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for any pleasing and lively color. Great personal attractions are here given to Eneas, to account for the subsequent infatuation of Dido.
592 - 3. Such' beauty as — manus (artificis ') the skill of the artist adds to ivory, or as silver or Parian marble acquires, when set in yellow gold, such additional charms did Venus conter on her son.
595 - 7. • Coràm - Æneas,' I, the Trojan Æneas, whom you seek, am here before you. O sola miserata,' 0 thou, who alone hast pitied.
598-602. In this order; Quæ socias Urbe, domo, nos, reliquias Danaûm,' &c. who givest a share of your city and home to us, the remnant who have escaped the Greeks : grates - nostræ,' to repay the obligation in full is not in our power ; ' opis’; Gr. § 211. Rem 8. (3.) nec - orbem,' nor is there anywhere a portion of the Trojan race, 'chich is now scattered through the great world, that can requite you.
603 - 4. qua numina,' any divine powers: "si — recti,' if anyrchere justice and a mind conscious of rectitude are any thing, are respected.
607 – 8. dum - convexa,' so long as the shadowos pass round the convexity of the mountains; montibus' for montium'; Gr. § 211. Rem. 5. As the sun passes through its diurnal course, the shadow goes partly round the mountains. polus - pascet,' so long as the headens support - sustain — the stars. The warm gratitude of Æneas is nobly expressed. 610. Quæ - terræ,' whatever lands call me to inhabit them; 'Quæ cunque,' by tmesis ; Gr. 323. & 4. (5.) 616-9. What power brings you to these barbarous shores ? Art thou that Eneas, whom beautiful Venus bore to the Trojan Anchises, near the waters of the Phrygian Simořs ? I remember, indeed, that Teucer came to Sidon. This hero, because he returned from the Trojan war without avenging the death of his brother Ajax, was banished by his father, and went to Cyprus. This island had just been conquered by Belus, king of Tyre and father of Dido, by whose assistance Teucer established a colony, and founded the city of New Salamis. From him, Dido learned the story of the Trojan war and the fame of Æneas. This Teucer must be distinguished from the more ancient hero of that name, mentioned in the note to line 38. It should be observed, that in making Dido contemporary with Æneas, Virgil is guilty of a great anachronism, for Car. thage was not founded for two hundred years after the Trojan war.
622. et - tenebat,' and, being victorious, held it in his power.
623 – 4. 'casus — Trojane,' the downfall of the Trojan city has been known to me. Pelasgi"; the most ancient of the Grecian tribes, here put for the whole race.
625-6. He highly praised the Trojans, though their enemy, and was willing to declare, that he was himself descended from the ancient stock of the Trojans.
628 - 30. A similar fortune has willed that I also, worn by many hardships, should finally make my abode in this land. Not unacquainted with misfortune myself, I have learned to succour the unhappy.
632. divům — honorem,' appointed a sacrifice in the temples of the gods, in honor of the arrival of a guest.
634 - 5. magnorum - suum,' a hundred large bristly swine; terga suum ' for sues.'
636. Gifts and means of rejoicing for the day ; • dii'; Gr. $ 90. Exc. 638. Instruitur'; as we say of a house, it was furnished.
640. Ingens -- mensis,' large silver vessels were placed on the tables, sculptured in relief with subjects taken from the family history.
642-3. Brought down through many generations, from the very origin of the ancient family. consistere,' to be at ease.
645 – 6. To announce these things to Ascanius, and to bring the boy himself to the city. "cura,' anriety : stat,' is fired upon.
648. "signis — rigentem,' stiff with embroidery in gold. 650-2. In this order; · Ornatus Argivæ Helenæ, mirabile donum
matris Ledæ, quos illa Extulerat Mycenis': 'Pergama - Hymenæos,' when she came to Troy and to the illicit union with Paris.
653. Ilione, the eldest daughter of Priam, was married to Polymnestor, king of Thrace.
655 – 6. duplicem - coronam'; a coronet encircled with two rows, one of gold and the other of gems. "celerans'; Gr. $ 274. Rem. 2.
057. Venus was also called Cytherea from “ Cythera," an island in the Mediterranean, near which she was fabled to have risen from the sea. She now executes her plan of guarding Æneas against any treachery on the part of the Tyrians, by sending her son Cupid, the god of love, in the place of Ascanius, that he might inspire Dido with ardent affection for the Trojan hero.
659 - 62. donis Incendat,' might inflame by means of the gifts. The fire of passion, penetrating even to the bones, is a common idea. "bilingues,' double-tongued, deceitful. In after times, • Punica fides' was proverbial for ill faith. Urit,' eam’understood; sub noctem'; as we should say, her anxiety, on account of Juno's known hostility to the Trojans, would not suffer her to sleep.
663 - 6. aligerum Amorem,' the winged god of lode: 'mea - potentia'; that is, the source, or cause of my great power : 'tela Typhoïa'; the thunderbolts with which Jupiter struck down the giant Typhoëus. Venus means, that these are less to be dreaded than the darts of Cupid.
667 - 8. Frater - jactetur,' that your brother Æneas is tossed about at sea, around all the shores.
671 - 2. 'quò — Hospitia,' to what issue this hospitality of Juno may turn : haud -- rerum,' she will not be wanting at so great a crisis ; as we say, the point on which the whole matter hinges.
673-4. capere ante,' for 'antecapere,' to anticipate : « flammâ,' the fire of love : ne - mutet,' that she (Dido) may not change her mind by the instigation of some god.
675-6. But let her be constrained — mecum,' as I am - with great love towards Æneas. 'Qua,' hou, in what way.
677 - 8. In this order; Regius puer, mea maxima cura, parat ire, accitu cari genitoris, ad Sidoniam urbem.' 679. pelago - Troje,' preserved from the sea and the flames of Troy.
680-1. . Ego recondam Hunc, sopitum somno, sacratâ sede super,' &c.; I will hide him, fast asleep, in my consecrated habitation in mountainous Cythera : Idalium,' a mountain and grove in the island of Cyprus, a favorite abode of Venus.
682 - 6. That he may not in any way know of the stratagem, or interrupt it by his presence. « Tu Falle illius faciem'; assume his aspect in order to deceide. "laticem Lyæum,' wine; see note to Geor. II. 229.
683. fallas veneno,' secretly fill with the poison of love.
691 – 4. placidam – Irrigat' pours sweet sleep over the limbs. amaracus,' sweet marjoram : adspirans,' breathing odor.
697 - 8. aulæis — locavit,' the queen now reclined on a gilded couch with rich hangings, and placed herself in the midst; that is, between Æneas and the pretended lulus.
700. “strato - ostro,' and the company recline on couches with purple conerings. The ancients placed themselves at table in a reclining posture, supported by cushions; and towels and water were brought for washing the hands, before they began to eat.
701 - 2. · Cererem'; see note to line 177 : 'tonsis - villis'; see note to Geor. IV. 377.
703 - 4. There were fifty maid-servants within, whose duty it wus in a long train to prepare the food, and to burn incense to the household gods. A fire was constantly kept up during an entertainment, on which incense and wine were thrown as an offering to the gods.
707 - 8. . læta, for • læti'; the joyful Tyriuns also come in crowds through the doors, and are commanded to recline on the embroidered couches.
712 - 4. Especially the unhappy Phænician, (Dido,) destined to a future destructive passion, cannot satisfy her mind, and burns enamored in beholding.
716. And satiated the great love of his supposed father.
717-9. * Hæc – deus,' she fastens her eyes, her whole heart upon him, and sometimes presses him to her bosom : unhappy Dido, not knocing how great a god rested upon her miserable self! 'miseræ, sibi'under stood. Recollect the position at meals; the boy, being next to Dido, would be nearly in her arms.
7:20. Matris Acidaliw'; Venus, so called from the fountain Acidalia at Orchomenus in Baotia, sacred to the Graces. “abolere Sycheum,' to wipe out the memory of Sychæus.
721 - 2.et - corda,' and tries, by a living passion, to acquire a hold on her now long unoccupied affections, and heart unused to love.
724. vina coronant,' adorn with wreaths the wino; or, as others un. derstand it, fill high the wine.
723-7. if it strepitus'; after the tables were removed, conversation began. "dependent - Incensi,' lighted lamps hang from the gilded ceilings : "funalia,' torches. aureis,' a disyllable ; Gr. § 306.
729 – 30. quam — soliti,'' implere understood; which Belus and all the descendants of Belus were accustomed to fill.
731 - 3. Dido now speaks in solemn invocation ; Jupiter, - for they say that you give out the laws of, - preside over – hospitality, grant that this may be a joyful day for the Tyrians, and for those who have come from Troy, and that our descendants may long remember it ; “hu. jus'; Gr. § 216.
735 - 6. ' celebrate faventes'; as we say, faror by your countenance, by your presence. laticum -- honorem,' poured out a libation of the liquor ; that is, let fall a few drops on the table in honor of the gods.
737 - 8. “Prima - increpitans,' and she first, haring made the libation, just touched it with her lips, and then gare it to Bitias, inviting him to drink : hausit,' eagerly received, not “ drank," because that is ex. pressed in the next line.
739. “ proluit se,' literally, moistened himself with ; that is, drank up, emptied : pleno auro,' for poculo,' the full cup.
740-1. Then, the other chiefs. Long-haired lopas, with his gilded harp, sings what the great Atlas had taught him. A customary part of an entertainment, in the heroic age, was a song from the bard; these singers usually wore their hair long, perhaps in imitation of Apollo, who is always represented with full flowing locks. Atlas, an African king, attained a great knowledge of astronomy; a high moun. tain being named after him gave rise to the fable of his supporting the heavens on his shoulders. He is properly introduced as the instructer of lopas in a song, which treats of the heavenly bodies.
742 - 3. •labores,' eclipses : "ignes,' lightning
748-9. noctem trahebat,' prolonged the night : • longum - amorem,' and drank deep of love.
751-2. «Auroræ filius'; that is, Memnon. 'equi'; the horses which Diomed captured from Rhesus ; see note to line 469 : quantus Achil. les'; the great size of Achilles is mentioned by several of the poets.
753 - 6. But come now, () guest, and tell us from the very beginning : • casns — æstas,' the death of your friends and your own wanderings; for the serenth year is now carrying you about, woandering orer erery land and sea. This long period had elapsed since the destruction of Troy, and Æneas was still a homeless fugitive.
The story of the Æneid is finely opened in this book, which abounds with incident and change of scene, so that the reader is hurried forward with an interest that never flags. The misfortunes of the hero excite general sympathy, and curiosity is awake to know the history of his previous trials. All the characters are interesting, especially the females. Venus appears more than usually amiable, through her affection for her son; and Dido, lovely in herself, enlists the reader's feelings still further, through the brief hints that are thrown out, of the melancholy fate which awaits her. The composition is as perfect as language will permit. Notice the art with which the most trifling incidents are narrated in harmonious verse, the picture being always exact and complete, and the dignity appropriate to the subject, and to Epic poetry, being constantly preserved
YIELDING to the request of Dido, Æneas begins the story of his mis. fortunes; and the whole of this book is occupied with his account of the capture and sack of Troy. The Greeks, in the tenth year of the siege, appeared to give up all hope of success, and set sail apparently for home ; but they really went to conceal themselves in the neighbouring island of Tenedos. The Trojans go out to view the deserted camp, and find there an immense wooden horse, within which lay concealed a band of armed Greeks. The priest Laocoon in vain tries to dissuade them from removing this machine into the city. Sinon, a pretended deserter from the Greeks, tells them that the horse was built to appease Minerva, who was angry because Ulysses had stolen her image from the city ; that it was made large, in order to prevent its introduction within the walls, which it would again render impregnable. Laocoon and his two sons are killed by two monstrous serpents, and the Trojans, considering their fate as a confirmation of Sinon's story, carry the fatal engine into the city, and give themselves up to feasting and rejoicing over their deliverance. When all is quiet at night, Sinon releases the party shut up in the horse, who open the gates, and admit their countrymen, that had returned from Tenedos. The sack of the city begins. Æneas is warned by the ghost of Hector in a dream, starts up on hearing the tumult, and is told by Panthus of the desperate situation of affairs. He collects a small party, and rushes out to the fight, where for a time he is successful. Forcing his way to Priam's palace, he finds it fiercely attacked by the Greeks, who at last force the doors. Priam and his son Polites are killed by Neoptolemus. Æneas returns to his own house, in order to save his father Anchises, who at first refuses to fly, but is at length persuaded by a sign from the gods. Æneas takes him up on his shoulders, and, attended by his wife Creusa and his son, makes his way out of the city. Creusa, lagging behind, is lost, and Æneas, returning to seek her, is met by her ghost, who ad. vises him to fly. He goes back to Mount Ida, and there with his companions prepares to make his escape by sea.
1-2. intenti — tenebant,' turned their countenances toward him in eager attention :'orsus,' ' est loqui' understood : «ab alto toro,' from the lofty couch, on which he was reclining. 38 *
Ε Ε Ε
3. O queen, you command me to revive great sorrow.
4-5. : ut Danai Eruerint,' by narrating how the Greeks destroyed: • Trojanas opes,' the Trojan power : quæque -- vidi,' and all the pitiable occurrences, which I myself sav.
6-8. And in a great part of which I was an actor. What one of the Myrmidons, or the Dolopes, or what soldier of cruel Ulysses, in narrating such things, could refrain from tears ? The Myrmidons were the troops of Achilles. The Dolopes, from Thessaly, followed Phenix to the war. Even these fues must weep at the sufferings of the Trojans.
9. Præcipitat,' 'se' understood. The night, as well as the day, was represented by the poets as passing in a chariot over the heavens. "ca. dentia,' setting. The night was already far advanced, when Æneas commenced his story.
12 - 6. Although my mind dreads the recollection of it, and shrinks back with grief, I will begin. 'fatis'; the fates had determined, that Troy should not be taken till the tenth year of the siege. labentibus,' having passed away. •Instar montis, in size like a mountain : abiete,' a trisyllable, as if ' abyete.'
17-9. They spread a report, that it was built in pursuance of a vow, which they had inade for their safe return. "Votum,' 'esse' understood. “Huc – lateri,' having secretly singled out chosen men — Huc, for this purpose, – they shut them up in its dark interior ; ' corpora virûm,' for 'viros.'
21. The island of Tenedos is about five miles distant from the Troad, and might therefore be seen from the shore.
23. Now there is only a bay, and a dangerous anchorage for ships.
25. We supposed that they had gone, and had sailed for Mycena, here put for the whole of Greece ; petere vento,' to sail.
27. · Dorica castra'; the Dorians in after times became a powerful people, and their name might well be applied to all Greece. But at this period, they were only a small tribe, and the phrase, the refore, is a par. tial anachronism.
29. Hic - manus,' here the band of the Dolopes encamped : tendebat,' ' tentoria' understood ; pitched his tent.
31. A part wonder at the fatal gift to the unmarried Minerra, for whom the horse was reported to be built. This goddess resolutely declined matrimony.
34 -5. Either from treachery, or because the fates of Troy now willed it so. But Capys and those whose minds had more wisdom; ' sententia,' erat' understood; Gr. $ 226.
36 - 9. Command them either to throw into the sea the wiles and suspicious gifts of the Greeks; that is, the horse ; or to burn it by placing fire beneath. 'lerebrare et tentare,' to open and search. The common people, irresolute, were divided between opposite opinions.
41-2. 6 ardens,' cager, in haste : • Et procul,' clamat' understood; and crics out, while yet far off'.
45. Either Greeks lie concealed, shut up in this wooden machine.
47. That is said of the engine, which belongs to the men within it, who will spy out our habitations, and descend from it into the city. From its great height, overtopping the walls, Laocoon suspects that it is intended to be used, as towers were, in besieging a city.
48. · Aut -- error, or some fraud is concealed in it.
49 -51. Whatever it is, I suspect the Greeks, even when offering gifts to the gods. "hastam' is the object of Contorsit’: In-alrum,' against the side of the beast and its belly curred round with jointed work; • feri,' equi' understood.
52 - 3. stetit - cavernæ, it stood there quivering, and the hollow recesses of the reverberating abdomen sounded, and gave forth a groan.
54 - 5. læva' is here united with a different meaning to two nouns ; see Gr. § 323. 1. (2.) Joined with fata, it means adverse; with