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tice of virtue, do advance themselves, and improve their naturals, and render themselves ten times more than other men are, nor they themselves were born to, so there are others, that by misgovernment of themselves, by excess and intemperance, spoil the parts of their minds : anima ficca eft anima prudens : wisdom is conjoined with temperance.
Now for a man, as the apostle phrases it, to make provision for the flesh to satisfy its lufts, Rom. xiii. 14. to make it his business, the employment of mind and understanding, to cater for the body, to satisfy the desires of the Aeth ; for one that is invested with in. tellectual nature, to take care how to fare sumptuously every day, Luke xvi. 14. or how to have ground to bring forth plentifully, or to provide capacious barns, Luke xii. 20. Did God light' his candle in man, for such mean and ordinary purposes as these are ? the fowls of the air, fish of the sea, beasts of the field, they have no such sollicitous cares as these men have ; yet they are accommodated, nature's necessities are fupplied, and they live as well as we. But what faith the parable ? Thou fool! this night thy soul fhall be required. It faftens the stile of fool upon him; folly has no discerning of things ; fools do not diftin: guith the difference of things. For what a difference is there between time and eternity, between bodily conveniencies and the accomplishments of the mind, the drudgery of the world, and attendance upon God!
The sensualift becomes brutish; by fottishness and carnality, we render ourselves utterly uncapable of and unfit for heavenly contemplation, for converse with God, which is our proper employment. IntelVOL. IV..
lectus eft propter Deum : mind and understanding are for God. There is not a greater propriety of faculty and object, between our feeing faculty and light, between our hearing faculty and sounds ; not a greater suitableness and proportion, not a greater propriety, than between our minds and God. It had been better that we had been less, if we had not liberty of access and approach to God. For mind and understanding hath no fatisfaction in any other employe ment, but in attendance upon God. God made our fouls for himself, and they are unsatisfied if alienated from him. To spirituality and heavenly-mindedness we may not indispose ourselves, by any use of our faculties.. This is an inscription God hath written upon our high and noble faculties; they are not to be indisposed by any worldly drudgery or concerns of the body, or to be diverted from that which is their proper quality, to receive from God and make returns upon him; these are the appropriate and reserve ed acts of mind and understanding. For it is a candle lighted by God and set up by him to direct man to God. Therefore we cannot alienate our rational faculties from God, without the guilt of sacriledge and robbing of God. For so says the prophet, he who fails in his service and attendance, robs God, Mal. iii. 8. He understands himself very little, for. gets that in his make he bears the image of God ; who gives up himself to any fin, who gratifies any of his appetites to the indisposing of his higher faculties for the vital acts of reason and of virtue. I say, vital acts ; because these are the acts of man as he is a man ; for his other acts are belonging to him in
common with beasts; but man is in specie per animam, man is in kind by his soul. For mind is the man, animus cujusque eft quisque. The excellency of the bo dy is, that it is the foul's instrument ; mens fana in corpore sano, a mind in its perfection, in a body well composed and fitted for the soul.
I shall not take upon me 'to determine the measure of eating and drinking, which make the sins of intemperance where they exceed. It is a business of great accuracy, to assign the exact bounds of good and evil, of lawful and unlawful in any sorts of things. It is as accurate a business, as it is for a man to assign which is the last moment of day, and the first moment of the night. For there is twilight, which is fully neither one nor the other, but partaker of both : so in things that are materially lawful, and are good and ill by their exceeding, it is as great
skill to determine what is good and evil. Therefore we say we are most in danger in things that are lawful in their nature and matter, and yet become evil if out of season.
The casuists talk of eating and drinking.
1. Ad neceffitatem naturæ, to supply nature's neceľ fity, to abate hụnger and thirst, to maintain and up: hold the fabrick of the body. This is unavoidable, this is of necessity, this we must do ; for otherwise we kill ourselves, and violate the fixth commande ment.
2. Ad hilaritatem mentis, for chearfulness, for revive ing.
This, caluists say, is warrantable upon oca cafions ; but not fo ordinary in this as in our daily food.
3. Ad Auporem mentis, eft turpe & indecorum, to Atupify our minds, abuse our faculties, here is turpitude and undecency. For we are to use measure and feason in things materially lawful. In the case before us, temperance is not only a lovely virtue, but also falutary and sovereign : whence we say, cibo modicus, fibi medicus ; men shall seldom need a physician, if they do but govern themselves well in respect of eating and drinking. Now in this case, the phyfician prescribes to the body, the divine to the soul ; the physician, he considers only the bodily estate, for the health of the body ; but the divine chiefly looks at the security of the mind. The physician faith, not one meal upon another, till nature hath done with the former ; and the English proverb, the second meal makes the glutton : but the divine faith, things of the body are to be ordered so, as that there be no annoyance to the mind, or as little as may be. For I remember what Erasmus says ; poft cibum omnes minores fumus; after eating and drinking we are for a while but half ourselves. This we say of men that use temperance : a man is not fo apt for contemplation, or bufiness, or reason, immediately after he hath dined; he must vacare, and give his foul time to act as a principle of life ; and muft abate the ufe of it, as it is a principle of intelligence : this is the necessity of our nature.
I find St. Auffin, that great father, was mighty folicitous in this point of eating and drinking. I will satisfy myself in this point of curiosity, with this rule; nec contra fenfum naturæ, nec'ordinem rationis ; let nothing be done against the senfe of nature, nor against the order of reason. And before abuse of ourselves
by accustomed excess, nature's sense is a good guide, till we have abused ourselves by ill custom, use andi practice. Miscarriage in this kind, is for the most part occafioned by the humour of compliance ; when: men exceed, to comply one with another ; go bea yond what is their choice, to what is their use;. abuse themselves, to keep fair and comply. We need: not for eating and drinking, any other foreign inducement ; for nature craves enough usque ad fatietatem, to abate hunger and thirst.
An offence in this kind, is sibi ipsi pæna, a pua nishment to itself. For intemperance ends in the fottishness of the mind, and bodily diseases. But for measure and season, every sober person gives himself law ; and it must be every body must be left to himself ; because there will be a variation. No body can: assign either the measure or quantity ; because there will be a variation upon account of the age of the person, and the season of the year, from the different climate wherein men are, from the very bodies of men, their weakness and strength, mens labour and, employment, and this latitude, all within the compass of sobriety and temperance. So that for particular circumstances, I must leave it to men them.. selves, as the apostle, I Cor. x. 15. I speak as unto: wife men ; and as the apostle in another case, I. Coro. xi. 13. Judge in yourselves, is, it comely? Let us therefore carefully observe this general rule ; observe decency, comeliness, what becomes so excellent a creature, which may not disparage human nature, not. unqualify or disable for the highest acts of intelligence, for application to God. A man would be
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