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Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1842, by

FRANCIS BOWEN,
in the Clerk's office of the District Court of the District of Massachusetts.

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who have one, can hardof it as shall enable them in the text. The book is a zot consult it often enough as j would gladly use the assis

were given, in a concise form, stantly before them. The Notes wrief summary of all the informain order fully to understand the hisgeography of the work. The merited in Grammar by Messrs. Andrews and lint reason for adopting it, as the manu1 all the notes relating to etymology and

usical works for the use of schools, to deer should be excluded from the notes is a ons difficulty, than the due preparation of what into them. The length and tediousness of anther things being equal, is a serious objection Boys will not read diffuse remarks on subjects 'seyond their comprehension, and will even be de

their presence from consulting the useful and .] notes, with which they may be interspersed. crate discussions of various readings, or of different s of explaining an obscure passage, undoubtedly have

use ; but they also have their place, which is certain,0 in editions for the use of schools. The show of

ling, that appears in such notes, can be easily made by - who has access to the rich stores of German erudition. 'If a different opportunity should be sought for its display. 11 the meaning of any passage be disputed, it is better for he editor to exercise his learning and judgment in forming bile interpretation, and presenting it in a clear shape and inoderate compass, than to perplex the young pupil by an array of different explanations, and the arguments in favor of each. If the teacher who uses the volume should prefer a different translation to the one given, it is all well. If the pupil has ingenuity enough to give another and yet intelligible construction to the passage, it is better still. The practice of loading the notes with references to the whole range of Latin and Greek authors, and that too for the use of pupils, who probably do not possess one of the works cited, and could not read the volume if they owned it, is wholly indefensible.

In translating a sentence, a doubt often occurs respecting the choice of language. A literal translation will appear bald ; a paraphrase, expressed in correct and idiomatic study of the Latin grammar and one or two elementary books. Cannot something be done to secure the advantages, and to obviate the ill effects, of continuing to use Virgil as a class-book in the schools? The object of the edition now offered to the public is, so far as the Editor is able, to answer this question.

The Notes are designedly made very copious. They are intended to afford so much aid, that a pupil of ordinary capacity and diligence, who has studied the usual elementary books in Latin, will be enabled to read and understand Virgil, even without the aid of an instructer. I am aware of the danger of leaving little to be accomplished by the pupil's own efforts, and thereby of encouraging the formation of careless and indolent habits ; and I have endeavored to obviate it, by confining the translations to the more difficult passages, removing these helps to a separate part of the volume, and presenting them in such a form that, although of little service to the student till he has made good use of grammar and dictionary, they will leave no difficulty in his way, when he has once fairly consulted these manuals. The copious materials afforded by the commentaries of the old grammarians, and by the rich annotations of Martyn, Ruæus, Heyne, and some later German editors, have been carefully revised, and whatever matter they contain, suited for the comprehension of young persons, I have endeavored to present in English, in the most condensed form. With the aid here presented, it is hoped, that the young student may be able to read Virgil as a poet, and find pleasure in the task, instead of poring over the work as a crabbed and difficult exercise in Latin. He will not be disheartened by a continued struggle with difficulties, nor will he find his interest in the poem cooled by the perpetual recurrence of passages, to which he can attach little or no meaning. He will not be driven to the secret and indiscriminate use of an entire translation.

The Notes are also designed to point out, in part, the beauties and defects of Virgil's compositions, and to form the taste and judgment of the pupil, by encouraging him to apply the general principles of criticism with as little hesitation, as if he were reading a modern English poet. Wishing to cultivate the learner's power of discrimination, and aware that unmingled praise only inspires doubt, I have ventured to criticize with freedom, though with a proper distrust of my own judgment, and fully expecting that the taste of others will be found sometimes to differ from my own. Quotations from modern poets have been sparingly introduced, where a passage seemed to invite comparison, in the hope of stimulating the student's curiosity, and of heightening his relish for poetry.

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