' we have been, meaning, we erist no longer : 'fuit - Teucrorum,' Troy, and the great renown of its inhabitants, hare passed awuy. Ferus,' angry: 'omnia Argos Transtulit,' has given oder every thing to the Greeks ; ' Argos'; the city for the nation.

329. incendia miscet,' scatiers the flames, increases the fire. 331. As many thousands as ever came from great Mycena.

332-5. 'angusta viarum,' narrow passes of the streets : - Oppositi,' drawn up across : “ferri — corusco,' the blade of the sword with its glit. tering point : 'stat Stricta,' for “stricta est': parata neci,' prepared for slaughter : 'cæco — resistunt,' offer a blind, objectless resistance; the god of battle for the battle itself. The whole of this speech of Panthus is admirable for pathos and eloquence. Its short phrases are the concise and vivid expressions of despair.

336 – 7. 'numine divům,' by the power of the gods, as if urged by a divine impulse : "feror,' I am carried on, as if without a will of his own. Erinnys, one of the Furies.

340. oblati per lunam,' meeting and recognising me by moonlight.

341-4. . Et — nostro,' and array themselves at my side: -Mygdonides,' the son of Mygdon. The history of this unfortunate youth is given at sufficient length in the text. insano - amore,' incited by a frantic passion for Cassandra : 'gener,' a son-in-law in expectation.

345 - 6. Unhappy man, who would not listen to the warnings of his inspired bride! For Cassandra's story, see “Introduction."

347. When I saw them in close array, boldly advancing to the fight.

348 - 53. 'super his' for 'deinde', then I began to address them: "fortissima — Pectora,' whose courage is all in rain : 'si Certa cupido est vobis sequi me audentem extrema,' if you have a firm resolve to fol. loro me in daring the utmost danger : 'moriamur -ruamus,' then let us rush into the midst of the fight and there perish. The passage in the parenthesis is explanatory of the phrase, 'audentem extrema,' showing that the contest is really a hopeless one; 'quæ- videtis,' you see what is the condition of affairs. The idea, that the gods abandon a doomed city, was universal. quibus — steterat,' by whom, through whose aid, this empire was preserved : succuritis — Incensæ,' you bring aid to a city already in flames.

354. The only resource for the ranquished is not to hope for any escape, to sell our lives as dearly as possible.

355 – 7. Inde – nebulâ,' ihen like ravenous wolves under a cloud of darkness. Some commentators understand by nebulâ,' that wolves choose a cloudy night for their excursions; there is an Eastern proverb, that “the wolf delights in a cloudy night.” 'quos — rabies,' whom the urgent demands of appetite have driven out, blind to all danger, from their dens.

359-60. haud - mortem,' with a prospect of certain death : cavâ umbrâ'; called hollow, because they were surrounded by it.

361 - 2. Who can lay before you in speech the massacre and fatal events of that night, or weep enough over such misfortunes ?

364 - 6. - Plurima,' very many: “inertia corpora,' defenceless persons ; the bodies of those incapable of resistance, like women and children. • Nec — Teucri,' the Trojans do not die alone ; . dare penas,' to suffer punishment ; "sumere pænas,' to inflict it.

367. At times, also, courage comes back to the hearts of the ranquished.

369. plurima – imago,' most frequent appearance of death; the dead lie all around us.

371 – 2. 6 socia -- Inscius,' ignorantly thinking that it was a friendly troop ; taking us for Greeks.

374. rapiunt ferunt,' plunder and carry off the spoil, like the Greek äyovoi vai vépovoi.

376 – 8. neque Fida satis,' untrustworthy, suspicious : medios hostes,' that he had fallen into the midst of enemies. 'retro — repressit,' he stopped speaking and retreated.

379-80. As one who, stepping among the rough brambles, unexpectedly treads upon a snake, and quickly starts back, trembling ; 'hurni nitens, the act of planting the foot on the ground. The participle, with the first syllable long, is from 'nītor'; that from 'niteo' being short.

381 - 2. Compare Geor. III. 421, and note. "Haud secus, just so: abibat,' was retreating ; he did not succeed in escaping.

384 - 5. Ignaros loci,' unacquainted with the ground, not familiar with the streets, as the Trojans were. *adspirat - labori, fortune favors the beginning of the fight. primo labori' for primæ pugnæ ;' Gr. $ 205. Rem. 17.

387-8. O friends, he exclaimed, let us go on where Fortune first points out the way of safety, and shows itself propitious.

389-90. insignia'; the helmets and crests. By putting on the arnis of the Greeks whom they had slain, the party of Æneas obtain a short-lived triumph. "dolus, an virtus,' sit' understood.

391 – 3. ipsi'; that is, Græci occisi. "Sic — Induitur,' thus hading spoke, he puts on the plumed helmet and beautiful shield, which had distinguished Androgeus. The shield was put on by throwing the strap over the shoulder, and inserting the arm into the handle.

396-8. haud — nostro,' under a divinity, that was not our ouon, that was hostile to us. They now had armour, which bore the signs of the deities, who favored the Greeks. Multa — Conserimus,' and meeting them in the darkness of night, we fight many battles : 'Orco’; see note to Geor. I. 277.

400-2. Fida,' safe, secure : pars Scandunt’; Gr. $ 209. Rem. 11. Alas! let no one put trust in the hostile gods. The reverse of fortune now begins.

403-4. passis Crinibus,' with dishevelled hair : Priamesa virgo; 80 called, because she was the daughter of Priam.

406 – 7. Her eyes, I say; for fetters kept down her lender hands, so that she could not raise them, see note to Æneid I. 41. Nonspeciem,' could not bear this sight. * 410 - 1. 6ex - culmine,' from the high roof of the temple, whence Cassandra was drawn. 'telis Nostrorum,' by the weapons of our own friends, who mistook them for Greeks.

413.'' gemitu — irâ,' from grief and anger at the maiden being taken from them, by Coræbus and his party. 416 -9. Adversi - Confligunt,' as when at times, a whirlwind breaking forth, opposite winds contend against each other : *et-equis,' and joyful Eurus with his eastern steeds. All the deities, the winds included, were borne in chariots on their way. -Nereus ; see note to Geor. IV. 392. A trident is here given to him, which is the usual attribute of Neptune. imno - fundo,' stirs up the sea from its lorest depths: • Spureus,' corered with the sta-foam

420 - 6. "si quos,' whalecer persons, 'Fudimos insidiis,' we had routed by stratagem: Illi etiam Apparent,' they also appear, come back : 'mentita,' false, deceptire : "ora - discordia,' roices differing in sound from their own. The Trojans used a different dialect, which betrayed them. "signant,' they notice. Ilicet - numero,' forthicith, we are over powered by numbers : "divæ armipotentis'; that is, Shinerva. Pen. eleus was a Baotian prince. 'justissiinus unus, most upright; "unus,' in the sense of præcipuus.'

420. Dis – visum; an ellipsis must be supplied; "his virtues ought to have saved his life,' but it seemed otheruise to the gods.

430. “Labentem texit,' sared you from falling. The Slet was the badge of office, as priest of Apollo.

431 - 4. • Iliaci — Testor, ye ashes of Troy, and final conflagration in which my friends perished, I call you to witness. With deep feeling, Æneas solemnly declares, that he did all in his power, even disregarding his own life, to save his friends. "ullas vices,' any contest that fortune permitted :"et- fuissent,' and, if the fates had permitted: meruisse ma. nu,' that I deserced death by what my hund accomplished. “ Divellimur,' we are separated.

436. • Pelias - Ulyssei,' and Pelias was impeded by a wound received from Ulysses. With only two companions left, Æneas now finds his way to the palace of Priam.

438-40. Hic verò,' videmus' understood : 'cea - forent,' as if no contest was going on in any other quarter, as if the whole fight centred here. Martem indomitum,' a fierce contention.

441 - 2. The Greeks collect round the doorway, and try to force an entrance. 'actâ testudine, bringing forward a testudo, which was a covering, formed by the soldiers' holding their shields over their heads, for a protection against weapons thrown from above. “parietibus,' as if paryetibus'; Gr. $ 306. 3. *443 - 4. They fight on the steps, close by the doorposts, and with their left hands oppose their shields to protect themselves against the weapons of the Trojans, and with their right they lay hold of the projecting points of the building, that they may not be pushed down.

446 - 7. Culmina convellunt,' tear up the roof: quando cernunt,' since they see their fute: • Extremâ - morte,' even on the brink of death.

449-50. imas — fores,' fill the doorway beneath.

451. By this sight, - seeing the garrison still held out, our courage was renovated, and we resolved to aid in defending the palace of the king.

453 - 6. An amplified and tautological account of a mere back en. trance to the palace. There was a doorway, a secret entrance, and condenicnt passage of communication between the several buildings of Pria am's abode, an unguarded portal in the rear, where the unhappy Andromache, while the kingdom stood, was wont to come frequently, without at. tendants. She was the widow of Hector, and therefore the daughterin-law of Priam and Hecuba. Astyanax was her young son.

458. Passing through this back entrance, Æneas goes up to the roof.

460-5. In this order ; convellimus altis Sedibus Turrim stantem in præcipiti, Eductamque summis tectis sub astra,' we thrust off from its lofty place a tower, that was situated on a lofty point, and which rose from the roof towards heaven: • Troja,' solebal understood : ' Agressi cam circùm ferro, quà summa tabulata dabant labantes Juncturas, impulimusque,' assailing it all round with iron instruments, where the upper stories had weak joints, we drive it down upon the heads of the Greeks below. The beams of the tower were let into the main wall of the building, and, by loosening this joint with crowbars, they were able to thrust off the whole fabric. Ea," turris' understood.

470 - 2. Fights proudly, resplendent with his weapons and the shining of his brazen arms: like a snake, which the cold iointer had protected, swollen up under the ground, when, having fed on poisonous herbs, it comes forth to the light of day.

473 - 5. Repeated with slight changes from Geor. III. 437, 426, and 439.

477. Automedon, the charioteer of Achilles formerly, now the armour-bearer of Pyrrhus, the son of Achilles. "Scyria pubes,' the young men from Scyros, an island in the Ægean sea.

479 - 82 • Ipsé,' Pyrrhus: 'dura Limina’; the door itself, made of tough wood: perrumpit,'' vellit,' action incomplete ; he tries to break through; tries to wrench off : "jamque - Robora,' and the bar being already cut through, he pierces the solid wood : fenestram.' aperture.

483-5. An affecting picture ; the time-hallowed abode of their ancient kings desecrated, and given over to the enemy in one night.

487 -8. Miscetur,' is in great confusion : plangoribus Femineis,' the shrieks of women. The vividness and pathos of this description are beyond all praise.

491 - 2. 'vi patriâ,' with force like that of his father Achilles : 'sufferre valent,' can stand against him. “Labat - crebro,' shakes with the frequent blows of the batlering ram ; 'ariete'; Gr. 9 306. 3.

494 – 8. rumpunt - Danai,' the Greeks force an entrance, and, rushing in, slay the first they meet. Non sic quum,' the Greeks rush' in with more fury than à river, when, &c. ; oppositas — moles,' and with its mass of waters breaks over the dikes, that were sel against it : cumulo,' instead of cumulata '; with augmented force.

501 - 3. centum nurus’; in round numbers ; the old king, at the most, had only fifty daughters and fifty married sons. "Priamum ignes,' and Priam at the altars, polluting with his blood the fires, which he had himself consecrated. Quinquaginta thalami,' the fifty separate sleeping apartments occupied by his sons; he might well speak of the great promise of his posterity.

505. Tenent-ignis,' what the flames spare, the Greeks possess.

506. Perhaps, you may ask further, what was the fate of Priam. This is the only passage, in which Æneas directly addresses the persons, who were listening to his story.

503 - 10. The old man vainly places the long disused arms on his shoulders trembling with age, and girds on the useless sword.

512. 'nudo - axe'; that is, in the open air. The Greeks and Romans built their houses with an open court in the centre, where was often placed an altar to Jupiter Herceus, the protector of houses, or to the Penates.

514 - 7. ' umbrâ complexa,' covering with its shade. This mention of the old laurel tree adds to the minuteness and vraisemblance of the description. nequidquam,' in vain, because even the altar would not protect them. “Præcipites — Condensæ,' like doves flying from a dark tempest, clustered together.

519 - 20. quæ — telis,what unlucky thought, O my unhappy husband, hath induced you to gird on these weapons ?

523 – 4. · Huc – concede,' pray take refuge here: Aut — simul,' or you will die together with us.

526. elapsus – cæde,' having escaped the sword of Pyrrhus.

523 - 30.·lustrat,' runs through : ardens — vulnere,' eager with intent to kill : "jamque — tenet,' is just reaching him with his hand.

533 - 4. quanquam — tenetur,' although now placed in immediate danger of death : * abstinuit,' for. continuit se.'

536 - 7. Di- dignas,' if there is any humanity in heaven, which overlooks such deeds, may the gods mete out to you a propor requital. The affecting passion of the old man, when his son was thus murdered before his eyes, appears more natural, when we recollect the great rev. erence paid to age in the heroic times.

539. . patrios — vultus,' hast polluted the face of a father by the murder of his son. The ancients believed, that one was rendered unclean by the presence of a dead body, especially it sprinkled with its blood.

540 – 2. • At - Priamo,' that Achilles, from whom you falsely say you are descended, whose son you are unworthy to be, was not such a person, did not conduct himself thus, tovoards Priam, though an enemy; : satum quo'; Gr. § 246. 'sed - erubuit,' but he respected the rights and the inviolability of a suppliant. After Achilles had slain Hector, Priam visited the Grecian camp, and obtained, by entreaty, the body of his son.

544-5. ótelum — Conjecit,' and threro the powerless iceapon without force enough to inflict a wound.

546 – 7. And hung without effect in the outer covering of the shield; it pierced the hide which covered the shield, but was stopped by the brass.

Umbo' usually signifies the boss in the centre of the shield; but it also means a garment or covering. •Pyrrhus,' 'respondit' understood : "Referes,' you shall report.

550 - 1. Now die. Saying this, he drer him trembling, and slipping in the abundant blood of his son, to the very altar.

553. 'ac — abdidit,' and buried it up to the hilt in his side.

554 - 6. hic – Pergama,' this catastrophe, produced by fate, came upon him, having seen Troy burnt and her citadel fallen.

558. 'sine nomine,' nameless, because the headless corpse could not be recognised. These few lines, the monody of the old king and the ruined city, have a solemn and touching effect.

559 - 60. The poet has now to effect a difficult transition, from the discursive account of the fall of Troy, back to the proper theme of the poem, the departure of Æneas. This is finely managed through the filial affection of the hero, whom the death of Priam reminds of the defenceless condition of his own aged parent, and he resolves to hasten back to his aid. subiit,' for in mentem venit'; came to my mind.

562. Creusa, the wife of Æneas, was a daughter of Priam and Hecuba. Her fate will soon be narrated.

564-6. óet - lustro,' and observe what means of assistance there are around me. (corpora saltu misère,' jumped down : *ægra'; worn out by wounds and fatigue.

567 - 9. This passage, down to the 588th line inclusive, is not found in many manuscripts, though there is little doubt of its genuineness. It is supposed, that it was stricken out by the persons to whom the revision of the poem was confided, after Virgil's death, on the gronnd that it was little to the hero's honor, to represent him as meditating the death of Helen, a defenceless woman. Moreover, the story does not agree with what is related of Helen, in Book VI. 511-27. Jamque — eram,' and now I was left nearly alone : "limina Vestæ'; the temple of that goddess. "Servantem,' keeping close within: Tyndarida,' Helen, the daughter of Tyndarus; see her history in the “ Iniroduction to the Story." .dant - lucem'; though she tried to conceal herself, the light of the flames betrayed her.

570. To me wandering about, and turning my eyes round to etery object. Æneas had left Priam's palace, and was on his way home.

571 – 4. In this order; Illa, communis Erinnys. Troja et patriæ, Prærnetuens Teucros, infestos sibi ob Pergama eversa, et pænas, &c.; she, the common Fury, or scourge, of Troy and of her own country, fearing both the Trojans, hostile to her on account of the downfall of their city, of which her crime was the primary cause, &c. deserti conjugis'; that is, Menelaus, whom she had deserted: 'atque — sedebat,' and was scored out of view, near the altar of Vesta.

575 - 6. • Exarsère - animo,' indignation kindled in my mind; "subit

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