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let that be a reason ; but better give none at all; for that is worse than none. We do know the sovereign authority of reason, and thereto we owe subjection ; but it is a grievous thing, to be subject to another's will, or humour; it is certainly the highest usurpation upon mankind, agere pro arbitrio & non pro ratione rei ; the greatest slavery in nature, to be subject to will and humour. And I must observe, that will undirected by reason, in this case the order of nature is wholly inverted, when the judgment of mind goes not before, and the motions of the will follow after. We know where to have men, when guided by reafon ; for as to the reason of things, another man may judge as well as he : but from will, when no reason is given, no body knows what he may be fure of, or what he may expect. If so be men set up either will or humour, none can know what will be done : for a creature that is finite and fallible, to set up will for a light, is as wild-fire.
3. The affections and passions ; these are to be ftill and quiet, till after judgment and choice. For their place is only in pursuance ; no place in determination. By judgment we find out our way, and by our passions we are expedite in it'; movemus per intellectum, currimus per affe£tus ; we move by the guidance and direction of judgment and understand. ing; and when we are in motion, our affections give expedition. Affections are not for direction of what is to be done, but they are only for expedition and quickning. The reason of the mind is all in all determination ; not what we would do, nor what we have a mind to do, but what is just and fit, what is
best in the competition. This is not discernable by mens paflions, and affections; this is only discernable in the use of reason and understanding. Affections are blind things of themselves, and they must only follow. There are two things requisite in this case, if a man will approve himself in respect of his paffions and affections.
1. That the passion and the object do fit. 2. That the proportion be observed between the act and the object. 1. For the first, we are not to love what is hateful, nor hate what is lovely. Wherefore the apostle faith, love not the world, i. e. the lufts of the flesh, the lusts of the eye, and the pride of life. Here the passion and object do not fit.
2. The proportion is to be observed ; to wit, the degrees of the act, to the quality of the object. If an interior good; we must not be too intent upon it, we must not extend our affections to many such things, we must not continue too long ; nec nimis intensè, nec nimis extensè, nec nimis protense. Our higheft faculties are too large to be satisfied or employed about any object inferior to God himself; our highest faculties, those whereby we are constituted in the kind of human nature, those in respect of which we bear the image of God, are too fublime, too noble, too high, too large, either to be satiated, or fully employed, in any object less than God himself.
These things have I suggested to you, for the government of the inward man. When I gave you an account of fobriety and moderation, then I was wholly taken up about what was outward and visible ; moderate use of eating, drinking, and sleeping. But now I have gone close here, touching the very inVOL. IV.,
ward man, the sense of a man's soul ; what is his inward sentiments, what sense he hath of God, of things of the world, of virtue and of vice ; what he makes his choice and delight, what he doth pursue with his affections, wherein he is passionate in his desires. I add upon the whole. If we consider the principles whereof we do consist, we may discover that all these duties lie upon us. For if we know ourselves, and what is becoming reasonable nature ; we shall have a rule to guide us in respect of all moral good and evil. For such a nature as the nature of man is, intellectual nature, it gives law to itself, and carries a law with it, and is made with the law, and the law is in its own bowels, and is never extirpated while it continues in being : the law of reason is inherent to human nature.
The effects of wisdom and virtue, which do belong to intellectual nature, they give security to our minds, and settle them in a right state ; whereas vice and works of iniquity, which are the diseases of such a nature, they do alter and spoil our temper and conftitution. Wisdom and virtue are suitable and tural, and they are conservative and productive of all acts that are truly the acts of a man, as a man ought to be. And on the other fide, fin is the disease and distemper of such a nature, as men confift of; it al. ters, poisons, and destroys the right temper and conftitution thereof; it weakens and infeebles it.
It is base and unworthy, to live below the dignity of our nature ; to the dishonour of a creature that bears the image of God. What a shame is it for us to live in contradiction to the end of our being, to
what our nature appointed us? They degenerate into carnality, who use their minds and reasons to such low and base ends and purposes, as better become the natures below us. These men neither know nor consider themselves, they have no reverence for themselves ; who employ themselves as if they were invested with the nature of creatures below them. Do acts worthy of reason and understanding, and refer yourselves to God as judge.
Can we flatter ourselves fo far, or persuade ourselves, but that God will sooner or later require an account of the use of these divine faculties that God hath given us, mind and understanding ; which certainly are for better purpose, than for the slavery of fin, and for the drudgery of the world ? If we were made for this purpose, it had been better we had been less. We ought not then to have born the image of God at all. For is it not quite otherwise in the heavenly state ? And ought not the higher state to give law and rule to this inferior state ? Ought not things here below to be subject to the things above ? And ought not this lower world to resemble and imitate the higher world? The rule should be taken from above ; the law of heaven should be the law of the world ; and the employment of mind and understanding in eternity, hould be the employment that we should use and addict ourselves mainly to here.
But I will advance and give you an argument that will command. Doth God himself lay or impofe u
other law, than what he himself doth oba ferve ? . And doth he require of us to do, what he
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himself doth not choose to do? For a being that is infinitely perfect, doth act agreeably to the highest wisdom and greatest goodness ; for his throne is established in righteousness. Is there unrighteousness with God? God forbid. Thus it becomes us who are endued with reason and understanding, to act conformably to the original of our being, suitable to the principles of the natures whereof we do consist; both as to the choice of things, and as to the principles of our natures ; ad dei exemplar, according to God's example. This cannot be looked upon by any man that is sober and confiderate, as a hard law imposed upon us by arbitrary will or power ; but a law that of itself commands, and by its nature and quality recommends it self to us. It is not impofed by will and arbitrary power, to do as God himself doth; be ye holy, as I am holy ; be ye followers of God.
Sense of a deity is inherent in intellectual nature. There is no instinct stronger in any nature, than the sense of a deity is in rational nature ; and neglect of God, is an act as of the greatest deformity, fo of greatest force and violence in the world. It is worse than for a man to offer violence to his body by sword or knife, to alienate his mind and understanding from God. For there is a peculiarity between the mind and understanding, and God. It is alienation and Sacriledge, to live without God in the world.
Now if we find it otherwise, the consequence must be very
bad. For there cannot but be great unquietness and disfatisfaction in ourselves. There is great pain, if joint do not answer to joint, if there be a dislocation : as much diffatisfaction certainly and